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"Washington [DC] is not a place to live in. The rents are high, the food is bad, the dust is disgusting and the morals are deplorable. Go West, young man, go West and grow up with the country!"
Horace Greeley
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Any story set in the American West during the frontier era. Generally from about 1865, the end of The American Civil War, to 1890, the year the US Census Bureau declared the frontier closed.

Perhaps surprisingly, the Western genre is Older Than They Think; in fact, it predates the classic Western era. It has its roots in the early 19th century novels of James Fenimore Cooper (set in the then-frontier, which was well east of the Mississippi at the time) and his imitators, as well as 19th century "dime novels" — meaning that, like the gangster films of The '30s, the genre was originally pretty much contemporary with its source material. In fact no less a figure than Wild Bill Hickok was already a star in dozens of embellished stories by the time he died in 1876. By the turn of the century a lot of the stock Western tropes had already been established in popular imagination: see Western Characters.

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Westerns made a very early leap to film with The Great Train Robbery in 1903. William S. Hart (Hell's Hinges and many other films) became the first big star of movie Westerns. Westerns remained popular throughout the next few decades, though their golden age truly arrived in the 1930s. What also comes to a surprise to many is that Westerns are almost as old as a literary genre in Europe as in America, due to the success of the aforementioned James F. Cooper spawning imitators starting with works like Tokeah (1829 in English, 1833 in German) by Austrian Charles Sealsfield (real name: Carl Anton Postl). Other pioneering European works were Die Regulatoren von Arkansas (1846) by German Friedrich Gerstäcker, Le Coureur de Bois (1850) by Frenchman Gabriel Ferry, and The Rifle Rangers (1850) by Thomas Mayne Read from Ulster. European film Westerns also date back to before World War I, one being made by Sergio Leone's father Vincenzo, who went by the name Roberto Roberti. This led to the beginnings of the "Kraut" and "Spaghetti Westerns" in the 1960s.

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Enormously popular on TV and in the movies in the 1950s and 1960s. In fact, there were about 50 American western TV series running at about the same time over when there were at most 3-4 TV networks, not including First-Run Syndication. The major series included: Gunsmoke, Bonanza, Wagon Train, Rawhide, Branded, The Wild Wild West, Have Gun – Will Travel, The Rifleman, The Big Valley...

In recent decades the genre has become increasingly rare on TV, though it has never entirely vanished from public view: The '70s had Kung Fu, The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams and Little House on the Prairie; The '90s brought Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman; Deadwood was a critical success in the Turn of the Millennium; and The New '10s have seen such efforts as Godless, Hell on Wheels, and HBO's Westworld.

Common plotlines include a Cattle Drive, a Train Job, and a Bank Robbery.

There's a "Wanted!" Poster on every wall and it's more savage the further south you go.

Much has been made of the distinction between the "classic" Western and the "revisionist" Western, the former being shiny and heroic, the latter Darker and Edgier and often embodying a paradox: "Civilization can only be defended from barbarians by men with guns, but once you pick up a gun, you become a barbarian yourself." However this distinction - which essentially arose in the 1970s, when a more serious and more political critique of mass entertainment arose - is only defined in the fuzziest of terms, and many of the conventions analyzed and criticized were not imposed by the genre itself but by the general self-censorship of the media, and thus the "classic Western" never remained static, while "revisionist" points of view and deconstructions of tropes would become mainstream soon enough.

For instance, you can't get much more "classic" in a Western movie than Stagecoach (1939), but that already was an attempt by John Ford to turn as many of the then-existing conventions on their ear as possible and to go as far as he would be allowed to under the constraints of The Hays Code. It did not help to make the distinction any clearer that every decade some new Western will be promoted as "finally a realistic portrayal" of life in the Old West or among Native Americans, usually by implicitly or explicitly badmouthing all previous movies as "unrealistic" and "romanticized". For instance, one of the most famous modern examples of the Deconstruction of the genre is Little Big Man about a man adopted by a Native American tribe who are apparently the only "civilized" people depicted in the West, with the European colonizer population a bunch of violent idiots, with General George Custer being the worst of the murderous bunch. In fact, one of the major blows to the genre being taken seriously was the blockbuster success of Mel Brooks' celebrated comedy, Blazing Saddles: not only did it mercilessly poke fun at the genre's conventions, but also spotlighted the historical elements of the period that most westerns chose to ignore like minority groups, systemic racial oppression and its brutalities. After that kind of hilarious ribbing allowing the exposure of historical truths to make its point easily, any attempt to produce a western without any mention of the latter risked coming off as ridiculous and blinkered.

The Western is usually set on the American frontier, but sometimes go farther afield to places like Alaska (North to Alaska, The Far Country), Mexico (The Wild Bunch, Vera Cruz, The Professionals), Canada (North West Mounted Police) and Australia (The Proposition, Quigley Down Under).

In terms of time, the genre's heyday (as stated above) is a 25-year span in the 19th century, but there are examples set earlier (Drums Along the Mohawk takes place during The American Revolution when upstate New York was frontier country) and later into the early 20th century (Sam Peckinpah's The Ballad of Cable Hogue ends with the title character getting hit by a car, and his The Wild Bunch ends with a gunfight dominated by a World War I-era machine gun. Likewise, Red Dead Redemption features early automobiles, machine guns, oil rigs, and a World War I-era US Army). An increasingly common period for the genre is the 1850's or thereabouts, because it allows for stories dealing with the evils of slavery (Django Unchained). Of course, any work dealing with the Texas Revolution will be set in the 1830's. For series that use Western tropes but are set in the modern day, see New Old West.

A subtrope of Period Piece. Often overlaps with Settling the Frontier. See also Western Characters, The Seven Western Plots, and Spaghetti Western. Also a reason why most people believe All Deserts Have Cacti - the majority of Westerns were filmed at Kirk's Rock.

When a series that isn't a Western visits The Wild West or borrows heavily from its imagery for a story, it is a Cowboy Episode.

Mix and Match Western subgenres

Western works indexes

For a list of tropes associated with Westerns, see Wild West Tropes.

Osterns (Easterns) are Westerns made in the Eastern Bloc, the most notable being East Germany's DEFA Westerns. Another example could be Wilcze Echa, Polish Ostern set immediately after World War II (with looters and guerillas instead of bandits) on the Polish-Czechoslovakian border.


Examples

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    Comedy 

    Comic Books 
  • All Star Western.
  • Bat Lash
  • The Belgian series Bessy, created by Willy Vandersteen and his studio, which features the adventures of a Lassie-like Collie and her owner, after a while shifted to serving the West German market. It ran from 1952 to 1980.
  • Blueberry
  • The French series Coeur brûlé ("Burned Heart", 1991-2000, seven albums) and Plume aux Vents ("Feather in the Winds", 1995-2002, four albums) by writer Patrick Cothias and artists Jean-Paul Dethorey and André Juillard are largely set in Québec in the 17th century, in the early days of the French colony there. They are parts of the larger cycle of series Les 7 Vies de l'Épervier.
  • Gunsmoke
  • Another long-running Franco-Belgian series was the more serious and realistic Jerry Spring (1954-1978), originally created by Jijé.
  • Jonah Hex
  • Judge Colt
  • K-Bar Kate
  • Kid Colt
  • Some of the chapters of The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck show young Scrooge's adventures as a cowboy.
  • Lucky Luke, an Affectionate Parody of the western genre from the francophone part of Europe.
  • The Masked Marvel
  • After the rights to Karl May's novels fell into the public domain in 1962, his Western stories were adapted into several comic series. The most famous and most well-researched one (1962-1964), which also is in many ways truer to the novels than the films, was written and drawn by Helmut Nickel (whose main job was as a curator in the Metropolitan Museum in New York) for the West German Lehning Verlag.
  • Before Asterix, René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo collaborated on Oumpah-Pah, a humorous series set in New France (Canada) in the 18th century. The series has been collected into three and five albums.
  • Rawhide Kid
  • Another comic series produced in Belgium for the West German market was Silberpfeil — Der junge Häuptling ("Silver Arrow — The Young Chief"), which ran from 1970 to 1988.
  • The longest running and currently best selling Italian comic book, Tex Willer, is a Western. Published since 1948, and thus actually predating the Spaghetti Western movies, it preceded them in using some of their famous tropes, such as a good attitude towards (some) Indians: the titular character is a Texas Ranger and "the White chief of the Navajos", had a Navajo wife, and walks the Earth righting wrongs with his trusty Indian friend Tiger Jack, his son Kit Willer, and most commonly, his also ranger friend Kit Carson.
  • Hergé had a lifelong fascination with the North American Plains Tribes, so it was no surprise that in Tintin - Tintin in America, a story that pits Tintin against Al Capone, the hero somehow ends up on an Indian Reservation. In the 1930s Hergé also did the ephemeral series called Popol et Virginie au Far-West, a funny-animal Western.
  • Varmints

    Comic Strips 

    Fan Works 

    Film 

    Literature 

    Live-Action TV 

    Pinball 
  • Played for laughs in Cactus Canyon.
  • El Dorado (and its variations Gold Strike and Lucky Strike) take place in the Southwest desert.
  • One of the tables in Psycho Pinball is called "The Wild West".

    Radio Drama 
  • The Cisco Kid
  • Fort Laramie
  • Frontier Gentleman
  • Frontier Town
  • Gunsmoke
  • Have Gun – Will Travel
  • Hopalong Cassidy
  • The Lone Ranger
  • Riders Radio Theater
  • The Six Shooter
  • Tales of the Texas Rangers
  • Winnetou, a ten-part West German radio drama series was first broadcast in 1956. In 2000 an ensemble of German comedians led by Jürgen von der Lippe recorded it again for fun, using the original scripts. The latter version was also produced on CD.

    Tabletop RPG 

    Video Games 

    Web Original 

    Web Animation 
  • CliffSide is a web animation pilot blending horror comedy themes set in a western setting. It features the adventures of the deadpan Jo, "Two-Bit Jerry" Waylon and Cordie the Spider Girl.

    Webcomics 

    Western Animation 

Alternative Title(s): Western

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