Tutankhamun (originally "Tutankhaten") was an 18th Dynasty Pharaoh of the Egyptian New Kingdom most famous for his luxurious tomb, which was discovered by Howard Carter in 1922. As an actual Pharaoh, his successes are debatable: since he came to the throne aged nine, how much of his actions were his, and how much were those of his officials? He died at 18, after only nine years of rule, so he didn't have time to do all that much.
Tutankhamun came to power after a brief and confused interregnum under two ephemeral pharaohs; Smenkhkara and Neferneferuaten - or possibly Neferneferuaten and Smenkhkara - who were the immediate successors of the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaten. Tutankhamun's Restoration Stela proclaims how he returned the old gods to Egypt and put things right again. He moved the capital back to Thebes, restored temples, had a few wars, and then died without issue. It's been shown through modern investigations that he probably wasn't killed by his vizier, Ay, but a lot of media likes to claim he was anyway. He was probably killed by complications arising from an injury he got in a chariot accident while hunting, as well as malaria. There's also speculation that he had temporal lobe epilepsy.
The discovery of his tomb in 1922 was massive, worldwide news, because unlike other tombs of the pharaohs, most of which had been cleaned out by graverobbers, his was largely intact. (It appears to have been robbed twice, but both times within a matter of months after his death, after which the tomb was resealed.)
He is the only Pharaoh popularly known by a nickname: "King Tut".
- Curse of the Pharaoh: In 1922 an Urban Legend about the curse of Tutankhamun evolved, as several archaeologists who had been present when the grave was discovered all died within the span of a few years in mysterious circumstances. This made Tutankamon even more infamous in popular culture and inspired several Mummy rising from his grave stories, including the 1932 film The Mummy (1932) with Boris Karloff. Needless to say, most of the mysterious deaths could be easily explained as coincidence and/or other circumstances not directly related to the opening of the tomb. And some people who helped discover the tomb or merely visited it lived to have long lives, including Howard Carter the one who opened the coffin first.
- Dated History: It was long thought that Ay killed Tut, but evidence shows that he probably died from a broken leg that got infected, and he also had malaria. Despite this, many works say he was murdered because it makes for a better story. He was also originally assumed to have been a pretty irrelevant pharaoh, on account of his young age and brief reign. This was before it became clear that his reign came at a pivotal time in Egyptian history. While he didn't have time to do a lot before his death, Tutankhamun still presided over the restoration of traditional Egyptian religion. Tutankhamun has been portrayed as the half brother or the nephew of Akhenaten but DNA evidence suggests he was in fact a son of the Heretic Pharaoh. Originally the many depictions of Tutankhamun hunting and chariot driving were taken on their face value giving an impression of a healthy, physically active youth. Careful examination of his mummy has detracted from this image showing him to have been a lame and rather frail youngster.
- And yet, the 2018 examination of his leather armor showed it to be worn out and having marks of cuts, with some amounts of rust, which may suggest a more warlike way of life.
- There is a lot of evidence to say that Tutankhamun was a soldier. Tut's pelvis, ribs and left leg are crushed and X-rays and CT scans have previously shown that the pharaoh's heart, chest wall, the front part of his sternum and adjacent ribs, are missing. His mummified body is also noticeably burnt. Experts suspect the oils used in the embalming process soaked the linen that formed the king's burial shroud. In the presence of oxygen, these flammable oils started a chain reaction that ignited and "cooked" Tutankhamun's body at temperatures exceeding 390 degrees Fahrenheit (200 degrees Celsius). For years, evidence has suggested the pharaoh was buried in haste spots on the walls of Tut's tomb caused by microbial activity, for example, led researchers to believe that the paint on the walls hadn't even dried before the tomb was sealed. The additional evidence of an accidental burning lends credence to the idea that Tut's entire burial was basically a rush job.
- Tutankhamun was also buried with an iron dagger, as well as other iron objects that were wrapped with Tutankhamuns mummy; these include a miniature headrest contained inside the golden death mask, an amulet attached to a golden bracelet and a dagger blade with gold haft. All were made by relatively crude methods with the exception of the dagger blade which is clearly expertly produced and in 2016 was confirmed to have been forged from iron sourced from a meteorite.
- There is a full article that discusses Tutankhamun being anything but a lame and rather frail youngster.
References to the man in media:
- Tintin: The story of the supposed curse of Tutankhamun inspired the plot of two albums: Tintin: Cigars of the Pharaoh, which takes place in Egypt, and Tintin: The Seven Crystal Balls in which seven archeologists who discovered the mummy of an Inca king all fall victim to something that is suspected to be a curse.
- Batman: One of the more recurring members of the show's Rogues Gallery, as well as the most notable one invented for the show. Here, he's the split personality of an Egyptologist, but while the professor is meek and nice, Tut is a cruel Large Ham - and, fittingly enough, a Psychopathic Manchild.
- Tut: A Canadian-American miniseries based on his ascent and rule.
- In Kamen Rider Ghost, he appears as one of the 15 Heroic Eyecons. His Eyecon is often used by the Sixth Ranger, Second Rider Kamen Rider Specter.
- In Pharaoh: Cleopatra, one timed mission consists in building his tomb after his sudden death.
- In Sphinx and the Cursed Mummy, the titular mummy is named after him.
- Though not personally depicted in the game, The Secret World reveals that Tutankhamun was directly responsible for ending his father's reign, having started a revolution to dethrone him after Akhenaten murdered Nefertiti in cold blood and set out to bring the Aten to Earth. The movement Tut created still lives on in the form of the Marya, a group of freedom fighters dedicated to halting the spread of Atenism.
- The game Tutankham is (mostly) named after him, and it involves an explorer raiding an Egyptian tomb whose final treasure is Tutankhamen's death mask.
- He crops up in the Assassin's Creed Origins DLC "Curse of the Pharaohs" (you couldn't have a pharaoh's curse without at least mentioning ol' Tut, after all). With the focus on the time of Akhenaten and the subsequent restoration, his reign is quite significant to the plot, and his mummy is then the last of the three bosses you have to fight in the afterlife, as well as one of the four that appears occasionally around Thebes.