Albania (Albanian: Shqipëri/Shqipëria), officially known as the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë), is a small Southern European country on the shores of the Adriatic Sea - just opposite the stiletto heel of the Italian boot. The Albanian language is, much like Armenian (with which it should NOT be confused) and Greek, another one of those weird offshoots of the Indo-European family tree, with no particularly close relation to any other Indo-European language.
The Albanian word for Albania is "Shqipëria" (pronounced shchee-purr-EE-ah), usually translated as "Land of the Eagle" hence the flag, but that's actually folk-etymology. The flag comes from the Kastrioti Principality rule in the 1400s, the name became used centuries later, not the other way around. The real meaning is roughly translated 'Land of Speakers of an Intelligible Language'.
Having been passed around between the Romans, Byzantines, Greeks, Bulgarians, Sicilian-Normans, Serbs and Venetians for pretty much her entire history, Albania ended up as an isolated backwater of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empirenote . At the threat of losing their native culture note the people largely became Muslim note and were loyal to Ottoman rule. Albanians were often used as enforcers by the Turks, which sometimes worked but often backfired, as in the case of Muhammad Ali—sent to Egypt to enforce Ottoman rule, he ended up founding his own separate state and turning on the Turks. Or in the case of the national hero Scanderbeg, who was a Ottoman general before he went on a revolt. Lord Byron particularly admired the Albanians and considered them a counterpart culture of the Scottish Highlanders he was familiar with—from a mountainous region, wore kilts and had clans perpetually fighting each other.
When, in 1913, Turkey-in-Europe was invaded by the surrounding Christian nations, Albania was cut off. The Albanians, helped by Great Power realpolitik, managed to remain independent of Serbia and Greece, but large numbers of Albanians were left outside the state. A man born Ahmet Zogolli became its prime minister from 1922-24, then its president from 1924-28 and finally King Zog of Albania until 1939. It became an Italian protectorate during the WW2. German occupation eventually followed, and the Albanian resistance distinguished themselves by collectively rallying round to protect the Jews in their midst, thanks to an extreme cultural case of Sacred Hospitality. Only one Jewish family was found and deported, and Albania was unique in Europe in ending the war with more Jews than it started with. It is for this reason that almost all Muslims that have been recognized as Righteous Among The Nations were Albanians.
After the war, Communist partisans under Enver Hoxha (pronounced "Hod-jah") took over and Albania became part of Commie Land, though Hoxha's regime wasn't part of the Warsaw Pact - they thought the Soviets were too soft, and aligned themselves with Mao's China instead. At least until they decided the Chinese had gone soft as well and decided to go it alone. Albania became the most isolated and secretive nation in Europe, a sort of European North Korea, until Hole in Flag and the revolutions that swept Europe in 1989-91.
Recently in the UK Albania has become known for a Germans Love David Hasselhoff-type fondness for Norman Wisdom films. This is because they were some of the few Western media allowed in the country under Communism, because Norman Wisdom tended to play cheeky working class characters who stuck it to The Man.
The new, democratic Albania has had its problems, too. Decades of isolation and poverty have wreaked havoc on its infrastructure and economy, especially in 1997 when pretty much the entire country fell for some spectacular pyramid schemes and the end result was rioting in the streets and UN intervention.
Those Albanians left outside the state caused plenty of problems too, but you probably knew that.
One of the few countries wholly located in Europe with a Muslim-majority population, alongside Bosnia and the still-contested Kosovo, though in practice it's more like Informed Islam more than anything, and out of all three is definitely the least religious of them all. Seriously, Hoxha's regime is infamous among the Eastern Bloc for overdoing the whole atheism thing. The religion only really survives to this day as a Nostalgia Filter, like for example in personal names. Surprisingly, the religious life is quite a bit more vibrant in the Christian side, particularly the Catholic branch (having the Catholic Skanderbeg and Mother Teresa as national icons helps).
Albania provides examples of:
- Commie Land: Yep. For bonus points, it had quite possibly the worst regime of any Eastern Bloc nation; it broke off relations with Yugoslavia, then the Warsaw Pact, then China, maintaining a dictatorship comparable to that of North Korea until the Great Politics Mess Up. Of noteworthy is that Albania was the last in Europe to experience the aforementioned mess-up; it didn't occur until 1992, almost a full three years after many others did.
- Proud Warrior Race Guys: Good lord, the Albanians. The ethical code of the nation, the Kanun, dictates rules of, among other things, honor killings. It's Serious Business for those who adhere to it, and breaking it is very unfortunate indeed. Not to mention, clanship is still the rule of law in the border with Kosovo/Serbia, where there is little to no governmental supervision. This obviously doesn't help matters in the media, where the Albanians are only depicted as one of either two kinds of people: communist spies, or warlike tribes. The Kanun is adhered by people of all main religions: Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Muslims.
- Riddle for the Ages: The Origin of the Albanians. There's a whole article dedicated to it in Wikipedia. Theories include a tribe descended from the Paleo-Balkan peoples, more specifically the Illyrians (probable), a wandering nation Indo-Europeanized (also probable, though to what extent is unclear), or an ancient precursor of the Greeks (least probable, and the Greeks would probably kill you for stating this).
- Ruritania: Small, located in the Balkans, inhabited by superstitious peasants, occupied by Axis powers, fell under Communist influence, and is currently trying to catch-up with the economy? Yeah.
- James and John Belushi were of Albanian descent.
- Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, better known to the world as Mother Teresa of Calcutta. Tirana's airport is named after her. Rather interestingly, she was actually born in Skopje, in what is now Macedonia.note
- Eliza Dushku, she of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Dollhouse fame, is of Albanian descent on her father's side and has the country's symbolic eagle tattooed on the back of her neck. She visited her father's family there in 2006, after being invited by the prime minister. Her second visit in 2011 saw her become an Albanian citizen, while also getting honorary citizenship of Tirana and Korçë, her father's hometown.
- Masiela Lusha, known for her poetry and television appearances (most famously on George Lopez) is of Albanian descent.
- George Kastrioti also known as Skanderbeg
- Nora of Kelmendi, a semi-fictional folk heroine.
Albania in fiction
- The Great Warrior Skanderbeg - A biopic revolving around the hero of the same name.
- For Your Eyes Only - The famous scene with the pistachio shells in the warehouse was set in Albania.
- Wag the Dog, in which a Washington spin doctor devises a fictional war in Albania to boost polls - released just as Albania imploded in the mid-90s.
- Taken - The slave traders who capture the main character's daughter and friend are Albanian.
- The Long Dark Teatime Of The Soul - Kate at one point wonders about a lorry, in point trying to think of if it came from here. Turns out it's more carrying a cargo from the northern part of Europe...
- Harry Potter mentions Albania from time to time that it's a Chekhov's Boomerang. Voldemort spent over a decade hiding in Albanian forest after his first downfall, it's the country where Bertha Jorkins visits her family and gets herself killed so Voldemort could turn Nagini into a horcrux, and, in the final book, is the place where Voldemort found the Ravenclaw Diadem, left there by her daughter Helena, which he also turned into a horcrux by killing an Albanian Muggle. Must be noted that Albania does not have too many forests, they cut them all down (of course this could be a magical forest which is invisible to Muggles).
- The Heroes of Olympus - Nico mentions in The Blood of Olympus that something happens here shortly before he, Reyna, and Hedge teleports to Pompeii, possibly Reyna's "most humiliating incident in her long career". "Whatever happened in Albania would "stay" in Albania".
- Frank Castle goes up against the Albanian mafia's sex slave trafficking operation in Punisher: Slavers.
- The Simpsons once took in an Albanian exchange student. Unsurprisingly, he turned out to be a communist spy.
- In Casino Royale the Big Bad was to be made Albanian but it was dropped soon because of the complaints.
- Albanian gangsters show up in Grand Theft Auto IV.
- A major oil refinery is located in Vlorë in EndWar and is a possible battlefield which is, like Albania and the rest of the Balkan peninsula (Greece, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, etc.), under Russian control by 2020, when World War III starts.
- Daredevil Season 3 features the Albanian Syndicate as secondary antagonists.
The Albanian flag