John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 — November 22, 1963), often simply referred to by his initials of JFK, was President of the United States from 1961-63, after Dwight D. Eisenhower and before Lyndon Johnson and whose assassination in office gave rise to a million Government Conspiracy theories. He was known for his particularly inspirational turns-of-phrase in his speeches and overseeing an era of American history rife with social and political turmoil. Kennedy was not only the youngest-elected president at age 43 (the youngest to become president was Theodore Roosevelt, who was 42 at the time), but also the first Irish-American and the first (still only) Roman Catholic to be elected President as well as the last (thus far) President to die in office. His presidency lasted for exactly one thousand days.
A youthful, glamorous and invigorating figure, along with his attractive wife Jacqueline Bouvier and his young family, Kennedy was seen as introducing a new and liberating era to American political and cultural life after the stifling and stuffy days of The '50s, and his time in office was dubbed "Camelot" soon after his death. Despite this, his short term was filled with crises and political upheaval, such as the CIA-directed 'Bay of Pigs' invasion of Communist Cuba, which went belly-up. This failed invasion soured relations with Cuba (never that strong to begin with) and eventually led in 1962 to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Meanwhile, similarly to Franklin D. Roosevelt's bouts with polio, JFK was constantly struggling to hide and cope with his Addison's Disease and hypothyroidism, which almost jeopardized his 1960 election campaign. He had his successes too: where he called for the formation of a small maritime unit that would be known as the Navy SEALs. He is the reason Army special forces wear green berets.
Was in truth a Handicapped Badass on par with, and possibly even surpassing Franklin D. Roosevelt as he suffered Type-2 Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome, known for short as APS-2, a symptom of which is Addison's Disease, which he struggled with throughout his life. This and his chronic lower-back problems led to him being medically disqualified when he tried to enroll in the US Army's Officer Candidate School, but through a grueling regimen of exercise for months to strengthen his back, he managed to join the US Naval Reserve in 1941, a few months prior to Pearl Harbor. Ultimately he would serve aboard a handful of Motor Torpedo Boats in the Navy, most famously aboard PT-109. His successful effort to rescue his crew after that vessel was rammed and broken in twain by the Japanese Destroyer Amagiri. The ramming killed two crew but Kennedy managed to get all the surviving hands to an island, including one he had to tow while swimming with their life-jacket strap clenched between his teeth. He re-injured his back while performing that rescue.
Domestically, the Civil Rights Movement proved a vexing political problem. The Democratic Party's power base was in the South, so Kennedy was reluctant to alienate his supporters there. However, Martin Luther King Jr. and his fellows were not about to let this stop their crusade for racial equality and justice. To that end, they forced the issue by staging nonviolent protests and similar actions to provoke white racist authorities and mobs to go berserk against them. Although this was of course dangerous with casualties, Kennedy could not ignore the resulting footage of such white supremacist brutality and eventually moved to support their cause.
Had a very close relationship with Harold Macmillan, who was British Prime Minister for all but the last month of his time in office, to the point of viewing Macmillan as something of a mentor figure. The fact that Kennedy's sister was married to Macmillan's nephew may have had something to do with this. In stark contrast, Kennedy had an absolutely horrible relationship with John Diefenbaker, the Canadian Prime Minister for most of his time as President, mostly over the issue of putting missile defences on Canadian soil. Things got so bad that Kennedy ended up lending staff and financial support to rival Lester B. Pearson, helping him dethrone Diefenbaker as Prime Minister in early 1963. Technically Kennedy may have broken a few laws by doing this, but considering that Pearson was way more cordial towards the U.S. than Diefenbaker, no-one cared enough to make much of an issue over it.
On November 22, 1963, Kennedy visited Dallas, Texas as part of campaigning for his upcoming run for re-election. As his motorcade passed the Texas Book Depository at Dealey Plaza, shots were fired; Kennedy was hit in the head and torso, and rushed to hospital where he was later pronounced dead. Although a single gunman, Lee Harvey Oswald, was later arrested and identified as the main suspect of the assassination, numerous irregularities in the record — along with Oswald's own assassination, by a mob-connected nightclub owner named Jack Ruby — soon gave rise to numerous conspiracy theories about who had really killed Kennedy.
When portrayed in fiction (and when he's not there purely to be killed), expect to hear a highly exaggerated version of his quite distinctive New England accent. He was famous for his harnessing of mass media to rally support, and as a result, he remains somebody who can be recognized simply by the sound of his voice. To this day, many attempts at "Bawstin" accents try to simply copy Kennedy's speaking patterns, even though many New Englanders will be among the first to tell you that the Kennedys are the only people who actually speak like that.
Here's an audio clip of Kennedy chewing out a USAF general over the phone about the press getting access to Jackie's maternity suite at an air force base in 1963.
Kennedy in fictionNote: Please only add examples where Kennedy appears as a character. If he is only shown in order to be assassinated, put the entry under Who Shot JFK?.
- Comedian Vaughn Meader made his name as a spot-on impersonator of JFK; his album of Kennedy skits The First Family was very successful, until Kennedy's assassination killed it, along with Meader's career.
- Though JFK himself once said in a press conference, "I've listened to Mr. Meader's record but I think it sounded more like Teddy than it did me."
- Lenny Bruce's first comment upon JFK's death, at a nightclub show hours after the event: "Boy, is Vaughn Meader fucked."
- In Watchmen, JFK is seen, meeting Dr. Manhattan on the White House lawn. He asks what it's like to be a superhero and is told, "You should know, Mr. President." Attention is drawn briefly to the oddity of his assassination by Manhattan. The Comedian was in Dallas that day, as the bodyguard for Nixon, and Ozymandias briefly implies he either knew about the shooting beforehand or was actually the one who carried it out. The movie adaptation drops the ambiguity and outright shows the Comedian sneaking away from the grassy knoll after making the shot.
- A 2007 Teen Titans comic book written by Silver Age author Bob Haney and deliberately emulating that era's wacky hijinks has the team rescuing JFK from alien mods who kidnapped him, replaced him with one of their own, and made them their ruler to fight a tribe of savage space hippies. In the end, JFK and the Titans convince the two warring races to work through their differences, our young heroes return to Earth to find that the alien impostor had solved the Cuban Missile Crisis and been assassinated, and swear to keep JFK's true whereabouts a secret while the President leads the mods and hippies in a war against evil robots. Whew!
- In the "Damnation's Flame" arc of Hellblazer, Kennedy appears, complete with head wound, in a bizarre afterlife filled with twisted versions of American symbolism, trapped there by the American people's reverence for him. He partners up with John Constantine in exchange for help with ousting the "incumbent President": Abraham Lincoln.
- Superman met President Kennedy on several occasions in the Silver Age. For instance, there was a story where Kennedy impersonated Clark Kent to help Superman hide his Secret Identity. This also include the classic tale "Superman's Mission For President Kennedy," which was originally to be published in late 1963 but was pulled after JFK's assassination. The story was finally published several months later, per the request of President Johnson and the Kennedy family. Thanks to comics' sliding-scale timeline, the above tale was rewritten in The '80s as "Superboy's Mission For President Kennedy."
- Supergirl also met President and Mrs. Kennedy soon after her existence was revealed to the world in February 1962. Jack said "I know you'll use your super-powers not only to fight crime, but to preserve peace in our troubled world!" She said, "Thank you, Mr. President, I will," but what she was thinking was "The President's wife looks ... gorgeous!"
- Two Robert Drew documentaries: Primary (1960), which records the contest between Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey in the 1960 Wisconsin Democratic primary, and Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment, which is about JFK sending the National Guard to integrate the University of Alabama in 1963. Both films feature behind-the-scenes "fly on the wall" access that was very unusual for the era.
- Thirteen Days focuses on the Cuban Missile Crisis from the point of view of Kennedy and his senior advisors.
- Forrest Gump meets him when he becomes a member of the All-American team, just after drinking 15 bottles of Dr. Pepper, and tells him that he really has to pee on live TV.
- C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America features JFK as the first Northerner elected since the American Civil War. He supports the abolition of slavery as well as giving women the vote. Ultimately, he gets shot in this timeline as well for those views, essentially killing any progress he made toward his goals.
- Somewhat interestingly in this alternate timeline, the major political party realignment in the 20th Centurynote never happens, so in the 1960 election, Kennedy is the Republican candidate while Nixon is the Democrat.
- In Timequest a time traveler goes back to November 22, 1963 to save his life.
- In An American Carol a political comedy that uses the structure of A Christmas Carol, he shows up as a Jacob Marley Expy.
- Is played by James Marsden in Lee Daniels' The Butler
- Parts of the JFK assassination was featured in the movie The House of Yes. One of the main characters modeled herself after Jackie O.
- Played by Caspar Phillipson in Jackie, which is focused on his wife, Jackie, and revolves around one week after his death.
- In X-Men: Days of Future Past, Magneto claims Kennedy was a mutant, and no, Magneto had nothing to do with his assassination.
- JFK is the deuteragonist of the comedy-horror B-Movie Bubba Ho Tep... well, sorta. The character is an elderly African-American man who claims to be the real Jack Kennedy, having miraculously survived his assassination. The Secret Service plugged up his bullet wound, dyed his skin black so he'd be unrecognizable, and dumped him in a Texas nursing home to be forgotten about. It's deliberately left ambiguous whether he's really who he says he is or if he's just a delusional old man, but either way, he proves to be an invaluable ally in the fight against the titular villain.
- The Last Hurrah has a character named Kevin McCluskey, who runs against the incumbent mayor, Frank Skeffington. McCluskey is a telegenic but politically inexperienced candidate with a fancy education, a pretty wife, smiling kids, a respectable war record from his service in the Navy, and more good looks than brains. It should be noted that James Michael Curley, the alleged real-life basis for Skeffington, served briefly in the United States Congress, and the person who replaced him in his Congressional seat was a young but ambitious neophyte politician named John Fitzgerald Kennedy. It should also be noted that the original novel was published in 1956, four years before Kennedy became President, making this a strange real-life case of Retroactive Recognition.
- Kennedy appears in The Two Georges (which also features his old enemy Richard Nixon in a prominent role) as a newspaper publisher sympathetic to an extremist 'liberation' movement operating within a North America which, after a peaceful resolution to what would have become the American War of Independence, remains subject to a British hegemony. He tries his legendary charms on the main female character — who, notably (and apparently rarely) is actually discomforted and repelled by his advances, considering them borderline sexual harassment.
- Stephen King's novel 11/22/63 deals with a man traveling back in time to 1958 to stop the Kennedy assassination. It ends rather badly. The Vietnam War ends with Saigon being nuked, India and Pakistan have a limited nuclear exchange. Russia collapses, and Maine ends up becoming part of Canada. Also, due to terrorism, and the aforementioned nuclear exchange, most of the planet has to deal with terrible radiation poisoning. Even worse, due to the amount of times history has been changed by the protagonist, and others, going back in time, the entire universe is in danger of destroying itself. Luckily, he hits the Reset Button.
- Alternate Kennedys, a 1992 anthology of 25 Alternate History stories revolving around the Kennedys; David Gerrold contributed "The Kennedy Enterprise", which has an alternate JFK as an actor who went on to portray the captain of the U.S.S. Enterprise.
- Kennedy appears in the backstory of the alternate history novel Resurrection Day and is at the center of yet another conspiracy. Most of the world reviles Kennedy as the insane monster who started the Cuban War, obliterated the Soviet Union, and reduced the United States to a third world pariah reliant on British foreign aid. Most people believe Kennedy died when Washington was bombed, while a few more assume he's incarcerated by the ruling military government as a war criminal along with his surviving administration. A small minority of conspiracy theorist thinks Kennedy is innocent and that he's just hiding, waiting to come out and lead America back to greatness. Turns out the conspiracy theorists are only partially right. Kennedy did die during the bombing of Washington, but only because he refused to leave, working to the very last second to try to broker a cease fire with the Soviets and Cubans after one of his more hawkish generals went over his head and invaded Cuba.
- In the President's Vampire series, it's established that Kennedy was assassinated by the Shadow Company, with Oswald as a patsy, as part of a larger scheme aimed at starting World War III. Fortunately, Cade's resultant Roaring Rampage of Revenge managed to prevent the second phase of the plan (blowing up Air Force One while LBJ was being sworn in onboard, and pinning the blame on Cuba) from being carried out.
- Played by Martin Sheen in the 1983 TV miniseries Kennedy.
- Red Dwarf presents an unusual solution to the mystery of his assassination: Kennedy himself did it. From the Grassy Knoll. Or rather, Kennedy from an Alternate History in which he survived his assassination attempt and was later impeached due to his affair with the mistress of a mob boss, which led to the Soviets winning the Cold War.
- In the episode "Profile in Silver" of the 1980s version of The Twilight Zone (1985), a distant descendant of JFK who is a professor of history uses a time machine to travel from the 22nd century to 1963 to "witness" Kennedy's assassination. He prevents it instead, which in turn triggers World War III. At the end of the show the professor ends up taking Kennedy's place at Dealey Plaza and is assassinated, while Kennedy ends up in the 22nd century and teaches history.
- A MADtv skit showed him encouraging Bill Clinton to continue with his philandering.
- The Kennedys, a 2011 miniseries looking at the Kennedy family's rise to public prominence and their Glory Days during the 1960s, focuses heavily on JFK. It received a certain amount of controversy because of allegations of historical inaccuracy and highlighting some of the negative aspects of the family, which was helped by the fact that several of the producers (including Joel Surnow) are outspoken conservatives).
- That being said, the series actually ended up portraying the family—and in particular Robert F. Kennedy, played by Barry Pepper in an Emmy-winning performance—rather sympathetically. Though JFK's philandering is obviously there and alluded to, the series doesn't actually include any sex scenes, and it makes it clear that he does love Jackie. (Which is ironic, as one of its early critics' main concerns was that it would be an overly sexed-up version of history.) It's also fairly accurate, compared to many other works of historical fiction.
- In the Alternate Universe in Fringe, Kennedy is still alive (having served a full two terms as President) and is just preparing to resign as US Ambassador to the United Nations.
- Played by Michael C. Hall in the second season of The Crown (2016). He's portrayed as jealous and abusive towards Jackie, forcing her to share his painkiller drugs to keep her under control, which many Americans found disgusting and not based on any historical evidence.
- Shown via archive footage several times in From the Earth to the Moon delivering key speeches. The one about "putting a man on the Moon before the end of the decade" before Congress and the one famous for the line "We choose to go the moon", which marks the tone of the series, is featured during the initial credits and an excerpt of the speech is chosen to close the series.
- The Big Bad in superhero role-playing game Brave New World: after managing to avoid getting assassinated in November 22nd 1963 to a group of supervillains (among which was Lee Harvey Oswald), the government passed the Delta Registration Act (Delta being the name given to superheroes in this game, with Alphas being a superior category of Delta), and after a fight in New York destroyed four blocks of buildings Kennedy took over as President For Life, turning the United States into a neo-fascist personal dictatorship, which gets even worse when all the Alphas disappear after a fight in 1976 between supervillain Devastator and Superior (the most powerful Alpha in the world) goes awry when the former detonates a "doomsday bomb". Actually, Kennedy did die in November, and the man everyone knew as Kennedy was actually a shapeshifter Alpha known as Facade, whom Superior convinced to impersonate Kennedy to ensure a more orderly transfer of power. The "doomsday bomb" was actually a device developed by powerful beings from another universe, who gave it to Facade, warning him that the constant presence of Alphas on that universe was a threat to the fabric of reality: Facade proceded to hand it over to Devastator and protected himself from its effects.
- The 1960 scene from the musical Merrily We Roll Along has the number "Bobby and Jackie and Jack," sending up the extended Kennedy family and JFK's cultural aspirations.
- Kennedy's Children uses his death as a premise. The play tells the stories of five different Americans during, and after his presidency, their hopes, and their eventual disappointments. One of the characters has dedicated her life to his memory.
- In Assassin's Creed II, it's implied that JFK was part of the Assassins. And it is all but outright said that Lee Harvey Oswald was a Templar who shot him, apparently to recover a Piece of Eden, then used another one to make a hologram of the two guys on The Grassy Knoll.
- Call of Duty: Black Ops, being set in the 1960s, naturally features JFK. In the regular story mode, Kennedy meets Alex Mason, the player character, and authorizes the assassination of the Big Bad. Later, it's revealed that Mason was brainwashed to kill Kennedy by the Big Bad, which he may have actually done. In The Stinger of story mode, Kennedy and Robert McNamara, along with Richard Nixon, interrogate Castro on the recent missile crisis. Then, zombies invade the Pentagon. And you get to kill them as Kennedy.
- You can unlock JFK in the second game in the Video Game/Civilization series.
- JFK's clone is the Jerk Jock and one of the main characters of Clone High. Foa suppah, he, er, uh, wants a pahty plattah.
- The Simpsons:
- In "Simpson Tide", Abe Simpson beats up Kennedy after mistaking him for a Nazi ("Ich Bin Ein Berliner").
- In "Little Girl of the Big Ten," he appears in a fantasy sequence for Lisa.
- Not to mention the fact that Mayor Quimby's character is based off of Kennedy, from accent to womanizing to mob ties, even "Ich bin ein Springfielder." More likely, Quimby is meant to be a parody of Ted Kennedy although one could argue that he is a Composite Character of all three Kennedy brothers.
- In "Duffless", a flashback shows a young Homer watching a Duff Beer commercial with Kennedy endorsing it, prompting him to briefly impersonate him.
- A flashback in "Grampa vs. Sexual Inadequacy" shows a young Homer watching a White House press conference with Kennedy, and impersonating Kennedy in front of his parents. While his mother Mona praises Homer, telling him that he could become president one day, his father Abe puts him down, saying "We've got a whole system set up to keep people like you from ever becoming President."