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The Wii U was Nintendo's worst-selling system after the Virtual Boy, but if there is one thing that those who owned it agree on, it was that the Wii U GamePad had one good feature going for it: Off-TV Play. While games with second-screen featuresnote  didn't catch on, a great majority of video games for the system did not require a television to be played, as the GamePad could be set to receive the full gameplay feed, either simultaneously with or as an alternative to the feed going to the TV. While this gave players the ability to enjoy their Wii U games even when a TV was unavailable, it lacked the versatility and flexibility of a true portable system since the GamePad only worked within a short range of the console.

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Meanwhile, despite an initially slow and painful start to its place in the industry, the Nintendo 3DS managed to maintain Nintendo's place in the portable gaming market, defeating the PlayStation Vita in a Curb-Stomp Battle and proving that dedicated portable gaming still has a well-sized niche in the marketplace despite Mobile Phone Games gaining dominance in the 2010s. And so, Nintendo found themselves with a poor-selling home console whose best aspect was that it didn't require a television 90% of the time, a very good selling portable console that retained Nintendo's crown as rulers of handheld gaming, and a continued desire to find new ways for gamers to play.

But that wasn't all, as there were even more issues to consider: the Nintendo DS and 3DS had become cultural landmarks in Japan, with everyone developing games for the systems due to lower development costs and near-universal market penetration. In the West, both systems did well, to be sure, but most large developers from America and Europe were hesitant on developing for handheld systems. Not only because it was just one option of many, but the act of porting games from home consoles and modern gaming PCs to handheld consoles was damn near impossible (unless the game they were trying to port was deliberately designed with older/lower-end hardware in mind); consumers in West also generally preferred playing on their more powerful home consoles or their PCs. This created an export problem for Japan, because Japanese developers were developing games for the dominant system in Japan... and kept getting feedback that overseas players wanted HD versions of their games they could play at home on their TVs, not on a small handheld device. But for many games, this kind of porting was somewhere between "prohibitively expensive" and "effectively impossible" due to a reliance on touch controls or dual screens. So in developing their new console, Nintendo found themselves looking at the industry problem of Japanese developers wishing it was easier to export their games but needing to work on the domestic market's best selling system and Western developers wishing there was a better platform in Japan for them.

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All of these problems were solved elegantly in one single move with this: The Nintendo Switch.

The Nintendo Switch is Nintendo's newest home gaming console which was released worldwide on March 3, 2017. The console was first announced in March 2015 by Satoru Iwata, just months before his death, under the codename "NX" and with the promise that it would be a "brand-new concept". On October 20, 2016, the console was officially revealed as a hybrid video game system consisting of a tablet-like touchscreen monitor that docks into a station at home for TV play: removing the console from the dock switches it from a home console into a portable console.

The Nintendo Switch uses a pair of controllers, known as Joy-Cons, that attach directly to the system for portable play, while also being capable of being used with a grip or held in each hand individually, similar to the Wiimote and Nunchuk for both the system's home and portable configurations. In addition, the Joy-Cons (known as Joy-Cons L and R) can be used separately, allowing for local two-player gaming without the need to buy additional controllers, hearkening back to how the Nintendo Entertainment System came bundled with two controllers itself. note  The Switch also has a more traditional controller "Pro Controller" available, and it too can be used in both configurations. Each Switch can support up to eight individual Joy-Cons (or four pairs of Joy-Cons/four Pro Controllers) and can connect locally to up to seven other Switch consoles.

Like the Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS, the Switch stores physical copies of games on Game Cards, a proprietary type of ROM cartridge based on the SD Card (flash memory) format; continuing a tradition for handhelds, but breaking the three-generation streak of Nintendo's home consoles storing games on optical discs. As a result, the Switch is the first cartridge-based home console since the Nintendo 64 twenty-one years prior. It is also the first Nintendo home console system to be region-free, something Nintendo themselves noted during the Switch's launch presentation.

Nintendo stated that while the console would have a bigger impact than the Wii U, it would not replace that nor the 3DS entirely, instead acting as a "third pillar," only to then announce the Wii U's discontinuation not too long afterward. note 

Despite some hardware issues that persists as of 2019, the most common being connectivity issues with the left Joy-Connote  and "Joy-Con drift", where the inside of a Joy-con were mis-centered, causing inappropriate movement, the Switch became an overnight success, selling 2.74 million units by the end of March (making it the best launch for any Nintendo system to-date), outselling the Wii U's entire lifetime in less than a year and the N64 in two years. There are some projections suggesting that, by the end of the Switch's life cycle, it could sell nearly as many units as Wii, if not more.

Although the exact reasons for the Switch selling much better than its predecessor vary, there's one reason most people can agree upon: dramatically improved marketing.

The Wii U was a victim of rather confusing and unfocused marketing, making it difficult to tell if it was a new console, or just an add on for the Wii to the larger gaming community.note  There was also the problem that the Wii U not only looked a lot like a Wii but was compatible with all of its add-ons, making the systems appear to be very interchangeable. By contrast, the Nintendo Switch's advertising is very on point, being sure to demonstrate its key feature (the three play modes and the ability to easily alternate between them) in every trailer and commercial for it. Not only that, but the Switch completely abandons everything related to the Wii & Wii U (with the exception of Miis who only appear as avatars for users), making it abundantly clear that they are completely different consoles.

One year after release Nintendo would try and increase that success by innovating the system even further with Nintendo Labo, a series of DIY development kits for the Switch that consists of gaming software and cardboard cutouts that can be assembled into accessories called Toy-Cons. Releasing on April 20, 2018, the first sets were released: the "Variety Kit" and the "Robot Kit". The "Vehicle Kit" would be released in September and Labo "VR Kit" the following April.

On September 20, 2019, Nintendo released the Nintendo Switch Lite, an entry-level, budget alternative to the original (costing $200USD vs. $300USD). The Lite foregoes the core feature of its older sibling, its hybrid nature, to serve purely as a handheld console. In addition to lacking TV-out, the controllers are integrated with the system, so any games within the Switch library that require individual Joy-Con use, such as 1-2-Switch, require external Joy-Cons to be connected to the system; HD Rumble and the IR Camera are also removed, and the split D-pad is swapped out for a standard one, so those missing features also require external controllers. Alongside the Switch Lite, Nintendo also released a revised version of the original Switch where its core parts run more effectively to increase battery life and reduce heat output, in addition to improved build quality to address physical Joy-Con issues present in some builds of the previous batches of the Switch.


Technical-specs

Processors
  • Powered by a NVIDIA Tegra X1 system-on-a-chip, chip number ODNX02-A2.
    • CPU: Octa-core, 4x ARM Cortex A57 + 4x ARM Cortex A53 using a proprietary core migration system devised by Nvidia, all cores run at 1.02GHz regardless of mode. The Switch has a 64 bit CPU with a 128 bit GPU bus. Also, the system will only report 4 cores as each A57 core is “shadowed” by a A53 core and the scheduler on the SOC will decide which core to use based on workload.
    • GPU: Second-generation NVIDIA Maxwell with some ISA/CG backported from Pascal note , 256 CUDA cores, runs at 768MHz in console mode or 307.2MHz in handheld and tabletop modes. Can reclock its speed on the fly as the device switches between console and handheld/tabletop modes. Games can also force the GPU run at 768MHz.

Memory

  • 4GB of RAM provided by two 2GB Samsung LPDDR4 modules, uses HSA to share video and system memory. Low compared to the PS4 and Xbox One, but more than adequate when compared to a contemporary mainstream Android tablet or TV box. RAM operates at 1.6GHz in console mode and 1.33GHz in handheld/tabletop mode. The memory management unit has the capability of reclocking the RAM's speed on-the-fly as the device switches between console and handheld/tabletop mode. Games can also force the MMU run at 1.6GHz.
  • Internal storage is 32GB, interestingly mounted on a removable breakout board, meaning that Nintendo may start offering Switch units with higher storage capacities in the future, and also opens up the possibility of Nintendo charging consumers to upgrade the internal storage (and indeed, possibility of third-party storage upgrades, albeit unauthorized ones). The Switch also accepts MicroSDXC cards for storage expansion, with the maximum compatible card size said to be 2TB, and unlike the 3DS MicroSDXC cards do not need to be reformatted from exFAT to FAT32 to be usable, though they do require a small update. note  The card reader is claimed to be UHS-I compliant, offering, theoretically, a maximum read speed of up to 95-104MB/s and a maximum write speed of up to 60-65MB/s. However, while the Switch will support the new-as-of-2020 UHS-II cards, it will not benefit from the triple speed increase offered by such cards.
  • Like the Nintendo DS and 3DS, it uses proprietary flash memory cartridges called "Game Cards". Unlike previous cards, these have dimensions very similar to those of a standard SD Card. The minimum storage capacity of these cartridges is 1GB and maximum is 32 GB. Due to the cartridge's size presenting a possible choking hazard, Nintendo has each one sprayed with denatonium benzoate, the most bitter chemical compound known to exist, in order to make sure a child spits it out right away if they attempt to swallow it. Naturally, it became a brief trend among grown adults to lick the cartridges out of sheer curiosity.

Graphics

  • The console itself has a 1280x720 capacitive 10-point multi-touch screen.
  • When docked and connected to an external display, the system can output resolutions up to 1920x1080, AKA 1080p. However, it appears that most games like Animal Crossing: New Horizons run internally at 720p and then upscale the video to 1080p when docked to keep frame rates high.

Connectivity

  • Dual-band 802.11-AC WiFi with 2T2R MIMO matrix for better reception.
  • Bluetooth 4.1 for communication with the Joy-Cons and pro controller. Though the Switch has no native compatibility with Bluetooth headsetsnote , it is compatible with USB and auxiliary Bluetooth adapters.
  • One USB Type C port. Can be charged while docked or while outside of the dock using any USB Type C compatible charger. note 
  • The dock contains 3 USB Type A ports: 2 2.0 ports on the outside of the dock and a 3.0 port on the inside with the AC and HDMI outputs. These can be used to charge wireless controllers and connect wired controllers, as well as to use other accessories like USB Ethernet adapters.
  • When the Switch is docked, most standard and cordless USB keyboards are supported. USB mice is supported, but only for one game: Fortnite, indicating that mouse support is somewhat present and third party developers may add them as needed. It will also support most USB audio devices like speakers and headsets. However, Bluetooth keyboards and mice are not supported.

Other

  • Contains an active cooling system, not unlike that found on a standard laptop. The cooling is mostly used when the Switch is in console mode and rarely used in handheld or tabletop modes.
  • For the first time ever on a Nintendo home system, and for the first time on a Nintendo handheld system since the original Nintendo DS, games are region-free.
  • Non-user-replaceable 4310mAh Lithium-ion rechargeable battery that can last from 2 to 6.5 hours, depending on the demands of a given game. However, battery access is easy once the back cover is opened. Word has it that Nintendo intends to start offering a service that charges owners of the device for battery replacement. A refreshed model arrived in stores late 2019, featuring more efficient components with the same battery, meaning up to 4.5 to 9 hours of gameplay on a single charge.
  • The Joy-Con controllers have accelerometers and gyroscopes for motion control and HD Rumblenote  for more precise tactile feedback. The Joy-Con R has an NFC reader on the control stick for amiibo functionality, as well as an IR camera for tracking movement & distance, and recognizing shapes. Each has its own batteries which can be charged while attached to the console. Interestingly, the Joy-Cons use a standard Bluetooth HID profile and have been reported to work with PCs (both Windows and Linux), Macs, and Android devices out of the box.
    • The accelerometers are some of the most advanced on the commercial market, being even more sensitive than the Wii Motion Plus, to the degree that they can act as pointers even without any sensors near the screen. This could be seen as early as games like the World of Goo port, and are used for precision aiming in games like L.A. Noire and Resident Evil: Revelations. The Updated Re-release of Captain Toad: Treasure Tracker also notably used them as a substitute for touchscreen controls when docked.
  • When the Switch is not docked, a small kickstand in the back can be opened to prop up the unit, and played with the joycons detached. This is referred to by Nintendo as "Tabletop mode".
  • The Switch features a hard fork of the 3DS operating system, with many components rewritten. The kernel is derived from the 3DS kernel, though some code from the FreeBSD kernelnote  was used according to the system software's licensing information. Nintendo also used some high-level libraries from Android such as the Stagefright multimedia framework, NFC library and cURL downloader library. Nonetheless, due to the kernel, the proprietary NVN API and the proprietary binary executable format, it is not capable of running Android apps, although due to the use of high-level Android libraries, porting is as simple as making some minor adjustments and recompiling the source code to target the Switch (which is probably Nintendo’s intention, to woo developers).note  The console also makes use of the ARM TrustZone instead of a security coprocessor.
  • Unlike previous Nintendo systems, the emulators used for Virtual Console is built into the system instead of the software. NES was the first system released that the console could run without an emulator, followed later by the SNES.
  • Parental Control settings.
  • The Switch retains the Miis introduced all the way back on the Nintendo Wii and introduces new customisation features. However they seem to be heavily Demoted to Extra - rather than being available forefront in the main menu, their tab is tucked in the back in the Settings menu, and there's no connectivity with Miis from the Wii U or the 3DS - currently, the only way to transfer an old Mii is by having one stored on an amiibo figure.

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