Youkai/Yōkai (also known as "Yaoguai" in Chinese pinyin since the term originated from that language) are a widely-varied collection of various supernatural creatures that pop up in Shinto religion. They have a lot in common with The Fair Folk. Some youkai are good, others are evil, and many are different. Some are mischievous, others avoid humans entirely. Shinto is an animist religion, and youkai are often associated with natural features such as forests and mountains. This word is often translated as "demon" in Western translations, but since that term is generally associated with pure evil, that does not adequately describe the creatures in question — they are more like The Fair Folk, spanning the entire moral range between good, mischievous, neutral, and actually evil. The closest true Western equivalent is probably that of the ancient Roman genii or spirits.
Supernatural creatures drawn from Western sources often turn out to seem more like youkai in Japanese works. For instance, vampires.note In the West you've got Nosferatu — a grotesque, undead monster who burns in sunlight and murders to preserve his hideous unlife. In Japan you've got exceptionally cute Fanservice protagonist Moka Akashiya, who is not undead, harbors no ill-will towards the sun, and drinks tiny amounts of blood that leave her "victim" light-headed at worst, but who has a Superpowered Evil Side who can (and will if you look at her the wrong way) kick your ass thoroughly.
Henge, a subset of youkai, are magical animals with Shapeshifting powers and human intelligence. They often assume human form and get into all kinds of mischief. Kinds of henge include Kitsune, Tanuki, and Nekomata.
Obake is another Japanese word that can indicate some type of monster. Derived from the word for to change, it generally covers the subset of youkai that includes shapeshifting animals (hence the terms bake-gitsune, bake-neko, etc.) as well as Animate Inanimate Objects. Confusingly, however, the word obake can also be used to refer to ghosts, also known as yuurei. See Stringy-Haired Ghost Girl for more information.
Ayakashi is a word which is roughly synonymous with "youkai" in current day usage, though traditionally it referred to a ghost that appears at sea during a shipwreck.
Many types of youkai were codified during the Edo period in the works of Toriyama Sekien. The genre of manga that deals with Youkai was founded by Shigeru Mizuki (19222015), who was obsessed with Youkai ever since he was a child. The Trope Codifier of modern youkai manga is his ever-popular GeGeGe no Kitarō that has received an anime adaption at least once a decade since it was written.
The list presented below is by no means complete. Many types of Youkai are exceedingly rare to find in modern media and so are not included. On the other hand, some have garnered enough examples to warrant their own pages.
Youkai with their own pages:
Wispy lights that hover around ghosts and possessed people.
A "river goblin" resembling a cross between a monkey and a turtle.
An old umbrella come to life.
Foxes, treated in mythology as having great supernatural powers.
A huge, muscular humanoid, similar to ogres.
A vengeful female ghost, usually with long, stringy black hair and pale skin.
A giant, multi-headed snake.
A real animal also known as the "raccoon dog", treated in mythology as a shapeshifting trickster.
Mountain-dwelling humanoids which either have long noses or resemble crows.
A pale snow spirit lady.
A childlike spirit that should be cared for to keep the one's house in good fortune.
Nekomata: A seemingly ordinary cat that develops magical nature through long life. It looks like an ordinary house cat except for the tail, which splits into two at half-length. While much smarter than it used to be, a nekomata remains just as whimsical, which may be dangerous with its new-found powers of illusion and necromancy. It's said a cat will become a nekomata after turning 100 years old, where upon its tail splits, it starts using human speech, somehow gains transformation powers, a greater intelligence, and other odd abilities. The name is often used and confused for catgirls. May be a Mega Neko.
A more general term for cat youkai is bakeneko, but almost all modern depictions of bakeneko will at least allude to the nekomata's signature split tail.
Anime and Manga
- Blue Exorcist: Rin's familiar Kuro (Blacky) is a two-tailed Cait Sith, and can grow to become gigantic.
- Cat God: Mayu and Sasana as well as their family are feline gods, which means they are cats with twin tails and various magical abilities, predominantly the power to appear almost completely human, save for some obvious give-aways.
- Digimon: The X-Antibody version of Tailmon is two-tailed.
- High School DXD: Koneko Toujou and her older sister Kuroka are some of the last surviving "Nekoshou", a rare breed of Nekomata capable of using two types of Sage Arts: Senjutsu and Youjutsu. Riser Phenex's peerage also includes twin Nekomata named Ni and Li.
- Hyper Police: Natsuki, the Cat Girl protagonist, is revealed to be a nekomata in a moment of anger (her tail splits in two)
- Kirara in InuYasha takes the form of a two-tailed kitten that can transform into a massive feline beast.
- One episode of Kamichu! has a cat named Tyler who is leader of a "city of the cats" where all cats can walk upright and speak. Later, he is explicitly revealed to be a nekomata while tag-team wrestling.
- Kara no Kyoukai: One of the forms of the thing inside Touko's briefcase is a malevolent, magical cat with two tails.
- In Mokke, one episode centers around a nekomata.
- The two-tailed demon-beast in Naruto is a two-tailed cat.
- Omamori Himari: One of the protagonists is a shapeshifting cat.
- Shaman King: Matamune is the spirit of a cat which developed human-like intelligence and powerful magical abilities, most prominently taking on a semi-humanoid form and developing twin tails, making him obviously based on a nekomata.
- ''Tsukipro's youkai AU features Sora and Kensuke as nekomata.
- Tora of Ushio and Tora is a mostly humanoid youkai named for his tiger-like appearance.
- Axis Powers Hetalia fanfics Hakkōna and Kaitō Kokoro: Kiku is basically a Henge version of a nekomata known within both stories as a nekomataneko with the "nekomata" referencing the nekomata characteristics and the "neko" referencing the base human form with cat features.
- Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: The Cheshire cat may or may not be 100 or so years old, and he clearly doesn't have two tails, but he's otherwise a surprisingly close Western analogue to the nekomata. This is almost certainly a case of Strange Minds Think Alike, since it's unlikely Lewis Carroll would have heard of the Nekomata.
- Eight Million Gods: The mother of one of the main characters is one.
- Super Sentai:
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: A cat youkai simply called "Bakeneko" appears as the Monster of the Week in the show's eighth episode, while a Kasha appears in episode 47. The latter was adapted for Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers as Miss Chief.
- Samurai Sentai Shinkenger: The body-swapping ayakashi Abekonbe (Switchbeast in Power Rangers Samurai) is based on the Kasha and the In-Universe basis for the youkai.
- Shuriken Sentai Ninninger had Nekomata as Monsters of the Week on two separate occasions. They appeared Cat O'Clock and Cleocatra for Power Rangers Ninja Steel. Additionally, a Kasha adapted as Spinferno for Ninja Steel appeared early on in the series.
- Pathfinder: Nekomatas are malevolent, panther-sized two-tailed cats with magical powers: chiefly, they can flawlessly mimic the appearance of a human they successfully damage with their bite attack and can animate and control undead creatures. They use their shapeshifting to infiltrate families and destroy them from the inside, seeking to ruin their reputations before killing them off and moving to another target. In-Universe legends claim that nekomatas are formed from cats who live beyond their natural lifespan, becoming malevolent two-tailed spirits and inflicting their first manipulations on the family that cared for them.
- BlazBlue: Jubei and his daughter Kokonoe (a Cat Girl version of this). Appropriately, the latter does bring people back from the dead, although since magic is commonplace in that world she uses science to keep the mysterious powers theme. Iron Tager is the result. The character Hakumen contemptuously calls them both "bakeneko" (monster/ghost cat), which in Japanese mythology is a general term for any cat Youkai. The video games translated this word as "grimalkin" in an attempt at a Cultural Translation (which failed, since "grimalkin" is about as obscure as "bakeneko" to an American audience). Official subtitles for BlazBlue: Alter Memory use "Goblin Cat" instead (which is more accurate and conveys Hakumen's insulting tone).
- Found in the Disgaea series (and are used in quick leveling tricks in BOTH the first and second ones). They are more Cat Girls, however. They are capable of producing offspring with humans, as Rutile is half nekomata.
- Muramasa: The Demon Blade: Miike, the protagonist of the Muramasa: Rebirth DLC "Fishy Tales of the Nekomata", is a nekomata who can transform into a two-tailed cat, a Cat Girl, a gigantic, monstrous two-tailed cat, and a floating head made up of cats.
- Saint Purrtrick from Neko Atsume is one of these, hence his two tails and "Ethereal" description. His Japanese name is even "Nekomata-san".
- Pokémon: Espeon and Meowstic are Psychic-types based off of this legend. Espeon is the one most tied to the original myth, down to the forked tail.
- Shin Megami Tensei: Nekomata is a feline demon/Persona who appears in almost every game in the series, always referencing her namesake's classic lore. Strangely, she usually appears as a Cat Girl with a single, extra-long tail; Persona 2 is the only game to feature her with a pair of tails.
- Touhou: Chen and Orin from the Touhou Project. Orin, though, is a Kasha, a different type of youkai cat.
- Yo-Kai Watch:
- Compared to other werecats in the Monster Girl Encyclopedia, the Nekomatas are rather tame and even give up on a man should he refuse her advance. They are still monsters though, and will eventually assault their prey to take his spirit energy. Unlike in the myth, Nekomata in this series are this way since birth. And since this world is filled with Cute Monster Girls, her forms are inverted, with the human form being the true one.
Tsukumogami: Inanimate objects that come to life after a hundred years. These can range from weapons to clothes to umbrellas. Well-known traditional examples include karakasa (paper umbrellas), ittan-momen (a floating strip of cotton cloth), biwa-bokuboku and koto-furunushi (stringed musical instruments) and burabura (lanterns). Strangely, they avoid electrical energy in common folklore from the 1940s and it is said that no modern object could ever become a Tsukumogami.
Anime and Manga
- Bob from Bob in a Bottle disguises himself as one, sometimes.
- Asagiri no Miko has two Tsukumogami among its characters.
- GeGeGe no Kitarō has an ittan-momen whom Kitaro and his friends often ride on. It is weakened when it gets wet.
- Ichimoku Ren from Hell Girl is a Tsukumogami; specifically, he is the spirit of a sword. He was given a human form by Enma Ai, so he could better work for her.
- Yura of the Hair in InuYasha turns out to be a comb that became a youkai after being used to comb the hair of hundreds of corpses.
- In Love Hina, there is the Tsukumogami called "Moe", a near life-sized doll/puppet who comes to life about halfway through the series, disappears after spending some time with Keitaro, and reappears in the sequel OVA Love Hina Again.
- My Monster Secret has Mikan's cheap fake glasses becoming a Tsukumogami inhabited by a [self-proclaimed] fortune god. The example is atypical because what triggers the "tsukumogamization" isn't the age of the object, but how much Mikan cherishes it as a gift from Asahi, whom she secretly loves.
- Omamori Himari features as one of its protagonists a Tsukumogami based in an English teacup.
- Rinne features a "Tsukumogami sticker" which when placed on an object gives it the ability to talk.
- In 3×3 Eyes, in the second part of the manga, an amnesiac Pai is targeted by living marionettes (who can take human form) who want to force her to make their "father" immortal (despite his death, a phenomenon that they cannot understand). To drive the point home, their creator's name is Soichi Tsugumo.
- ''Tsukipro's youkai AU features Rui as a Cute Monster Boy karakasa.
- Tsugumomo revolves around these, both good and bad.
- Tsukumo Happy Soul is a one-volume manga that involves Tsukumogami. While some are fairly normal, the main character's Tsukumogami is a pink vibrator she inherited from her mom that can turn into a boy. It is a bit ecchi, but it ran in a shonen magazine so it's more gag ecchi.
- Ushio and Tora has a killer marionette Youkai who needs hearts from young women to charge its mechanism. Later on the author shows a rare example of "modern" Tsukumogami with Ikkaku, a swordfish-like, speed-eating demon born from a motorbike and forcibly possessing people to make it drive faster and faster.
- In the fanfic Kamikakushi, we have three. Botan, a boroboroton (futon-Tsukumogami), Churippu, an ichiren-bozu (prayer-bead-Tsukumogami) and Higanbana, koto-furunushi (koto-Tsukumogami).
- The anthology Bordertown contains the short story "Demon", which has a Tsukumogami in the form of a teapot.
- The Luggage from Discworld acts a lot like a Tsukumogami, and even comes from the Asian Fantasy Counterpart Culture, although it's alive due to being made of "Sapient Pearwood" rather than having come to life after a century as a regular chest.
- In Catherynne M. Valente's The Girl Who Circumnavigated Fairyland in a Ship of Her Own Making, September is attacked by a bunch of these on the Marquess's orders.
- Many Tsukumogami-based Monsters of the Week in Super Sentai.
- Ittan-momen appear in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger, Shuriken Sentai Ninninger, and Samurai Sentai Shinkenger. The one from Ninninger appears in Power Rangers Ninja Steel as Abrakadanger.
- Burabura appear in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger and Samurai Sentai Shinkenger. The Kakuranger example appeared in Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers as Lanterra.
- Lesser-known Tsukumogami
- The Ungaikyo, a mirror Tsukumogami, appears in Shuriken Sentai Ninninger, but is instead based on a satellite dish. Appeared in Power Rangers Ninja Steel as Hacktrack.
- The Shirouneri, a rag Tsukumogami, was in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger.
- The Kameosa, a jug Tsukumogami, appears in Samurai Sentai Shinkenger. Due to "kame" also being Japanese for "turtle" and all Gedoshu having the features of aquatic life, his appearance is combined with a turtle.
- Pathfinder features Tsukumogami as a monster type, using a variant of the Animated Objects monster template. Specifically, the Tsukumogami template goes over the Animated Object template, transforming the former golem into a Kami-subtype native outsider with full intelligence and an array of mystical abilities.
- AdventureQuest Worlds has a place called the Yokai Junkyard filled with tsukumogami, the specific types being Bakezouri, Biwa-Bokuboku, Bura-Bura, Kara-Kasa and Koto-Furunushi.
- Gaia Online: A variation of Tsukumogami, known as "The Animated", are the primary enemies in the Gaia Online MMO: zOMG!. Players can encounter animated Cotton Balls, Garlic Cloves, Purses, and even imperialistic Lawn Gnomes. Other enemies (including other youkai) exist as well.
- In the Izuna games, not only are some of the standard Tsukumogami found as enemies, you can actually make your own! The more you use a weapon, the more its "LUV" stat increases. When it hits 100, you can burn in a Tsukumo talisman to turn the weapon itself into a talisman; anything you stick it on will gain that weapon's special abilities. (It only works on weapons, not armour.) Make enough of these and you can get all the best powers in the game on a single claw.
- Onmyōji features two of the most iconic Tsukumogami types: the Karakasa-kozō (umbrella) and Chōchin-obake (lantern).
- Several Pokémon appear to be based on Tsukumogami; unusually, some of these are modern objects, and indeed Electric-types. These include Magnemite (magnets), Voltorb (Poké Ball), Gardevoir (possibly anesama ningyou, a style of paper doll), Shedinja (the discarded exoskeleton of a Nincada after it evolves), Nosepass (Moai statue), Baltoy (shakokidogu), Shuppet (Teru Teru Bozu, a Japanese paper doll resembling a ghost), Banette (Voodoo doll), Bronzor (a bronze mirror), Bronzong (a bronze bell), Rotom's forms (refrigerator, lawnmower, oven, fan, washing machine), the Klink line (gears), Darumaka and Darmanitan (Daruma statues), Trubbish and Garbodor (garbage bags), Litwick (candle), Lampent (lantern), Chandelure (chandelier), the Vanillite line (ice cream cones), the Honedge line (swords) and Klefki (keychain). Though one would wonder how a candle or an ice cream cone would last the required hundred years without melting long before them.
- Kogasa Tatara is a Karakasa. However, the umbrella creates a projection of a human-like body to carry around the umbrella itself.
- Medicine Melancholy may or may not be a doll Tsukumogami.
- Hata no Kokoro is a varation of this that's known as a menreiki.
- Double Dealing Character introduces Benben Tsukumo, a biwa tsukumogami, Yatsuhashi Tsukumo, a koto tsukumogami, and Raiko Horikawa, a taiko tsukumogami (although she also has thunder god characteristics as well).
- Yo-Kai Watch features various yo-kai of this sort, such as hat yo-kai, remote yo-kai and umbrella yo-kai.
Baku: A relatively benign example, being a creature with an elephant-like head that eats bad dreams. In modern Japanese the word baku can also refer to tapirs — when introduced to Japan, they bore such an uncanny resemblance to the mythological baku that they were assumed to be the same thing, and heavily influenced its later depictions. No relation to the capital of Azerbaijan.
Anime and Manga
- Digimon: Digimon Adventure 02 has Bakumon, who goes by the name Tapirmon in the dub.
- The baku from Hell Teacher Nube, instead of being a benign creature that eats nightmares, eats good dreams and leaves its victims in a state of utter, suicide-inducing despair. It's actually composed of hundreds of tortured souls who moan and writhe in the vague shape of a tapir.
- In Naruto a baku appears as Danzou's summoning and looks like a huge, tuskless fierce elephant, able to suck anything in his trunk.
- Nightmare Inspector has a baku for a main character, who helps rid people of their nightmares in return for being allowed to eat said nightmares.
- Baku from Onegai My Melody, a tapir who has been known to eat black notes, which are basically manifested nightmares.
- The second Urusei Yatsura movie and the chapter/episode it was loosely adapted from feature a baku.
- Merry Nightmare from Yumekui Merry has powers revolving around dreams and nightmares, and she has a strong baku motif.
- The Sandman: Baku make an appearance in The Dream Hunters.
- Dragonology: Monsterology includes the baku in the chapter dedicated to terrestrial beasts. It's depicted as tapir-like creature with short elephant tusks, a black coat with large yellow dots, and the paws of a tiger, and is native to Japan and coastal China. While it does not eat nightmares, it's noted to have a profoundly soothing effect on people, similar to that experienced when petting a cat.
- Paprika ends with the heroine getting rid of a destructive dream-turned-real this way.
- Super Sentai: Baku-based monsters are quite common.
- Kagaku Sentai Dynaman's Tapir Evo, while nominally based on a regular tapir, possessed the ability to control dreams by transforming them into nightmares, making them come true, or even creating nightmare versions of others.
- One Monster of the Week in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger was Bakuki, who appeared in Ninjaman's debut episode. While he claims to be a modern version of the Baku, he looks nothing like one, being a hooded demon-like being instead. Appeared as Vampirus for Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers.
- Nightmare Ninja Yumebakushi from Ninpuu Sentai Hurricaneger could place children into a deep dream that they would never wake up from, turning them into stone. Adapted as Starvark for Power Rangers Ninja Storm.
- Yumebakura from Samurai Sentai Shinkenger (Rhinosnorus in Power Rangers Samurai), like all ayakashi, claims to be the inspiration for a youkai. In his case, his dream-based powers and amalgamation of rhinoceros, elephant, tiger, and ox body parts make him the Baku.
- Tensou Sentai Goseiger has Elmgaim of the Baku, who combines his motifs with a velvet worm and Freddy Kreuger. Appears in Power Rangers Mega Force as Dream Snatcher.
- A purse-based Baku appeared in Shuriken Sentai Ninninger, adapted as Smellephant for Power Rangers Ninja Steel.
- Yumepakkun from Uchu Sentai Kyuranger is a Baku-like alien who consumes the dreams of children.
- Kaitou Sentai Lupinranger VS Keisatsu Sentai Patranger: Tapir-themed Gangler monster Nero Kilner was able to trap people in their dreams using his Nemulance staff.
- The baku of Legend of the Five Rings are malevolent. They still eat bad dreams, but they eat their victim's memories as well.
- Pathfinder: Baku resemble floating, shaggy and tusked tapirs, and can when feeding choose to eat all of a person's dreams — causing them to wake up later exhausted and unrefreshed — or only their nightmares — which grants immunity to nightmare-inducing magic or dream haunting by malicious beings. They are mortal enemies of the dream-haunting night hags, and go to great lengths to hunt them down, fight them and prevent them from preying on sleeping minds.
- Baku appear in Dungeons & Dragons, usually as psionics-based monsters, due to their connection with eating dreams. They tend to be hidden in obscure sourcebooks, though.
- Animal Crossing: Luna from ''Animal Crossing: New Leaf]' is a baku, and fittingly runs the Dream Suite.
- Tapir, the wizard from Cocoron, eventually turns out to be a baku who you have to fight in the game's final battle.
- Dark Cloud 2 / Dark Chronicle features a mini-boss in Starlight Canyon called the Memo-Eater, an obese monster with a tapir's nose that possesses a girl and eats her memories.
- In Final Fantasy VI, when a character wakes up from Sleep status on his or her own, a small baku comes by to "eat" their dreams away.
- Onmyōji: They are called Dream Eaters (yume-kui).
- The Final Boss of Parodius for the MSX is a baku named Bug (a Punny Name that works better in Japanese).
- Drowzee (and by extension it evolution, Hypno), a bipedal tapir-like Pokémon best known for eating dreams.
- Munna, and Musharna are likewise tapir-based 'mons, and are themed quite heavily around dreams and sleep. They also take cues from cartoon "dream clouds".
- Touhou: Doremy Sweet from the Touhou Project is based on a baku, although like all of the characters from that series, it's almost impossible to tell.
- Baku from Yo-Kai Watch is one of the few yo-kai who didn't get a Dub Name Change. He is a purple baku who is said to put people to sleep before eating their dreams. In Yo-Kai Watch 2 he is a story character.
Kamaitachi: Weasel-like creatures that attack in trios: the first one knocks down a traveler with a gust of wind, the second cuts the traveler with its sickle-like claws (literally sickles or curved blades, in some depictions), and the third applies an ointment that stops the bleeding, leaving the victim with bloodless but inexplicably large and painful wounds. They're essentially the personification of the pain felt during a bitterly cold wind.
Anime and Manga
- Izaya from Durarara!! jokes that he's a kamaitachi after shaving a thug's head with his knife in a split second.
- The kamaitachi show up in Hell Teacher Nube in all their glory: the eldest sibling carries a cudgel to knock people over or inflict severe bruises; the middle sibling's forelegs are shaped like Absurdly Sharp Blades which can literally cut up anything and anyone; the youngest carries a jar filled with a mending balm. Makoto inadvertently takes the latter as a pet, and as the elder ones tried to find it they bring catastrophe to the town — nearly killing Nube by slicing him in half until Makoto finally releases the younger kamaitachi and it heals the teacher with its balm.
- Naruto: Temari, a special technique that involves summoning a kamaitachi. She is the wind user, while the kamaitachi does the cutting. The only time it was used, the opponent was too dead to notice if the bleeding had stopped.
- Itaku from Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan is a kamaitachi that can appear as a ninja or as a weasel-faced demon.
- The tenth movie of One Piece features, among the other creatures under Shiki's rule, the Tsujigiri Itachi (killer weasel), which actually wield small scythes with blades made from a Kenju (sword-tree) leaf.
- ''Tsukipro's youkai AU features twins Ichiru and Issei, as well as SOARA's Ren, as Kamaitachi. Ichiru and Issei are featured as main characters in the "Natsu-Yume-Matsuri" stage play of this AU.
- Ushio and Tora: Two sets of kamaitachi siblings appear. The first help the heroes out (and one even falls for Tora, though he doesn't return it), the second are Psychos For Hire. Most notably, they can conjure their sickle blades from their bodies even when in human form.
- Yu-Gi-Oh!: The Yosenju archetype. Yosenju Kamaitachi is the gust of wind (it returns an opponent's card to the hand), Yosenju Kamanitachi cuts the opponent (it can attack directly), and Yosenju Kamamitachi applies the ointment (it adds a Yosenju to your hand).
- Super Sentai:
- Kamaitachi appear Monsters of the Week in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger and Shuriken Sentai Ninninger (with the latter being adapted in Power Rangers Ninja Steel as brothers Ripperat and Trapsaw).
- The Razor Wind powers of Ootsumuji in Samurai Sentai Shinkenger / Scorpionic in Power Rangers Samurai make him the basis for the Kamaitachi.
- Ultraman Orb makes reference to a kaiju named Kamaitadon, described in a book as a weasel creature with Razor Wind powers and carrying a giant sickle, which SSP thinks has been leaving slash marks on buildings. However, said slash marks turn out to be the work of Juggler, so whether the monster actually exists is a mystery.
- Malifaux: Kamaitachi can be summoned by the Ten Thunders faction.
- Pathfinder: Kamaitachi are malicious fey creatures resembling flying weasels with curved blades instead of legs, who delight in causing pain and suffering. They have the ability to delay the actual damage caused by their slashing claws — effectively, someone they cut won't actually start bleeding and hurting until the kamaitachi decides they should — and use this to force people to shame and demean themselves in exchange for their lives.
- Digimon World 3: Kyuukimon (not to be confused with the aforementioned Kyuubimon) and Reppamon of Digimon.
- One of the Geomancer skills in Final Fantasy Tactics is a wind attack called Kamaitachi that can trigger the Paralyze (i.e. Don't Act) Status Ailment.
- Ghosts 'n Goblins: Among the first enemies Sir Arthur faces in Ghouls 'n Ghosts are kamaitachi, depicted as small floating creatures with scythes that turn into tornados.
- Golden Sun: While the critter itself doesn't appear in the game, there is an item (called Weasel's Claw in the translation) that lets the user attack with Jupiter (wind) Psynergy by hurling Razor Wind at enemies.
- In La-Mulana, Kamaitachi first shows up as a Mini-Boss in the Graveyard of the Giants, and reappears in Hell Temple.
- Muramasa: The Demon Blade features a series of swords, going from 3 Kamaitachi to 5 Kamaitachi. The user spins holding the sword out in a rainbow like arc, and the number indicates the total of clones plus the user that use the move.
- Kamaitachi-style enemies appear in Namco × Capcom, and subsequently the Endless Frontier and Project X Zone games.
- In Ōkami, the Kamaitachi (translated as Poltergeist) come in the form of three sickle-wielding weasels that can fight separately or join their weapons together to form a wheel of blades. Instead of just wind they can also use the elements of fire, lightning and ice.
- Onmyōji: Appears as a monster and attainable shikigami as a weasel version of the Totem Pole Trench.
- In the "Devil Kids" line of Shin Megami Tensei, Kamaitachi appears as a potential demon ally. Additionally, one of the Wind type fusion attacks in Persona 2 is named "Kamaitachi", in honor of this youkai.
- The Mink Noise from The World Ends with You are based on Kamaitachi. All of them have long claws and a tendency to make themselves into whirlwinds. There's even a pair fought together as an Optional Boss.
Tsuchinoko: A snakelike creature with a fat body. It's mostly harmless to people, unless awoken from its sleep — in that case, its venom can fell a man instantly. Very swift and acrobatic, and occasionally said to be a compulsive liar with a fondness for alcohol. Has a similar status in Japan to Bigfoot in America.
Anime and Manga
- In Kemono Friends, one of the Friends is a tsuchinoko. Appropriately, she's shy and likes to hang out in secluded areas.
- Occult Academy: Several shorts exclusive to the DVDs center around a pet tsuchinoko kept by Maya and Ami.
- In Tensou Sentai Goseiger, the first of the Yuumajuu's Monsters of the Week is Tomarezu of the Tsuchinoko, who combines his motif with a pillbug and a Graboid and is able to spit acid that dissolves people into earth-corrupting putrescence, as well as transform into a serpentine form.
- Castlevania: Aria of Sorrow: There's a tsuchinoko as a particularly elusive enemy that serves as a Metal Slime not because it drops a lot of money if killed, but because possessing its soul reduces prices at the shop. It appears in a single room, and not every time you enter it, and tends to disappear quickly.
- Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater: You can catch a tsuchinoko if you're lucky. Which is odd, since the game takes place in Russia. The team congratulates you when you do and you get an achievement (in the HD remake).
- Pokémon: Dunsparce is a tsuchinoko with small wings and a rattlesnake-like tail. They are very elusive, and spend most of their time hiding in burrows and tunnels underground.
- In Touhou canon, specifically Strange and Bright Nature Deity, Marisa adopted a rather cute tsuchinoko as a pet after chasing it out of a fairy's house.
- One of Yo Kai Watch's Ensemble Darkhorses is a literal Tsuchinoko, named "Noko" in the English version. There's also a variant called Tsuchinoko Panda (named "Pandanoko" in English), who has a panda's black and white coloration.
Nurikabe: A monster that takes the form of an animate section of wall. It has the power to turn invisible, and likes to use this power to impede travelers. Interesting enough, its common depiction of being an animated wall is somewhat of a modern representation. Originally during the Edo period, one of its early depictions was that of a three-eyed grotesque vaguely dog-like creature. Over time, its depiction changed to a literal wall with limbs and very vague features.
Anime and Manga
- Petopeto-san has Nuri-chan, one of Hatoko's classmates. She is humanoid, but made out of concrete. Her little sister is more of a wall-shaped creature with arms and legs.
- Power Rangers and Super Sentai:
- Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers: Brick Bully is based on the nurikabe, since his counterpart in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger was one.
- Forcefear from Power Rangers Ninja Steel was also a nurikabe in Shuriken Sentai Ninninger. Befitting of the mythical youkai's ability to block one from passing, he is a Barrier Warrior and is instead based on a railroad gate.
- The giant form of Futagawara from Samurai Sentai Shinkenger (Skarf for Power Rangers Samurai) possesses giant shields on his arms that turn him into a living wall like the nurikabe he's based on (the basis for In-Universe).
- In the Punky Brewster episode "The Perils of Punky", Allen is taken by the spirit and turned into one.
- The Final Fantasy series has the recurring Demon Wall boss. which also acts like an Advancing Wall of Doom. In Final Fantasy IV it lies in the Sealed Cave and blocks the way to the last Dark Crystal, and in Final Fantasy VII it's the last obstacle in the Ancient Temple.
- In Ōkami, theres a family of nurikabe that go by the name "Blockhead." They claim to be "the only one", though.
- Bastiodon from the Pokémon series resembles the early depictions of nurikabe, being a stocky dinosaur with a large, flat face that acts as a shield.
- Secret of Mana: The monsters Wall Face and Doom's Wall are based on Nurikabe.
- Senran Kagura: Nurikabe (translated as "False Wall") is a name for an enemy in Senran Kagura 2: Deep Crimson, though it appears as a large Rock Monster with crystals sticking out of its body, one of them hiding a girl what has been fused into the monster.
- Whomps and Wallops from the Super Mario Bros. series are based on nurikabe, being animated blocks of stone that make themselves a nuisance by getting in Mario's way — or by attempting to crush him under them. In the Mario Party series, they often block pathways just like the real Nurikabe.
- Yo-Kai Watch has Noway ("Murikabe" in the original version). While it doesn't physically block people from passing through, it can make anyone it inspirits refuse to do anything they're asked to.
- It's the name of a type of paper-and-pen puzzle. See the Wikipedia article for more details.
Rokurokubi and Nukekubi: These two creatures are humanoid monsters, usually but not always female; the Rokurokubi are human by day but have extremely elastic necks during the night, while Nukekubi can detach their heads from their necks and float away in search of human flesh and blood, as well as vermin and lamp oil. In some depictions rokurokubi aren't a true species, but the Partial Transformation form of a snake youkai. Sometimes enter Ambiguously Human territory, being treated as humans afflicted by a strange curse or medical condition.
Anime and Manga
- Rokurokubi are a HUGE part of Hell Teacher Nube, as the Genre Blind Miki insists on trying out techniques for astral projection and, instead, ends up turning herself into a rokurokubi. She's unable to control this state at first, and honestly believes that Nube, as the resident exorcist, will kill her because she's become a youkai, but he simply shows her how to control this new side of herself and the ability to extend her neck (sometimes across town) becomes another aspect of her personality... one that she uses incessantly to play pranks, annoy others, and, on at least one occasion, save the lives of herself and her friends.
- Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan: Kubinashi is a nukekubi.
- Rosario + Vampire: Kubisaki from the Fan Club Coaltion is a rokurokubi.
- The Gamin-Sama from Ushio and Tora are a family of five, monstrous nukekubi (grandfather, mother, father, son and daughter) who are accidentally fred by workers and proceed to wreak havoc looking for the woman who sealed them, only to run into Tora who's annoyed enough to teach them a lesson or two. Also according to Tora, they come from China and they're also known as "Hitoban" (Barbaric Flying Heads).
- In YuYu Hakusho, one demon that showed himself to Yusuke after the Hell Tournament Arc, with news on his demon ancestor was an example of a Rokurokubi with surprisingly human looks for a demon. It was nighttime as well.
- The story "Heads" has Hellboy accidentally running across a household of Nukekubi. Needless to say, he hits them and pokes fun at them.
- The OVA Hellboy Animated: Sword of Storms includes a scene that's an almost word-for-word adaptation of "Heads". In another scene, Hellboy encounters female Rokurokubi.
- The Fighting Fantasy gamebook Sword Of The Samurai has the protagonist visit an entire village of nukekubi, though the book mistakenly referred to them as rokorokubi.
- At one point in Pact, Blake encounters a group of Others in the form of Japanese women who can "unspool" their internal organs into a long neck, or detach their heads entirely (though reattaching them is implied to be difficult). He notes that they don't seem very strong, and that the mage commanding them likely uses them as scouts rather than fighters.
- Super Sentai
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: A rokurokubi married to a Kappa appears in as a Monster of the Week in the first two episodes.
- Tsubotoguro from Samurai Sentai Shinkenger (Pestilox from Power Rangers Samurai) claims to be the basis for the nukekubi. However, he has very little in common with the youkai, instead being able to summon hordes of fiendish insects to torment humans.
- In the Punky Brewster episode "The Perils of Punky", Cheri is taken by the Spirit and turned into either a rokorokubi or a nukekubi (you cannot really tell).
- Pathfinder features the rokurokubi as one of their many varieties of Japanese monsters. They are stated to be a Tian relative of the hag, although they seem to also be a variety of Serpent Folk; in addition to their extendable necks, they have mouths full of sharp fangs, clawed fingers, and green-scaled skin, which they hide behind clothing and makeup. They are much more malicious than the typical rokurokubi, with murderous inclinations and a taste for human flesh, but at the same time, they need to breeds with humanoid men, as they are an Always Female One-Gender Race.
- In Onmyōji, there is a creature called No-neck (kubinashi) whose head floats over his body. Appears as NPC, monster and attainable shikigami.
- The viral Team Fortress 2 video nope.avi seems to reference rokurokubi. Or submarine periscopes.
- Sekibanki of Touhou is officially called a Rokurokubi, but has flying head related abilities closer to a Nukekubi. However, her one spell card that directly references the Rokurokubi gives her flying head a stretchy neck.
- Yo-Kai Watch: Rokurokubi are one of the "Classic" Yo-Kai introduced in Yo-Kai Watch 2. The English version renames her "Lady Longnek".
Tsuchigumo and Jorougumo: These spiders are monstrous in size (as big or bigger than a man) that can take human form to eat travelers. Jorougumo uses a lure to attract travelers to feed her offspring, and often has the power to allure men with a song. Others act as a Shapeshifting Lover. Tsuchigumo can also use illusions to keep his webs hidden and make people ill in order to feed on them.
In modern Japanese, "otsuchigumo" also refers to tarantulas, and "jorougumo" to the golden orb-weaver spider.
Anime and Manga
- The Kumogashira demons in InuYasha. Also the main villain, Onigumo/Naraku is strictly associated with spiders. A more traditional-looking spider demon with an ogre's head was used by Naraku to lure Sango's family into a trap.
- Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan: Both Tsuchigumo and Jorogumo appear. The first one is a Blood Knight that defeats Rikuo once, and the other one is a board member of the Nura Clan.
- Two female jorogumos appear in Wasurenagumo, a mother and a daughter. The mother is a Kaiju-sized jorogumo who appears with a monstrous human woman/spider appearance. The daughter is tiny and human-looking with an apparent spider-like lower body, which is never seen besides the spider legs.
- Yu-Gi-Oh!: A Punny example in the card Jirai Gumo ("Landmine Spider"), which lurks underground and pops out to attack people who pass by.
Film — Live-Action
- Throne of Blood, Kurosawa Akira's adaptation of Macbeth, exchanges Birnam Wood for Spider's Web Forest, possibly invoking these creatures from Japanese folklore.
- Eight Million Gods: A jorogumo appears working for the villain.
- It: Though it may have been entirely unintentional, the eponymous creature of Stephen King's novel has much in common with this particular brand of youkai. Its true form is a gigantic spider, and throughout the story appears in several humanoid shapes, most notably Pennywise the Clown. The balloons are strictly of King's invention, though.
- Tsuchigumo appear as Monsters of the Week in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger (as Arachnofiend in Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers) and Shuriken Sentai Ninninger (as Tangleweb in Power Rangers Ninja Steel).
- Pathfinder: Jorogumos are monsters resembling highly attractive humanoid women with spider legs sprouting from their backs, which they can retract or extend at will. They reproduce by seducing humanoid males, paralyzing them after copulation, laying an egg in their bodies, cocooning them and leaving them helpless and bound until the infant hatches and eats her way out of her father. The Pathfinder campaign setting has a country, Shenmen, ruled by jorogumos, who took over when its government collapsed and monsters overran it.
- The Red Widow from Ravenloft may have been inspired by the jorogumo; it's a female Giant Spider (appearing like a color-inverted black widow) that can assume the form of a human woman, which seduces men to drink their blood and use them to fertilize and then incubate her eggs — a trait that the Pathfinder jorogumo would go on to use decades later.
- The Ero-Game Atlach=Nacha has a jorougumo attempting to blend in with human society. She doesn't do very well with men, but meets a very nice girl...
- A Tsuchigumo is fought in a web-filled castle room in Muramasa: The Demon Blade. He captures Torahime and her soldiers, and is fought alongside his children, who also appear earlier in the dungeon leading to him.
- One of the mooks in The Ninja Warriors is named after the creature.
- The first boss of Ōkami is based on the jorougumo (translated as Spider Queen). You later meet the tsuchigumo (Bandit Spiders) as Bonus Boss.
- Raidou Kuzunoha vs. The Soulless Army: Tsuchigumo appears in the intro and as a summonable minion.
- Tsuchigumo is the name of a boss in Sine Mora. Appropriately enough, it's a huge robot spider that fires out web-like Bullet Hell patterns.
- Mimi in Super Paper Mario has some characteristics of a Jorogumo: her true form resembles a robotic Giant Spider, but she usually presents herself in less-unnerving, humanoid disguises.
- Touhou: Yamame Kurodani from Touhou Project is a tsuchigumo with powers over disease.
- Yo-Kai Watch: Tsuchigumo (called Arachnus in English version) is a rare "Classic" Yo-Kai introduced in Yo-Kai Watch 2, while Jorogumo (called Arachnia in English version) is a Palette Swap of Tsuchigumo. Both are male instead of the traditional female.
- In the Monster Girl Encyclopedia, Jorogumo is a nice and harmless spider girl by day, but turns into a sadistic rapist when alone with her lover by night.
- One appears in Hellboy Animated: Sword of Storms, in a scene based on the classic myths; she initially presents herself as a human musician playing a harp-like stringed instrument, then reveals herself to be partially a Giant Spider and attacks Hellboy, seeking to devour him.
- Gravity Falls: A jorogumo named Darlene appeared in the Season 2 episode "Roadside Attraction". She's never identified as one, but her basic appearance and modus operandi — a female spider-like monster who adopts a human guise to seduce and attract the men she preys on — fits the jorogumo myth quite nicely.
Raiju or "Thunder Beast" is lightning in a weasel-like shape: it's usually represented with many tails and/or legs, poisonous claws, and bright yellow and black fur. Can also appear as a dog, a monkey, a tanuki, a fox, or even a ball of fire and lightning.
Anime and Manga
- Cardcaptor Sakura: The manifestation of the Thunder card is Raiju, the Thunder Beast. It looks like a big electric wolf.
- InuYasha: The Raiju Brothers Hiten and Manten. They're both humanoid (with Hiten being totally human-like while Manten has a monstrous head) and they do care for each other. The anime filler also introduces their little sister Soten.
- Otome Youkai Zakuro: A raijuu goes berserk in the first episode, giving us a chance to see Agemaki's courage — and the half-youkai girls' ability to actually handle the situation.
- One chapter of the Touhou manga Wild and Horned Hermit features Reimu and Marisa finding Kasen's pet raiju and becoming poisoned by its thunder.
- While Tora of Ushio and Tora has been called a raijuu, his actual form looks more like a tiger, and lightning is only one of his Combo Platter Powers.
- ×××HOLiC: A raiju appears in the form of a crazed lightning ball.
- Shiro Amakusa in Yaiba turns into a giant, six tailed weasel with huge claws for his showdown with the Kid Samurai. However, it doesn't sport any thunder-related ability.
- Samurai Sentai Shinkenger has perhaps the strangest example of this youkai in fiction in Happouzu (Crustor in Power Rangers Samurai). Like all the ayakashi, he is the In-Universe basis for a youkai, and despite being a walking mass of barnacles, he's the raiju. Might have something to do with the orbs of fire and lightning he can shoot from his body.
- Monster Hunter:
- Rajang is a Thunder-type monster, can appear like a ball of thunder or fire, has yellow and black fur, and looks like the monkey-like depiction of the raiju. It has only one tail, which can be cut to make it lose power.
- The Zinogre is also based on the raiju, being a wolf-like monster capable of generating powerful electrical shocks.
- Pokémon: The Electric-type Pokémon Raikou and Manectric resemble Raiju. Thundorus is a literal interpretation of this creature.
- Raiju appear frequently in Shin Megami Tensei games.
- In the Monster Girl Encyclopedia, Raiju are a species of lightning-controlling magical Weasel beast-women from the Zipangu region. They are a bold, ferocious and impulsive race, who are driven by lust above all else. They are particularly adept at using their electrical abilities to provide electrical stimulation during sex.
Nyuudou: Youkai that look like buddhist monks, commonly encountered on roads. They existed in many different varieties and were one of the favorite forms for youkai possessing Voluntary Shapeshifting powers to assume.
Mikoshi-nyuudou, Miage-nyuudou and Nyuudou-bouzu are short monks who would grow taller as one looked at him until either one's neck was completely exposed from looking up at the nyuudou, at which point it would cut off one's head, or one fell backwards from trying to see how tall the nyuudou became, at which point it would laugh at you and disappear. Hitotsume-nyuudou are, just as their name indicates, one-eyed, cyloptic nyuudou.
- Touhou: Though only identified as a "Nyuudou"note , Unzan used to be the road-roaming, size-shifting and decapitating kind of nyuudou before Kumoi Ichirin defeated him. These days he acts much like a Guardian Entity to her and his Megaton Punches and Rapid-Fire Fisticuffs are a popular source of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure references within the fandom.
- In the Daily Life with Monster Girl anime, one of the listed sub-species for Cyclops/Monoeye is One-Eyed Monk, what is basically just a Monoeye who converted into Buddhism.
- In Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan, Hitotsume Nyuudou is a member of the Nura Clan and the chairman of the One-Eyed Demon Clan. Four hundred years ago, he was part of Nurarihyon's Hyakki Yakkou and as a result of Kokehime's rescue, she became attached to him.
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger's theatrical special featured two Hitotsume Nyuudou brothers (referred in the movie by their alternate name Hitotsume Kozou) as secondary antagonists.
Wanyuudou: A burning wheel, frequently with a man's/monk's face serving as the hubcaps. This bizarre entity is flies about at night in search of humans to slaughter on sight and kidnap their souls. Often lumped with the Buer from the Ars Goetia.
Anime and Manga
- One of Enma Ai's servants in Hell Girl is a Wanyuudou (name's the same). He can turn into a whole cart to serve as Ai's transportation to her targets. His human form is an old man with a pretty sweet hat.
- The phantom beast Tonyuudo from Toriko is based on this creature. Like most things in Toriko's universe, the Tonyuudo's tears are edible and made of exquisite soy milk.
- Berserk: Guts is attacked by burning wheel monsters at some point, but they're easily dispatched.
- A Wanyuudou appeared in Shuriken Sentai Ninninger Vs Toqger: The Movie as the film's secondary villain.
- AdventureQuest Worlds: Soultaker, the boss of Yokai Isle's Bamboo Forest, is a wanyuudou.
- Castlevania: Several of these appear under different names as enemies in the series.
- In Muramasa: The Demon Blade, Wanyudo is Momohime's second boss.
- Mystical Fighter: The boss of Stage 3 is a wanyuudou.
- Ōkami features fire, ice, electric, and wind wheels each with a different sensory organ on them, an eye, lips, ear, and nose respectively. The nose is unintuitively called the Earth Nose.
The okuri-inu and okuri-okami tend more towards Noble Wolf, following travellers and protecting them from harm. However, they have a tendency to attack people who mistreat or offend them... or sometimes just those who show too much weakness; as a result, "okuri-okami" has become an idiom referring to stalkers and Wolves in Sheep's Clothing.
Anime and Manga
- Kuchiha from Amatsuki is possessed by a wolf-like inugami, rumoured to be the last of her kind.
- Engaged to the Unidentified involves the relationship between between two teenage girls and a family of inugami.
- Sadaharu from Gintama is implied to be one. Considering that he's a bull-sized white chihuahua with the strength of a bear and his former owners were a couple of miko, this is plausible.
- Inugami is a manga series by Masaya Hokazono about a boy who finds an inugami. His appearances are those of an extinct Japanese wolf, but he can grow spikes from his back to fight.
- Inuyasha is a half dog-youkai. Inuyasha's father, stepmother, and half-brother Sesshoumaru are full dog-youkai. However, the story distinguishes between what Inuyasha's family is and "inugami" when villagers mistake Inuyasha for one and the gang are confused the mistake could have happened. This is because in Japanese lore "inugami" are a very specific type of sorcerer whose power comes from a dog they've killed and imbued on their behalf. The logical reason for how they made the mistake is because of Kagome's magically reinforced control over Inuyasha, which obviously looks similar to an inugami bond to an outsider.
- The series also has a tribe of wolf youkai under the leadership of Kouga. The youkai have power over wolves and are wolves themselves that can transform into human form.
- Kekkaishi has Madarao, Hakubi, and Kouya, who in their sealed forms resemble ghostly dogs, but when unsealed become massive spectral wolves.
- Kotaro Inugami in Mahou Sensei Negima! is half dog-youkai shapeshifter partly based on InuYasha. His default form has dog ears and tails, however he can also take on a Beast Folk form, a dog form and a wolf form.
- In Natsume's Book of Friends, Madara/Nyanko-sensei's larger youkai form.
- Inugami-gyoubu Tamazuki in Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan often appears as a human with of habit of panting with his tongue hanging out. His real form is that of a giant dog.
- X: Yuzuriha Nekoi (surname is deliberately misleading) has a dog spirit Inuki protecting her.
Film — Live-Action
- Inugami is a Japanese film about Akira, a teacher that falls for Miki, a papermaker. Miki's family is said to be under the curse of the inugami.
- Inukami! is a Japanese Light Novel series written by Mamizu Arisawa. Instead of the term "inugami" which is mostly associated with malevolent dog spirits, it uses the word "inukami" to describe a type of benevolent dog spirit. Inukami! revolves around Keita Kawahira, a descendant of a Inukami-tamer clan and a inukami named Yōko, who later is revealed to be actually a kitsune.
- Oinu of the Dancing Blade: Katte ni Momotenshi! series is a dog-youkai in the form of a young human girl. The only dog-like physical features she has are her ears, which are hidden in her hair and only seldom pop up. She's a benevolent, meek and loyal girl who loves dog-related items, and in Tears of Eden, the power-amplifying artefact she gets is a dog collar that belonged to a legendary and almighty demon dog. The intro movie of the same game also hints that she has a giant, grey-coated dog true form.
- Inugami play a background role in Muramasa: The Demon Blade. Kongiku and Yuzuruha are kitsune, with Yuzuruha trying to stop the release of the singular Inugami sealed in the Kuzuryu blade. as a Historical Villain Upgrade from his established love of dogs, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi is corrupted and eventually highjacked by Inugami.
- Amaterasu from Ōkami and her son Chibiterasu from Ōkamiden are wolf-like mythical creatures living in a world inspired by Japanese myth, and the names of their games make it fairly clear what creatures the games' makers had in mind.
Ushi-Oni or Gyuuki: Meaning "bull fiend", this is a sort of counterpart to the minotaur. In some stories it's a demonic looking ox with many tails and claws, in others he's a sort of giant spider, while in others is a sort of wisp fire. Frequently seen with a half-women, half-snake youkai called Nure-onna, and reputed to be mates with her.
Anime and Manga
- A Ushi-Oni like Kaiju appears in Gantz: the upper half of his body is bovine, his lower half is spidery.
- Gyuu Oh from InuYasha is a half-demon called Izumo who turns into a wicked minotaur-like monster after the sunset. As a result he's gone crazy, but unlike the typical stereotype he's a Genius Bruiser.
- The Eight-Tailed Beast in Naruto is a giant bull-like demon with four horns and eight Combat Tentacles in lieu of tails.His name is, ironically enough, Gyuuki
- Gyuki from Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan is implied to be a Ushi Oni. Heck, his name is the alternate character reading of Ushi Oni.* In Ranma ½, Pantyhose Taro's monster form can be associated to the Ushi Oni.
- Yu-Gi-Oh! has some Ushi Oni-inspired cards. One of them is a demonic bull with a spider body, and the other one is a fiendish minotaur with four tentacles.
- Berserk: Nosferatu Zodd's Apostle form is a winged minotaur with a tiger-like face and paws.
- A female ushi-oni appears in Peter S. Beagle's short story "Junko And Sayuri".
- In Kamen Rider Decade, it's said that, when a Rider — we mean, Oni — in the World of Hibiki chases power obsessively enough to lose his ideals of justice, he becomes an out-of-control Gyuuki. Like what happens to Hibiki himself.
- Super Sentai
- Ushi-oni is the first boss of Oira Jajamaru! Sekai Daibouken for the Game Boy. Like most enemies, he is completely replaced in the localized Maru's Mission, in this case with a Faceless Eye named Eyeclop.
- The Bull Chargers from Ōkami are best described as something between a bull. a centaur and a Giant Spider.
- Gyuki from Warriors Orochi is one, though he looks more like a boar demon than a bull.
- Yo-Kai Watch has a kudan named Predictabull. He is a benevolent fortune-teller who can only tell the weather.
- In the Monster Girl Encyclopedia, Ushi-Oni is a subspecies of the Spider-Girls family native to Zipangu, and appears as a buxom tarantula-girl with cowgirl-like horns. They are the most primal and savage of the spider-girls in the setting so far, a primitive race who tend to simply snatch, grab and rape men they find attractive. They are renowned for their strength, and feared for their blood, which is so heavily laced with demonic energy that it will instantly transform humans exposed to it into incubi or new ushi-oni, depending on their gender.
Nuppeppo: A fleshy blob creature that lumbers around in deserted places, mainly temples and graveyards. Has a smell comparable to that of rotting flesh, leading some to believe they are made of corpses. In spite of this, Nuppeppo are generally peaceful creatures.
- A Nuppeppo (although called Nuppefuhofu for some reason) who stole humans' faces appeared as Monster of the Week in Ninja Sentai Kakuranger. Appeared as Face-Stealer in Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers
- Muramasa: The Demon Blade: Nuppeppo are enemies resembling purple blob creatures with eyes. They mainly try to throw pieces of themselves at you, but otherwise stand in place to allow you to whack on them.
- Pokémon: Gulpin and Swalot resemble this creature, being voracious ambulatory stomachs that emit repulsive gases while digesting their food.
- Yume Nikki has two examples:
- The Mouth Monsters are a trio of brown blobs with large mouths and varying hairstyles. Each of them are seen near blood stains, and are the only NPCs in their respective areas.note One of them even has poop on their head, so at least that one doesn't smell good.
- Uboa is a rare malicious example, as it traps Madotsuki and takes her to an inescapable world. In the manga, it even assaults her and steals her effects.
- Yo-Kai Watch:
- Everfore ("Oiran" in Japan) is related to the nuppeppo yokai but is not directly based on it. She is the evolved form of Grumples after fusing her with Ageless Powder. She goes from a wrinkly old woman to a beautiful, young looking one. It's implied that the Ageless Powder is a powdered form of nuppeppo.
- Dismarelda ("Don'yorinu" in Japan) seems to be loosely based off of nuppeppo. She is a huge purple blob that puts people in a bad mood.
Gashadokuro: A giant skeleton, it is born from the bodies of those who died without proper burial (usually from plague, famine, or war). They stand 15 times taller than a normal person and come out after midnight to drink the blood of whoever they can snatch up. Their approach is heralded by the rattling of bones (hence the name, which means "rattling skull" in Japanese), and their only weakness is a purifying ward. They are otherwise indestructible and sometimes can turn invisible.
Anime and Manga
- * ''Tsukipro's youkai AU features Dai as a Gashadokuro.
- In Kubo and the Two Strings, the Sword Unbreakable is lodged in the skull of a giant skeleton. It's completely invincible until the Sword is removed from its head.
- Super Sentai
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: Gashadokuro is The Dragon to his father Daimaou. Fans of Power Rangers, however, will probably recognize him better as Rita Repulsa's boneheaded brother Rito Revolto.
- In contrast, Shuriken Sentai Ninninger's Gashadokuros are the villains' Giant Mooks, adapted for Power Rangers Ninja Steel as Skullgators.
- O-Dokuro, the Chaos Beast of the Yokai saga of AdventureQuest Worlds, is this kind of youkai.
- Goemons Great Adventure has one pop up early on near a bridge.
- Muramasa: The Demon Blade: The final boss of the Updated Re-release's DLC A Spirited Seven Nights' Haunting is a gashadokuro formed from the vengeful souls of everyone who Arashimaru killed.
- Ōkamiden features two. They both have a fiery core and two swords embedded within them. The second has armor and is much stronger than the first.
- Touhou: In the thirteenth main game Ten Desires, during Sanae's extra stage, she thinks that the youkai trump card is a gashadokuro, but instead it was Mamizou (a tanuki). It's neighbor series Len'en, features an actual gashadokuro named Sese Kitsugai who loves excavating underground.
- Yo-Kai Watch has several bosses based on this youkai. For example, Gusty Bones is a huge skeleton that lurks around the local elementary school. In Yo-Kai Watch 2, he frustrates people by making sure they don't get what they want from gashapon machines, as a play on his Japanese name.
Works that feature youkai include:
Anime and Manga
- Amatsuki features many various different kinds of youkai, known here as "ayakashi", including spirits, and ghosts. In fact, about half the main cast are ayakashi.
- In Azumanga Daioh, during one of the School Festival episodes, the girls ponder Osaka's idea of an obakeyashiki kisaten ("haunted cafe"), and imagine Chiyo dressed as a nurikabe and Osaka dressed as a karakasa.
- Daily Life with Monster Girl has the occasional youkai show up, but the focus is more on the monster girls of other cultures.
- Digimon, like Pokémon, has many youkai-based creatures.
- Gantz features every youkai ever as aliens in the Osaka arc.
- GeGeGe no Kitarō is all about youkai. Kitaro himself is a youkai.
- Gugure! Kokkuri-san has a female protagonist who unintentionally attracts quite a few, and three of them (a kitsune, inugami and tanuki) end up haunting her.
- Gurumin has Monsters as friendly NPCs; they are called Obake in Japanese. Meanwhile, the antagonists are called Phantoms, perhaps drawing parallel to the other meaning of obake.
- Harukanaru Toki no Naka de has these creatures among its mook-type villains (somewhat confusingly, they fall under the collective term onryou, "vengeful spirits", which normally refers to ghosts). In the manga/anime adaptations, some of these get more prominent roles, like the last Nue and the Tengu of the Northern Mountains, but otherwise the youkai-like monsters in general are of little importance to the plot.
- Hell Girl features a hone-onna, or "Bone Woman", a type of vampiric creature which disguises itself as a beautiful mortal woman to lure men away to feed upon their life force.
- Hell Teacher Nube. Between these and Obake, it's practically the whole point. If they're not listed among the specific examples above, it's because they're minor characters, but trust us, these (and more) show up.
- Inu × Boku SS revolves around a bunch of Half Human Hybrids actually descendants of demons.
- InuYasha, which in addition to the named characters listed includes at least one example of pretty much every other kind of youkai named on this page and a good many more that aren't.
- Kamisama Kiss, a manga about a teenage girl who accidentally becomes a Shinto god, naturally features youkai.
- Karas (which itself is named for the Karasu Tengu) has youkai in a prominent role, and it depicts tensions between the youkai and the humans who have forgotten them.
- Kekkaishi has Madarao, a white dog youkai that has served the Sumimura family since its founding, passed down to them by the founder, Tokimori Hazama. Madarao is able to detect ayakashi with his amazing sense of smell.
- A Letter to Momo features three Youkai, there are others living in the forest.
- Mahou Sensei Negima! has two hanyou (human-youkai hybrids) among Negi's True Companions, the half-tengu Setsuna and Koutaro who is half-inugami.
- Miss Hokusai, despite being a relatively realistic slice-of-life anime movie about Hokusai's daughter, has several youkai: A famous courtesan is a rokurokubi — her "spirit" stretches instead of her physical neck and while only a few people can see it everyone sees it pressing against the courtesan's mosquito netting. Ghost lights appear in front of a "haunted" painting of Hell and a giant ox demon threatens to show up at the house where the painting is. The painting is "haunted" because "Miss Hokusai" forgot to show the ghosts in Hell being redeemed by Buddha (which was kind of the whole point of the painting's commission in the first place, oops). Hokusai adds the Buddha and the haunting stops.
- Mononoke Sharing is about an ordinary high school girl moving into an apartment complex with five big breasted youkai (Kappa, Oni, Kitsune, Rokurokubi, and Yuki onna) as part of an experiment to see if youkai can integrate with humans.
- My Monster Secret has Youkai among the non-human students who attend Morobare High School in secret. Most of them are the underclassmen who Asahi councils in the second part of the manga; this list includes a Tengu and a Rokurokubi. Most notably, the series' effective Big Bad, Principal Shirayuki, is a Yuki-Onna who used to be human.
- Naruto, which features several youkai-themed demon-beasts. The first Big Bad Orochimaru is also shown to be capable of stretching his neck out to great lengths, not unlike a rokurokubi.
- Natsume's Book of Friends contains many youkai, referred to as "ayakashi" including those whose names are contained within the titular book.
- In Neko-de Gomen!, Kuroda makes a serum that turns people into the youkai that fits them best for ten hours.
- Most of the cast of Neko Musume Michikusa Nikki is composed of youkai living in and around a small Japanese town.
- Nura: Rise of the Yokai Clan is based on a mafia-like family of Youkai that live in the present era, in an ordinary city, keeping it safe from other families/groups seeking power.
- Omamori Himari features several other Youkai in addition to the aforementioned, including a water serpent in a leading role, a Shutendoji and many others in minor parts. Most of the major ones are Cute Monster Girls.
- Petopeto-san: Most of the cast are youkai of one kind or another, if not Half Human Hybrids.
- Ranma ½ frequently exploited Japanese folklore to provide their Monster of the Week.
- Rosario + Vampire: There is a reason the school is called Youkai Academy (though monsters from many other cultures are largely present as well). The name of the school, however, is a Punny Name, since it uses a different set of kanji than the ones that designate the youkai.
- Saiyuki, in which three out of the four main characters are at least part youkai, as are most of their opponents. Unfortunately, the majority are generic "demons" — i.e., pointy-eared humanoids with claws — rather than Japanese folkloric Youkai.
- Sengoku Youko is rife with these, s the series is set in feudal Japan and one of the main characters feature a Kitsune.
- Shaman King features many youkai as Japanese-specific spirits.
- The Lilo & Stitch franchise's anime series Stitch! features (for the first two seasons) a youkai named Kijimunaa (based on an Okinawan youkai resembling a little redheaded elf) who is friends with Yuna and Stitch.
- Tactics, unsurprising since the show chronicles the adventures of a Japanese folklorist who practices Shinto and does exorcisms to make a little on the side.
- Idol series ''Tsukipro has a youkai AU, in which each idol is a different sort of youkai. The AU has not appeared in any of the anime series yet, but in 2018, two of the stage plays featured it - "Natsu-Yume-Matsuri", performed at the Tsukipro Bunkasai event in July 2018, starred Rui, Kai, Ichiru, and Issei, in their youkai forms. SQS Episode 2, to be performed in November 2018, features Tsubasa and Eichi falling into a river and ending up in the realm of youkai, and encountering the youkai forms of the other SQ members. It is said that the youkai forms live around Tsukino Shrine, which is something of a portal between their realm and the real world. The shrine has no set location, and can possibly be found anywhere.
- Usagi Yojimbo has featured nearly every monster from Japanese tradition, from Oni to Kappas to Nues (chimera-like beasts) and an Obakeneko (vampire cat).
- Urusei Yatsura, which, despite the nominal sci-fi setting, features many youkai both as Ancient Astronauts and as actual monsters.
- Ushio and Tora is all about fighting youkai until facing the strongest of them all, a god-like kitsune (born in India of all places).
- ×××HOLiC features many types of youkai.
- In Yes! Pretty Cure 5 GoGo! episode 27, "Rin-chan vs. Ōedo Yōkai!", Shibiretta takes the Cures and mascots back to the Edo period, where they encounter noppera-bō, rokurokubi, karakasa, oni and burabura.
- Yuki Yuna is a Hero features cutesy versions of traditional youkai as the characters' fairy partners. The title character is accompanied by a Gyuuki, which takes the form of a tiny bull with stubby wings.
- Magic: The Gathering: The Kamigawa block, which is heavily inspired by Japanese mythology, features numerous yokai among its many and diverse spirit creatures.
- The Obake Karuta, a set of cards with Yokai themes that were used in the Edo Period. An ancestor of the modern Pokémon and Yu-Gi-Oh! card games.
- Yu-Gi-Oh! has a number of cards based on youkai:
- There is an archetype (cards which share part of their name and work very well with each other) called "Hermit Yokai". It seems to be mostly (if not entirely) made up of Kamaitachi.
- Spirit Monsters are a type of card that return to your hand at the end of the turn, the majority of which are based on famous gods and monsters from Japanese myth.
- In the Yu-Gi-Oh! GX manga, Bastion briefly uses a deck comprised of youkai that centers around bringing cards back from the graveyard.
- Embers: The various spirits are largely based on various youkai.
- In the Pony POV Series, while the normal versions exist as species (with Kitsunes and Shisa being seen in Neighpon), this word is used to describe the draconequus equivalent of angels. They function identically to angels (being servants/messengers of their deity), the difference being primarily cosmetic.
Film — Animated
- Not surprisingly, yokai feature in quite a few Studio Ghibli movies:
- In Pom Poko, the Tanuki prove capable of transforming into a wide variety of other youkai. Kitsune make an appearance as well, later in the movie.
- Princess Mononoke has the Kotodama, which are spirits that live in the forest, as well as the Deer God.
- Spirited Away: Most of the background characters are some form of youkai. "No Face" is a noppera-bō, while the workers at Yubaba's bathhouse are toad and weasel spirits.
Film — Live-Action
- Kanokon: Nozomu Ezomori is a 200-year-old wolf spirit, both trying to seduce the protagonist, Kouta Oyamada. In fact, nearly everyone except him is Obake of some sort (sisters, brothers, etc to Chizuru and Nozomu. Many don't show up in the anime, though).
- Tale of Yashima: A web novel set during the Sengoku Era of Japan where several yokai feature as both main characters and villains.
- Wagaya No Oinarisama has spirits like these, including an entire arc with oni.
- The Zashiki Warashi Of Intellectual Village revolves around youkai and humans making use of their power for various purposes. The eponymous Zashiki Warashi is a major character.
- Super Sentai tends to use youkai as enemies in especially Japanese-themed series (meaning featuring ninja or samurai):
- Ninja Sentai Kakuranger: The enemies are ALL Youkai, nearly all of which have adapted in some way to the modern world. There's a nurikabe covered in graffiti, a sand woman dressed like a hooker, a chariot youkai who's now a taxicab, and a hungry ghost dressed like a fast-food jockey. Sometimes the behavior is very different from the traditional youkai they're based on, but that's usually excused with "long ago, they were like [insert mythological behavior here] but the modern ones are [insert a Monster of the Week-ish behavior here] instead!"
- Samurai Sentai Shinkenger: The enemies are called ayakashi and are based on youkai (and In-Universe, the basis for youkai), but following ayakashi's traditional meaning of "shipwreck ghost", most if not all of them have some kind of sea-creature theme along with their mythic one.
- Shuriken Sentai Ninninger: Similar to Kakuranger, the enemies are modernized versions of youkai; this time done by bringing inanimate objects to life. For instance, a chainsaw is turned into a kamaitachi and a snowcone maker into a yuki-onna. They also bring in three classic Halloween monsters (Frankenstein's Monster, Dracula and the Wolf Man) and classify them as "Western youkai".
- Ultra Series: Youkai or Kaiju based on them have appeared as a Monster of the Week here and there. Many are based on examples above, but others are wholly original.
- Woo from the original Ultraman is a yeti-like youkai manifests from the spirit of a deceased parent who seeks to continue to protect their child.
- Ultraman 80 featured a few youkai, like Jihibikiran (a sumo boy who wrestles everyone he meets) and Idantenran (a marathon runner who transforms into a giant monster when enraged).
- An episode of Ultraman Tiga featured a youkai named Obikoboushi (Obiko for short), a mischievous demon-like creature who thrives in darkness and disguises himself as a noodle vendor in order to scare people with his magically animated shadow.
- Two episodes of Ultraman Cosmos deal with a Bigfoot-like youkai named Yamawarawanote who likes to befriend children lost in the forest. In the latter episode, we also meet Yamawarawa's archenemy, the demon-like Mahagenom.
- In Chuubo's Marvelous Wish-Granting Engine, there are some youkai living in Town, primarily tsukumogami, with an assortment of various others sometimes popping up. Town's long-necked people are basically rokurokubi who've learned how to stretch their necks any time they like.
- Dungeons & Dragons: The "Oriental Adventures" setting features all kinds of youkai, including oni, kappa, tengu, and yuki-onna. Oni have made their way into the main game as ogre mages, while nuppeppo have made their way in as nupperibo, residents of the Hells.
- Golden Sky Stories: The player characters are all various kinds of henge, although from the more benign variety. A later Japanese supplement introduces mononoke, wholly magical creatures, which cover virtually any type of non-henge youkai.
- Kitsune: Of Foxes and Fools obviously has kitsune as the player's characters, but a number of other youkai are available as allies as well.
- Legend of the Five Rings, which draws heavily on Japanese mythology, has many youkai, mostly malevolent.
- Pathfinder does one better than its rival D&D by featuring many of the same youkai (including Ogre Magi under their proper name of Oni), but also including many, many others (both on this page and not), including a number of obscure ones like the Sagari, the Hyakume, the Jinmenju, the Bisha Ga Tsuku, the Harionago, the Akaname and the Umibozu (this last one under the name of Sea Bonze).
- Kind of a rarity in Cuphead, as all of the ghosts inhabiting the Phantom Express are subtly based on different types of youkai. The Blind Specter is based on tenome, an eyeless old man with eyeballs on his hands; T-bone is based on gashadokuro, a giant skeleton; the Blaze Brothers appear to be based on wanyuudou, flaming oxcart wheels with screaming faces; and the Head of the Train is based on oboroguruma, oxcarts with faces found on roads late at night. Maybe; what Japanese spooks are doing in a game based on American cartoons is a mystery.
- While not actually Youkai in the demon-form, EVE Online has a couple of spaceships named after Youkai. Among those are the Kitsune, a small, but very potent ECM-based ship and the Tengu, a fast, medium-sized, powerful (and incredibly sturdy) ship capable of doing Level 5 Missions with no support, while all other ships require a fleet for those. It's also the general favorite among Mission-Runners, due to its high amount of Firepower.
- Izuna: Legend of the Unemployed Ninja has Kappa, Tengu, nurikabe and many other youkai among the enemies.
- Kanon: Makoto is a kitsune who lost her memory in exchange for the ability to transform. It came with a hefty price.
- Kiki Kai Kai, a series of Cute 'em Up games (which were localized under the Market-Based Title of Pocky & Rocky) that includes several kinds of obake as enemies, several of the partners throughout the series are yokai as well. Aside from that, the main protagonist, Sayo-chan, is a Miko.
- Muramasa: The Demon Blade features many youkai enemies.
- Nioh, an historical fiction following William Adams, features Youkai as enemies in the waning days of the Sengoku Jidai period, who have been brought forth by the persistent war.
- Onmyōji is about, well, an onmyōji named Abe no Seimei who, along with his companions, prevents yōkai from causing troubles to humans.
- Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney Dual Destinies: The second case of the game takes place in a town that maintains an ardent superstition of the youkai and plays a major role in the order of events (particularly a Karasu Tengu creature called "Tenma Taro" and the fabled nine-tailed Kitsune).
- Pokémon has a lot of creatures based on youkai. It can even be said that all Pokémon take on the same roles that youkai supposedly play in the real world, as both take on the roles of animals and nature spirits while also being combination of malicious and scary yet friendly and endearing when befriended.
- Exeggutor bears a resemblance to the ninmenju, a tree that grows human faces instead of fruit.
- Mawile is based on the futakuchi-onna, a woman with a monstrous, voracious mouth growing out of the back of her head and hair that functions like tentacles. Mawile gains a Mega Evolution in Generation VI, which gives it two mouths on the back of its head.
- Shin Megami Tensei has lots and lots of these, in addition to nearly every other culture's demons and spiritual beings, in the main series of games, as well as spin-offs.
- SNK vs. Capcom: SVC Chaos: Some of the characters, when defeated by Red Arremer, turn into different types of youkai.
- Throne of Darkness, a Diablo-like Hack and Slash uses nearly only monsters of these origins.
- Touhou: In Touhou Project, almost every known character, apart from the four-and-a-half human protagonists, a couple ghosts, and a handful of goddesses, is some form of youkai. Whether or not fairies are youkai is also subject to interpretation, both in and out-universe.
- Yo-Kai Watch is a Mon series revolving around yokai. The games and anime revolve around a boy named Nate using a mystical watch to perceive, communicate with, and summon yokai to solve other people's (or other yokai's) problems.
- Yodanji is a mobile Roguelike that features many yokai as character classes.
- In Axis Powers Hetalia, Japan talks about the legend of youkai but states that they do not exist. However, England does meet and talks to a kappa and an onion-head youkai, though Japan is skeptical.
- Charby the Vampirate: The twins Han and Cho are cat youkai living at King Samrick's palace. Han is working for the king as one of his Justiciars.
- Demon's World, a Toaplan Arcade Game also known as Horror Story, features many enemies from various mythologies, and in the Japan-esque stage you get to fight kappa, karakasa, rokurokubi, and other youkai.
- Karin-dou 4koma: The vast majority of the cast are either magicians or some kind of youkai, generally either tsukumogami (coin, camera...) or animal (fox, bird/dog, snake, toad, crow...). Somehow, there's a Henshin Hero youkai. In one strip, a few characters discuss the possibility of virtual idols becoming youkai; one dismissing them as too fleeting to take hold and a moment later suggests that God is the original such idol.
- The web story Broken Gate has Nezumi, a rat (or mouse) youkai, and her three siblings, Toramaru (otherwise known as Tora),a tiger youkai, Miyako, a horse youkai, and Ryuuji, a dragon youkai. However, aside from her ears, Nezumi can pass for human and the same occurs for Miyako, aside from the hooves she keeps concealed under a kimono or her ears).
- In the Monster Girl Encyclopedia, Youkai are exclusively Cute Monster Girls of the Zipangu region. Unlike other parts of this world, they've peacefully coexisted with humans long before anyone can remember. The youkai aren't part of the Demon Lord army and there is no Knight Templar religion hunting them down — in fact, powerful monsters like nine-tail Inari are revered as gods.
- Adventure Time has the fruit witches in "Dad's Dungeon", which seem to be Futakuchi-onna.
- Legend of the Three Caballeros has various youkai living in the Underworld. Unlike the ghost citizens, they are not dead, and are able to kill spirits as well. A Tengu in particular is the guard of the gates to the living.
- Randy Cunningham: 9th Grade Ninja has really shown its work for a western cartoon when it comes to the actual Japanese mythological elements, right down to the inclusion of youkai. The feathers of the Tengu were used to create the Ninja suit, and in the episode Evil Spirit Week, Howard becomes possessed by a Tengu.