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Heads of State

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A list of politicians who are or have been a head of state (constitutional monarchs, presidents, etc); or a head of government (absolute monarchs, prime ministers, presidents, etc).

The term "head of state" is a little bit confusing to countries like the United States, where the President is both the head of state and the head of government. The head of state is the ceremonial representative of the country, the head of government runs the country. That's why in the United Kingdom, the King or Queen is the head of state, while the Prime Minister is the head of government. In the British overseas territories and the Commonwealth realms, the Governor General is the de facto head of state as the personal representative of the monarch, and the Prime Minister is that country's head of government. But we won't make that distinction here; anyone who is some sort of national leader qualifies for this list.

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Albania

Argentina

Australia

Austria

Brazil

Canada

Chile

China / Taiwan

Cuba

  • Fulgencio Batista: President from 1940-1944 and 1952-1959.
  • Fidel Castro: Leader from 1959-2008 (as Prime Minister from 1959-1976, then as President from 1976-2008).

Egypt

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iran / Persia

Iraq

Ireland

Israel

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Italy / Rome

Japan

Libya

Monaco

Mongolia

North Korea

Norway

  • Einar Gerhardsen: Prime Minister from 1945 to 1965 (with a brief two-week vacation in 1963).

Philippines

Portugal

Romania

Russia / Soviet Union

Saudi Arabia

Serbia

Spain

Sweden

Syria

Uganda

  • Idi Amin: Military dictator and President of Uganda (1971-1979).

United Kingdom / Great Britain

United States

Vatican City / Papal States

Venezuela

Yugoslavia

Other


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