Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 9 November 1970) was a French military officer, politician and man of state, who fought with distinction during World War I, later becoming the leader of the Free French Forces after the Fall of France during World War II. After the Liberation of the country with the help of the Allies, he led the French Provisional Government from 1944 until 1945, later becoming the first President of the Fifth Republic from 1958 until 1969. He is perhaps the most influential French political figure of the 20th century, and his legacy continues to shape the nation's politics to this very day.
An élève de Saint-Cyr, de Gaulle was educated as an officer in France's most prestigious military academy. Commanding a platoon as a lieutenant, he fought in some of the earliest battles of World War I, sustaining numerous injuries while earning praise for his bravery and unconventional tactics. He was eventually captured during the Battle of Verdun, spending the remainder of the war in German captivity and even sharing a cell with Mikhail Tukhachevsky (then an Imperial Russian Army lieutenant). Between the World Wars, both men became leading advocates of mechanization and German-style maneuver warfare (Bewegungskrieg), opposing the prevailing Entente Cordiale-style doctrine of firepower and positional warfare.
At the outbreak of World War II, de Gaulle initially served as a colonel; he was eventually appointed to lead a hastily-formed armored division after the Wehrmacht's breakthrough at Sedan. His limited success at countering German advances promoted him to the rank of acting brigadier-general. Nevertheless, it was all too little, too late, and France was forced to sign an armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940. By then, de Gaulle (along with a few other officers who opposed the surrender) had fled to England. De Gaulle was one of the handful of people who saw any point in what was largely symbolic resistance at the time. Few people saw the point in fighting on once Paris had fallen — Marshall Philippe Pétain's coup had a lot of popular support, and unlike Great Britain, France had limited capacity to wage war outside of the European continent.
On June 18, 1940, the BBC broadcast a speech by de Gaulle (l'Appel du 18 juin / the Appeal of 18 June) urging the French people to continue resisting the Germans. Although it had limited impact at the time, the speech cemented him as the leader of the Free French Forces, which grew over time to become a significant military force in its own right. This, along with Winston Churchill's determination to avoid being isolated between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Josef Stalin during negotiations, effectively made him the de facto Allied leader of France. He would eventually assume such a role in the Provisional French Government, following the liberation of France during the advance of the Allies in 1944, vigorously opposing the attempts to enforce the Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories (AMGOT) in the country.
After the war, de Gaulle spent about a decade out of the spotlight. He was later elected as the first President of the French Fifth Republic during the Algerian War for his apparently firm and rock-like determination to retain Algeria as a French possession. It turned out that he wasn't firm and rock-like the way his supporters wanted, as he ultimately granted Algeria its independence. This led to several assassination attempts on his life by the Organisation de l'armée secrète (OAS), a far-right paramilitary organization mainly comprised of veterans and others who opposed Algerian independence.
Internationally, de Gaulle was often stereotyped as an arrogant jackass for his apparently stubborn and self-important behavior, although it could be argued that his actions were more or less following the Realpolitik of the time. As he himself said, "France has no friends, only interests", and this helped restore French international prestige and independence in foreign policy, counterbalancing the influence of the Anglo-American partnership and the Soviet Union in European politics.
Under his tenure, France became a nuclear power and was withdrawn from the NATO command structure (while still remaining part of the alliance). When the United Kingdom decided that it would quite like to join the European Economic Community (forerunner of the European Union), having initially not wanted to, De Gaulle publicly vetoed them. He argued that the UK's interests diverged too much from those of other European nations, and debate still goes on as to whether he really thought this, or whether he just wanted to defend French economic interests. He also opposed the United States' intervention in The Vietnam War. Canadians remember him best for his infamous "Vive le Québec libre!" comment at Expo 67 in Montreal, which represented a breach in diplomatic protocol, emboldened Quebec separatists, and pissed off English Canadians (and Quebec federalists) no end.note He also was quick to put France and (West) Germany on the road to reconciliation and cooperation, as formalized in the Elysée friendship treaty of 1963, signed by him and West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer. De Gaulle also famously pissed off Israel during and after the Six-Day War, by withdrawing French support.
He also planted the seeds for French domination of European space interests when, in 1965, he moved their rocket base from Algeria to French Guiana, a part of France that greatly supported him in the Free France era. This created Guiana Space Centre, now the primary spaceport of the European Space Agency.
Despite his charisma and popularity, he was increasingly being seen as a dictator and was considered too conservative for the France of The '60s. To young students, de Gaulle — who spent much of his life opposing conventional practice and authority — was the symbol of everything that was old, conservative and out-dated. He managed to survive the May 1968 revolt by calling a snap election where his party won a crushing majority, but quit after was overwhelmingly defeated in a referendum on reforming the Senate and administrative divisions. None of the following presidents has ever done this after electoral defeats during their mandates. He died at the age of 79 on November 9th, 1970, a few months after his resignation.
De Gaulle is still seen as one of the greatest Frenchmen of all time - expect to see a monument to his memory or at least an important street or place named after him in any French town you visit.
Famously caricatured as being very tall, with a big nose, wearing his brigadier-general military uniform with the trademark two-starred kepi and for raising his arms into the air while clenching his fists.
Referenced in the following works:
- Suske en Wiske:
- De Gaulle has a cameo in the album De Kaartendans when Wiske says: People come to a jumble sale to find books that help them with their problems. Cut to a shot of de Gaulle consulting a book about Algeria.
- In the album Het Mini-Mierennest Tante Sidonia imitates him, causing Wiske to think that it is de Gaulle himself.
- In the original version of Tintin - Tintin and the Picaros Thompson and Thomson think of any last words while standing in front of a firing squad and suggest: People of San Theodoros, I've understood you. This is a reference to de Gaulle, who, in 1959, said to the Algerian people wanting independence: People of Algeria, I've understood you.
- Asterix: There was a promotional strip, written and drawn by creators Goscinny and Uderzo, in which chief Vitalstatistix gave a press conference in the style of de Gaulle to announce the forthcoming Asterix book.
- Nero: In Nero against the F.F.F. Adhemar is kidnapped by the French intelligence service to use his scientific knowledge. When Nero and Meneer Pheip try to find out where he is residing they are informed: That's confidential. Nobody knows, except for Charles himself, while a huge portrait of him looms over them in the background.
- Is seen on the television in The Triplets of Belleville.
- Portrayed in the television film Ike: Countdown to D-Day, with a strong emphasis on his perceived arrogance.
- Like the novel, The Day of the Jackal revolves around a hired assassin trying to murder De Gaulle.
- Lambert Wilson portrays him in 2020's De Gaulle, about the defeat of 1940 and its immediate aftermath. It was released for the 80th anniversary of the Appeal of 18 June.
- In Les Barbouzes, the head of the French secret service looks in reverence (and maybe fear) at the portrait of his "boss" when mentioning him. This being 1964, the portrait is De Gaulle's, of course.
- The plot of The Day of the Jackal revolves around a hired assassin trying to murder De Gaulle because he gave Algeria its independence.
- Jean Larteguy's The Prateorians focuses on the French army's reaction to De Gaulle's 1958 assumption of power.
- Dougal in The Magic Roundabout is named after de Gaulle — or at least that's what the French creators thought when they saw the English version.
- His head is seen in a jar in Futurama, appearing throughout "Bender's Big Score" to justify the use of the song "30th Century Man", which mentions de Gaulle.
- In The Simpsons, "The Trouble With Trillions", Mr. Burns steals a Trillion Dollar Bill that was intended to re-build France after WW2. While waiting for the never arriving money the de Gaulle knockoff declares: "I say we just act snooty to [the Americans] forever!"