Officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina), Argentina has a wide range of ecosystems and biomes, ranging from deserts to mountains, forests, jungles and glaciers (as exemplified by National Parks like "Nahuel Huapi", "Los Glaciares", "Iguazú" and "Perito Moreno" among several others). Argentina has the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere, Aconcagua at 6959 mnote . At the same time, Argentina is also home to the Western Hemisphere's lowest depression, Laguna del Carbón at 105 m below sea level.note Its northern boundaries have the hot tropical weather of Bolivia and Brazil, giving (in the jungles to the east) nest to fauna like monkeys, tapirs and jaguars; while in the west the desert-like mountains are the habitat of pumas, llamas and condors. Meanwhile, in its southern lands (more than 5000 km south) the ice-cold temperature that anticipates Antarctica is the habitat (in the western mountains) of foxes, deer and maras; while in the Atlantic coast there are penguins, whales and sea lions.
Argentina has quite the sights, like the forests and lakes lying along the Andes mountain range, and also some of the most important places for scientific research, like Valle de la Luna, an area which due to geological quirks over million years has soils from different historical times placed in rows. In fact in Paleontology, it is said there are two top-places in the world: one is China, and the other is Argentina.
Argentina was scarcely populated during the pre-Columbian times, with just nomadic tribes. The Spanish empire sent several colonization waves, that established many cities. The Portuguese empire was forced by the Treaty of Tordesillas to stay at the east of South America; the land of modern Uruguay was near the limits and became a frequent cause of conflict between both. The country declared its independence during the Spanish American Wars of Independence, but then fell into a Civil War about the way to organize the country. There was a huge immigration wave from Europe and by the end of the XIX century and the beginings of the XX century it was on its way to become a world power. However, several factors undermined this, such as several military coups, populist leaders and a reckless managment of the economy that caused frequent economic crises even to this day.
The country's government consists of three branches, the legislative branch, the judicial branch, and the executive branch.
Argentina's Great Writer is generally agreed to be Jorge Luis Borges, one of the best and most influential practitioners of the Mind Screw. Not to mention that most of Argentina's other great writers were also good friends of his. Among these were Adolfo Bioy Casares, Ernesto Sabato (some of his conversations with Borges were put together and published in 1976), Silvina Ocampo, and though not a friend of his, Julio Cortázar, author of the postmodern Hopscotch, has stated that Borges was a source of inspiration for his stories, most of which brimming with Magic Realism. In regards to Comic Books, Quino's Mafalda and Oesterheld's El Eternauta are easily the most influential to come out of the country.
Talking about the music, Argentina's most famous cultural innovation is the tango. Originating from the dock areas and brothels of Buenos Aires, it has become a global dance.
In Argentina depictions, if there isn't a couple dressed in elegant suits dancing to tango, then maybe it is shown a Gaucho from the rural countryside, perhaps playing its vigüelanote near a fogónnote with its fellow Gauchos, singing proudly about their life in las pampasnote , or lamenting over their unfortunate lives... it is all part of Argentine folklore.
Argentine folk music is very, very diverse: music from the north-western provinces usually are carnavalitos or other music styles like those also found in Bolivia and Peru, and are played with traditional instruments like bombos, flutes and charangos. Meanwhile those in north-eastern provinces have styles like chamamé shared with Paraguay, usually played with violins, guitars and harps. Folk styles in the Patagonian and western provinces usually are shared with Chile; and many styles from the llanura pampeana associated with the Gauchos like milonga and chacarera have relatives in Uruguay.
Classical music in Argentina is also eminent, with some people like Daniel Baremboim even making an orchestra with Israeli and Palestinian people, for the sake of peace.
But if we are talking about Argentina's music, its most telling is ROCK NACIONAL!note With a history spanning decades, Argentine rock (or rock nacional, as it is called inside the country) was one of the first not being sung in English language, a complete novelty at that moment with uncertain results, and it became the first non English language form of rock to be comercially sucessful, having revolutionized the hell of Latin America countries music with the Argentine invasion in the '80s. Some rock historians place Argentine rock in 3rd place after American and British rock, for the mark it left in the history of world's music changing it all in all the countries in the continent, even giving birth in some of that countries to their local form of rock. There are so many Argentine rock bands that rocked the hell out, that it is impossible to not forget one: Soda Stereo, Rata Blanca, Los Gatos, Almendra, Vox Dei, Sui Generis, Aquelarre, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Seru Giran, Virus, Patricio Rey y Sus Redonditos de Ricota, Riff, V8, Almafuerte, Los Enanitos Verdes, Sumo, Divididos, Las Pelotas, Ataque 77, Flema, Dos Minutos, Embajada Boliviana, Fun People, El Otro Yo, Babasonicos, Los Piojos, Los Ratones Paranoicos, La Renga, Las Pastillas del Abuelo, Bersuit Bergarabat, Catupecu Machu, Arbol...
After finding its first ever big sell in the form of Los Gatos' La Balsa, Argentine rock took an evolution to more psychedelic, experimental and progressive styles, and a more aggresive, protest-song style in their lyrics, eventually gaining the antipathy of the military dictatorship and leading to a bitter feud that brought Argentine Rock to agony. It was however the Guerra de Malvinas that was used by the militars to boost national pride and so prohibited broadcast of songs in English language and instead promoted their old enemies, the pelilargos y melenudosnote , effectively revitalizing Argentine rock. After the loss of the war and the falling of the military dictatorship, Argentine rock moved on and influenced itself with the new wave and synthpop that was raging in the US and UK, and took a twist to a more laid back and dancing style that consequently conquered all Latin America. While with the advent in the '90s of the rock barrialnote and rock rolinganote Argentine rock forgot what put itself in the frontline of music in Latin America, and lost terrain at the hands of Mexican and Chilean rock, there is always an Argentine rock band in the top of the charts in Latin American countries, and so, rock nacional will never cease to exist.
Completing the music scene in Argentina, cuarteto and cumbia are two major players in the provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe respectively. The later also gave birth to a local style named cumbia villeranote in the poor neighborhoods named villas miseria (like the brazilian favelas, only on a much smaller scale) where they started to sing about what was happening in their crapsack world of the Argentina that would eventually lead to the 2001 crisis, it all started in 1999 with the band Flor de Piedra's song "Sos botón". Ever since, the cumbia villera lyrics constantly shocked the lower-class disdaining Argentine society. Of course, among the lower class, cumbia villera is defended as a way of expression.
Acting wise, the country has produced Guillermo Francella, Adrian Suar, Norma Aleandro, Rodolfo Ranni, Leticia Bredicce, the late Alberto Olmedo, Jorge Porcel, Emilio Disi and Ricardo Darín. Comedy groups like Les Luthiers, with more than 40 years on stage, have made a name of themselves in all Spanish-speaking countries, even winning awards in Spain. In the last decades however, the media has been crowded with quarrel-loving scantly-clad vedettes, actresses and fashion models, with TV shows like those of host Marcelo Tinelli's Video Match and Bailando Por Un Sueño making an industry out of this. It is worth noting that Moral Guardians are really weak and almost absent in Argentina, for they are relationed with the right-wing that supported the military dictatorship, and so Argentine audience evolved to be very laid back about sexual themes (a trait shared with, and maybe due to proximity influence from, Brazil). Nowadays everybody is alright if an actress pole-dances in a thong on TV, usually achieving the highest ratings as a result...
The country is known for its meal, and the parrillas (Argentinian grills, commonly known around the world as steak restaurants) are commonplace. One traditional way of preserving the beef for export was to pack it in coarse-grained salt, known as "corns" of salt, hence "Corned Beef". Which means very different things in Britain and America. Argentine cuisine is very rich, ranging recipes from a wide range of origins: from the Native times came corn omelettes, the mate drink and roasted fishes like the surubí; in colonial times locro (a bean stew), empanadas and asados (a traditional type of barbeque) were added; later the immigration waves brought pastas, "helados" note (recognized and paired in quality with Italian gelatos) fatay or Empanada árabe (arabic "empanada"), and choripanes note ; currently a wide variety of oriental cuisine note , and the fusion of them all made the Argentine cuisine.
And just for you to know, this is not the only place where Nazis escaped to after WWII, and its far more exaggerated in the media than what it actually occurred. Also, Villa Gesell has no mountains, despite how X-Men: First Class might have depicted it. It's a seaside city in the east of Buenos Aires, while the big mountains are located in the west of the country, in the Andes range.
Works created in Argentina
Tropes associated with Argentina
- Pre-Columbian Civilizations
- Spanish American Wars of Independence
- Argentine Civil War
- War of the Triple Alliance
- Juan Domingo Perón
- National Reorganization Process
- The Falklands War
The Argentine flag
The Argentine national anthem
- Federal presidential constitutional republic
- President: Alberto Fernández
- Vice President: Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
- Chief of the Cabinet of Ministers: Santiago Cafiero
- President of the Chamber of Deputies: Sergio Massa
- President of Supreme Court: Carlos Rosenkrantz
- Capital and largest city: Buenos Aires
- Population: 44,938,712
- Area: 2,780,400 km² (1,073,500 sq mi) (8th)
- Currency: Argentine peso ($) (ARS)
- ISO-3166-1 Code: AR