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"Plus Ultra!"
National Motto

Spain (Spanish: España), officially known as the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a Southern European country inhabited by more than 40 million people, home of the Conquistadores and the first language of over 400 million people. The modern day Spanish trace their descent from many peoples, including but not limited to Romans, Greeks, Phoenicians, Visigoths, Jews, and Muslims, and the modern nation-state was formed with the union of the Kingdom of Castille and the Kingdom of Aragon in 1469 by the marriage of their respective monarchs, Queen Isabella and King Fernando and the siege of Granada in 1492, which would complete the Reconquista and end 700 years of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula. Through the discovery and later conquest of the Western Hemisphere that same year, an empire grew and soon became the one of the most powerful on the planet until its eventual decline over the course of the 1800's, culminating in a war with the United States at the very end of the century.note  This, along with the failure of the conquest of Morocco and the feuds between political factions led to the last and bloodiest of five Civil Wars. The winner of the war ruled the country for no less than 36 years until his death, when the current Constitutional Monarchy now led by King Felipe VI was installed. Spain thus became one of the few examples in the modern day in which a monarchy is restored after being overthrown for quite some time, the other being Cambodia (to be fair, the Spanish monarchy never actually renounced their rights for their country when the Republicans took over in 1931).


Spain is bordered by France and the tiny Andorra in the north-east and Portugal in the west. It is bathed by the Mediterranean Sea at its east, the North Atlantic Ocean at the west and north and the Straits of Gibraltar at the south, where the Mediterranean joins the Atlantic. There is also the matter of the little British colony known as Gibraltar.

Spain's Government consists of a Prime Minister (Presidente del Gobierno or president of the government) elected democratically by Parliament upon nomination by the King, who is the Head of the Cabinet (Consejo de Ministros or council of ministers). He resides in the Moncloa Palace, Madrid.

Spain is ruled in a devolved unitary system where the whole country is divided into 17 autonomous communities (Comunidades Autónomas), developed after the end of the Francoist regime. Each community is accorded a "statute of autonomy" (A little Constitution) to define their official language and identity and a parliament capable of passing laws, though said statutes need to be ratified by the national Parliament. This allows each non-Castilian region to develop their cultures after having them repressed viciously when Franco was president (the very opposite of neighboring France, who is all too happy to "merge" the multitudes of their regional cultures into a single French identity). This, however, has led to several regions attempting to to gain more autonomy or outright independence (especially since the financial crisis of 2007), as in the case of that little region in the northeast known as Catalunya/Catalonha/Cataluña/Catalonia.


The continental autonomous communities are:

  • Andalusia (capital: Seville)
  • Aragon (capital: Zaragoza)
  • Asturias (capital: Oviedo, largest city: Gijón)
  • Basque Country (capital: Vitoria-Gasteiz, largest city: Bilbao)
  • Cantabria (capital: Santander)
  • Castile and León (capital: Valladolid)
  • Castile–La Mancha (capital: Toledo, largest city: Albacete)
  • Catalonia (capital: Barcelona)
  • Extremadura (capital: Mérida, largest city: Badajoz)
  • Galicia (capital: Santiago de Compostela, largest city: Vigo)
  • La Rioja (capital: Logroño)
  • Community of Madrid (capital: Madrid)
  • Region of Murcia (capital: Murcia)
  • Navarre (capital: Pamplona)
  • Valencian Community (capital: Valencia)

As well as the islands:

  • Balearic Islands (capital: Palma de Mallorca)
  • Canary Islands (capital: Santa Cruz de Tenerife & Las Palmas de Gran Canaria)

And the city enclaves in North Africa:

The Cities of Spain

  • Madrid, Capital of Spain and largest city.
  • Barcelona, Spain's second largest city, holds a rivalry with the former.
  • Valencia, third largest city.
  • Sevilla
  • Bilbao
  • Malaga
  • La Coruña
  • Algeciras

History of Spain

General Spain

Spain in popular culture

The Spanish Flag
Red and yellow are traditional colors of Spain dating back to the Reconquista, with the yellow stripe being twice as large as the two red stripes; near the hoist side is the coat of arms, dominated by a crowned shield containing (from upper left clockwise) the arms of Castile (gold castle on red field), León (purple lion on silver field), Navarre (array of golden chains on red field), Granada (a pomegranate fruit on a white field) and Aragon (nine alternating yellow and red stripes), as well as that of the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon, Spain's royal family (blue field containing five fleur-de-lis with a red border), added by King Philip V (himself French-born and titled Duke of Anjou) in 1700; on either side of the shield are a pair of columns standing on watery bases, symbolizing the Pillars of Hercules, a pair of promontories guarding the Strait of Gibraltar, surrounded by ribbons which read "Plus Ultra" ("Further Beyond" in Latin) and topped by the crowns of the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Kingdom, the former alluding to Emperor Charles V, also titled King Charles I of Spain, under whose reign Spain expanded its territories to South America and the Philippines.

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