Also known as Ramses the Great, Ramses II (1303 BC — 1213 BC) is popularly considered the greatest and most famous of all Ancient Egyptian pharaohs. To modern Egyptians, he's a national hero - sort of the equivalent of King Arthur, part real man and part legend - whereas to the rest of the world he is best known for his portrayal as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Believers actually claim that it's more likely that one of the pharaohs of the earlier Eighteenth Dynasty (the one with Thutmose and Hatshepsut and Akhenaten/Sun God Guy) was the one in Exodus. (Ramses himself was the third monarch of the Nineteenth Dynasty.) However, Egyptian rule in Canaan continued throughout that time and through his entire reign, making a founding of Israel unlikely at that time. One of the few clues in the Bible as to the time of the Exodus is that the Hebrews laboured to build the cities of Pithom and Pi Ramses, which are now known to have been constructed or greatly expanded in his reign. Also, the first mention of Israel outside of the Bible occurs in a record made sometime after his death, during his son's period on the throne, which indicates possible involvement.
Although he has often been accused of exaggerating his own achievements, Ramses remains one of the most powerful figures of ancient history. He was a courageous warrior, indefatigable ladies' man, builder of enormous temples (some of them dedicated to himself), and is notorious for being one of the two kings to sign the first peace treaty between superpowers in all of recorded history.
Notably, Ramses is one of two pharaohs to be commonly known worldwide, the other being Tutankhamun. In 1976, when Ramses' mummy was brought to France for restoration, he was issued a passport noting his status and received a king's welcome. Contemporary records indicate that he had feared being forgotten after his death, and sought to make himself known to the future.note By all accounts, he succeeded.
Tropes as portrayed in fiction:
- Adaptation Dye-Job: Despite the discovery he was red-haired in his youth (his mummy still has wispy red hair on its scalp), every portrayal after 1994 still portrays him with black hair. Probably because a red haired Egyptian would run into both Reality Is Unrealistic and Black Vikings territory and the unaware might perceive it as a Race Lift with very Unfortunate Implications.note
- Big Bad or Predecessor Villain: In adaptations of the Exodus, which he is depends on if he is the Pharaoh of the Exodus or the Pharaoh of the Oppression. If he is the former, then either his father Seti I or his grandfather Ramses I will be the latter. If he is the latter, then his son Merneptah will be the former. The one exception is The Moon of Israel where the Pharaoh of the Exodus is Amenmesse, one of Merneptah's two successors who was either a younger son of Ramses or a younger son of Merneptah.
- Cool Crown: He is often represented wearing the Kepresh, or "Blue Crown of War", which was basically a Cool Crown of the Pimped Out Helmet variety; basically a star-studed blue helmet with the royal ureus (the cobra) which was used during battle.
- Dated History: In 1994, Ramses was discovered to be a redhead and in 2016, he was discovered to be fair-skinned. Portrayals of him where he is black haired and brown skinned is thus dated. Since there have always been Egyptians of all skin and hair colors (some of Ramses' own hieroglyphic murals depict his subjects running the full gamut of skin colors), this shouldn't come across as surprising though.
- The Evil Prince: He is sometimes portrayed as this in fiction, and at one point, Egyptologists believed he had been responsible for the disappearance of Seti I's true sucessor (whose name was erased of all records after the latter's death). But Ramses fans think this is slander.
- Folk Hero: Even today the Egyptians regard him as a national hero and many claim proudly to be his descendants. Given the number of his children (ninety-six sons and sixty daughters) such a claim is more than probable. He is often refered to as the "Great Ancestor".
- The Good King: The works that don't villify him tend to portray him as this, in line with how modern Egyptians view him.
- Historical Villain Upgrade: Historical consensus is that he almost certainly wasn't the Pharaoh of the Exodus, but he's frequently depicted as the notorious tyrant in popular culture with his son Merneptah being the second most frequent and Amenmesse, son or grandson to Ramses, having been portrayed in the role once. Bottom line: The man and his descendants get a bad portrayal most of the time. Positive portrayals of Ramses and Merneptah can be found but due to Amenmesse having been a usurper his portrayals are universally negative.
- Phenotype Stereotype: Unlike his portrayal in movies, where it is black, when not shaved off, examinations of his mummy showed that he had red hair.
- Spell My Name with an "S": There are three different accepted spellings of his name so naturally it varies depending on the work. His name could be spelled "Ramses", "Rameses" or "Ramesses."
Portrayals in Media:
- He appears as a Rider-class Servant in Fate/Prototype: Fragments of Sky Silver, referring to himself as Ozymandias. Like many Servants in the Nasuverse, there's some Alternate History with his backstory. Moses was his best friend, and while their backstory does follow the events of the Book of Exodus, Ramesses does not pursue the Israelites upon seeing Moses part the Red Sea. Instead, he bids his once close friend farewell and lets Moses and the Israelites leave unopposed. Additionally, his backstory seems to be a combination of The Ten Commandmentsnote and The Prince of Egyptnote .
- Briefly mentioned in Anatolia Story, where Ramses I is a major supporting character in the "Where Are They Now?" Epilogue marrying, Yuri and Kali's granddaughter.
- Appears in Im Great Priest Imhotep as an Anti-Villain siding with the Big Bad. Unlike most versions, this version's is The Good King who fights for the weak, as well as a Boisterous Bruiser and a Blood Knight who savors a good fight against a good opponent.note
- Ozymandias from Watchmen takes his name from Ramses II's Greek name, a corruption of his Egyptian royal name Useermaatre.
- Tintin: In Tintin: Cigars of the Pharaoh Professor Sarcophagus goes mad and thinks he is Ramses II.
- Papyrus: His temple appears in "Ramses' Ravenge" and his son Merneptah is the current pharaoh making one of the main characters, Theti-Cheri, his granddaughter.
- Black Adam is oft portrayed as a son of Rameses.
- Orlando from The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen was sold as a slave to Ramses II as a youth, until he grew "older than the king prefered his boys". When Orlando visited Egypt millenia later to view the stone monuments left behind by Ramses, he notes that the famous statue doesnt resemble the real Ramses much, not having his weak chin or chubby jowls. Orlando himself notes that Ramses II, while not a tyrant or a bad leader by any means, had been self-absorbed and vain.
- Often cast as the villain in most renditions of the Biblical exodus (the pharaoh is not named in the original), such as:
- He appears as the Pharaoh of the Oppression (dad to the character in the above) in the 1995 film "Moses" where he was played by Christopher Lee (whom at reaching the Age of 92, is the only actor who both played him and who out-lived him).
- He appears (mummified) as a comedic character in Luc Besson's Les Aventures Extraordinaires d'Adele Blanc-Sec, along with several other mummies.
- French writer Christian Jacq dedicated five books to Ramses II. Moses appears in books 1-4 and Ramses does play the role of Pharaoh of the Exodus but neither he nor Moses go under any Historical Villain Upgrade not does he pursue the Hebrews but rather a captain of the guard does. On further note all but three of his children (Khaemwaset, Merneptah and Meritamen) undergo Unrelated in the Adaptation with all of the others being children who attend school in the royal palace. And yes, he is portrayed as a Redheaded Hero.
- Anne Rice's Ramses The Damned
- The Egyptian writer Naguib Mahfouz wrote a book or two on the pharaoh during his early period as a writer of historical fiction (he switched to realistic fiction afterwards). This is part of the whole national-hero thing.
- Famously, Percy Bysshe Shelley's poem "Ozymandias" (Trope Namer for Look on My Works, Ye Mighty, and Despair!) is about Ramses.
- He appears in the 1974 miniseries Moses the Lawgiver as the Pharaoh of the Oppression but for some unfathomable reason Merneptah is portrayed as his grandson rather than his son as Moses' adoptive mother is referred to as Ramses' daughter yet Merneptah's father is not referred to as Ramses but rather the brother of Moses' adoptive mother.
- The song "Chosen By Re" by Timo Kotipelto (of Stratovarius fame), off of his solo Ancient Egypt-themed Concept Album "Waiting for the Dawn", is a power ballad dedicated to Ramses the Great.
- Death Metal band Nile has a song about him, appropriately titled "User Maat Re," in which his tremendous achievements are recounted, by Ramses himself, to the ghost of his father, Seti I, as an attempt to seek his approval. The kicker is that all of Ramses' extraordinary achievments have been solely for this purpose, and that Seti tells him "User-Maat-Re, thou hast done nothing."
- The second campaign of Cleopatra, the expansion of Pharaoh, takes place during his reign and has the player building his iconic monuments and fending off the Hittites.
- He is Egypt's leader (or one of them) in Civilization IV and V.
- In Fate/Grand Order he's one of the summonable Servants, and is the same one mentioned above in Fate/Prototype: Pale Silver Fragments.
- Appears as a Bonus Boss in the Assassin's Creed Origins: Curse of the Pharaohs DLC. Stands as being one of the few depictions to actually mention he had red hair (we don't get to see it on Ramses himself, but it's noted that his offspring and descendants do have it).
- In the obscure and short-lived "Moe Strike EX", also known as "Kawaii Strike", a genderflipped, Ms. Fanservice version is a playable character.
- He appeared as "King Ramses" in an episode of Courage the Cowardly Dog. He actually scared quite a few viewers. Understandable, considering that this version of Ramses is the bringer of a terrible curse for anyone who steals from his tomb, in this case the mythical "Slab Of Ramses". Interestingly, it's one of the man's few appearances to accurately depict him with red hair.
- Burbank Films Australia production Prince of the Nile: The Story of Moses featured Ramses as both Pharaoh of the Oppression and Pharaoh of the Exodus. Moses being given an Age Lift so he is twenty-seven by the time of the Exodus certainly made it easier as did the historical Ramses' sixty-six year reign.
- Due to being set during his reign and the title character being the sister of his wife Nefertari and thus his sister-in-law, Ramses is a major character in Princess of the Nile. On additional note, it portrays him with his red hair and he is a hero making him altogether a Red-Headed Hero.
- He appears as the Pharaoh of the Exodus in A Tale of Egypt, Mockbuster of The Prince of Egypt.