What is Jazz? Here are some (attributed) answers from the best and most influential Jazz musicians of all time:
OK, OK, that probably didn't help much, but in our defense, defining jazz really is hard. (Just look at what The Other Wiki has to say about that!) So maybe we can just stick with the following: At its heart, jazz is about spontaneity. That usually means improvising, the art of playing (to a greater or lesser extent) without a script and being free to play whatever you like, sometimes without even confines of traditional music structure (which is what Free Jazz is all about).
Jazz started out in the United States in the beginning of the 20th century as 'black music' and is closely related to Blues, to the extent that many famous jazz compositions can be considered Blues pieces. Since then, there have been different forms of jazz, listed roughly in historical order: New Orleans, Swing/Big Band, Bebop, Cool, Modal, Free Jazz, Fusion, Nu Jazz... and this is a very incomplete list.
Jazz itself probably started out in a small band format in many different cities throughout the US, most famously New Orleans. It became the most popular type of music in the US in its Big Band format (10-30 musicians) during the Twenties to Forties. Then it evolved into a multitude of different styles, pretty much all of which were played by small bands (duos to octets), starting out with Bebop. The emphasis also changed back to playing more in jazz clubs and having fewer concerts (with some important exceptions, such as the Newport Jazz Festival). The ascension of pop music and Rock & Roll in The '50s led to the fading of jazz's popularity. Jazz today has, for the most part, a sizable but 'cult' following. Somewhat amusingly (and probably shockingly to the original founders of the genre), jazz has become "respectable" music thanks to the development of technical artistry; jazz is now taught alongside Classical Music in many university music departments across the US—unheard-of for any other genre.
Jazz has left a deep impression in music. Improvised and/or extended solos are the primary example of this. Jazz also contributed to the development of musical instruments, most famously the modern drum set, which was largely developed by early jazz musicians.
Jazz is one of the most unique cultural contributions that the United States brought to the world, along with Rock & Roll.
Finally, a note on the name: there are many, many, many ideas for where and how the word originated.
Notable jazz artists include (note, some of these musicians belong in multiple categories!):
Big Band Era
- Jelly Roll Morton: New Orleans-style jazz pianist and the genre's first great composer. Also an inveterate braggart who claimed to have single-handedly invented jazz and a Boomerang Bigot who frequently insulted darker-skinned musicians while emphasizing the white portion of his mixed-race heritage.
- Buddy Bolden: New Orleans cornet player, often regarded as one of the most important pioneers of jazz, but whose reputation is based entirely on verbal testimony because he never got to record anything: he suffered a psychotic breakdown in 1907 and spent the rest of his life in a mental institution, and the first jazz recordings weren't made until ten years later.
- Dominic 'Nick' LaRocca: A highly controversial figure in jazz history, cornet player LaRocca was the leader of the Original Dixieland Jass Band. He's probably the first jazz musician who was ever recorded, and the first to outsell John Philip Sousa, who had the best-selling artist in America at the beginning of the twentieth century. At the same time, he was notorious for claiming that jazz was exclusively an invention of white musicians and trying to bribe other trumpeters to leave New Orleans so he could be the best in the city.
- Paul Whiteman: Known to the public as the "King of Jazz" — mainly because that's what he called himself — Whiteman was one of the first white bandleaders, and helped to bring jazz to mainstream attention. Having been trained as a classical violinist, he received some criticism from other classical musicians for "playing below himself", while some black musicians felt he was becoming famous by copying their style. Nonetheless, he helped to introduce the style to white audiences and did his best to give credit to black musicians whenever he could. His influence on later jazz is negligible, mainly because he thought jazz would be a lot better if you took out all that pesky improvisation.note
- Louis Armstrong: The true king of jazz, if ever there was one. A trumpet and cornet player who had a fifty-year career. To say that Armstrong had an influence on later jazz is like saying that Moses had an influence on Judaism. He is considered the codifier of many basic elements of jazz, including scat singing but chiefly improvisation: he's the first great jazz soloist to have been recorded. His later records aren't really jazz but are still highly enjoyable; his recordings from the late 1920s, made when he was already a veteran musician in his own late twenties, are essential listening.
- The Complete Hot Five and Hot Seven Recordings (recorded between 1925 and 1928, but the CD release is from 2000.)
- Duke Ellington: The greatest composer and bandleader in jazz, although he claimed to dislike the J-word and preferred to have his music described as "music". His outstanding compositions notwithstanding, he was equally influential as a bandleader for the way that he encouraged others (such as Billy Strayhorn) to write classic compositions for his band, and fostered more than one generation of great players (Jimmy Blanton, Ben Webster, Johnny Hodges, Paul Gonsalves).note Also a damn fine pianist who more than held his own on a trio session with bebop pioneers Charles Mingus and Max Roach, and possibly the only jazz musician who could have been equally at ease playing with both Louis Armstrong and John Coltrane, although not on the same date, alas. Miles Davis, his only rival for the post of Greatest Bandleader Ever, said that jazz musicians should get down on their knees every day and thank Duke for what he did for music.
- Johnny Hodges: Longtime Ellington band member and virtuoso saxophonist who may as well be the Trope Codifier for the Sexophone. Hodges had a long career both as part of Ellington's band, running his own big band, and as a solo artist.
- Count Basie: Jazz composer and bandleader (and pianist as well) at the same time as Ellington, Basie's unique styles mark him solidly as a quintessential Big Band leader, along with Ellington. Developing his style with a number of orchestras, Basie specialised in riff-based jazz, which is Exactly What It Says on the Tin.
- Benny Goodman: A classically trained clarinet player known as the "King of Swing", Goodman was responsible for helping to bring hot swing which focused on improvisation into the mainstream in the 1930s, and made an effort to employ black musicians at a time when the music industry was segregated; in so doing he kickstarted the careers of important musicians such as Lionel Hampton and Charlie Christian. Also a notorious martinet to his musicians, famous for his Death Glare when they did anything he didn't like, which was known as "The Ray".note
- Fats Waller: Fine pianist and singer but chiefly memorable for writing great songs, some of which ("Honeysuckle Rose", "Ain't Misbehavin'") are so standard it's almost ridiculous.
- Coleman Hawkins (nicknamed "The Hawk" and "Bean"): Huge-toned tenor saxophonist from Missouri. The first great player of what's become perhaps the signature jazz instrument, the tenor sax; a player of amazing power and finesse, whose explorations in harmony are not just a precursor of bebop but also exciting in themselves. His 1939 recording of "Body and Soul" was notable in that he barely bothered to state the tune at all, but went straight into improvising; in 1948 he released "Picasso", an unaccompanied sax solo. Universally recognised as a grandfather of bebop; made recordings in later life with Sonny Rollins and John Coltrane. Miles Davis said listening to the Hawk taught him how to play ballads.
- Lester Young (nicknamed "Pres"note ): Tenor sax player from Mississippi who came to prominence in Count Basie's band. In many ways the Foil to Coleman Hawkins; his laid-back, intimate, waaaay-behind-the-beat style was the opposite of Hawkins's driving energy, and was so hugely influential that he is pretty much responsible for the trope of romantic saxophone music. A close friend and frequent collaborator of Billie Holiday. Shy and introverted, he was jazz's great Bunny-Ears Lawyer, inventing his own version of hipster slang.note After a disastrous period of Army service during WW2 he went from being a heavy drinker to a problem drinker, and he died of liver disease aged only 49. Famed for his rumpled sense of style and Cool Hat, which gave its name to Charles Mingus's elegy for him, "Goodbye Pork Pie Hat".
- Charlie Christian: Oklahoman guitarist, the first great electric guitarist in jazz, not just because of his fleetness as an improviser but because he recognised that amplification took the guitar from being a barely-audible part of the rhythm section and stuck it out front, making him one of the most influential guitarists of all time. Was the best thing in Benny Goodman's band, while he was in it; also helped create bebop by hanging out in clubs and jamming with musicians such as drummer Kenny Clarke. Died of TB aged 25.
- Art Tatum: An almost completely blind jazz pianist, whose technique is something that, that, ... Just see for yourself. No wonder too, as (so legend goes) he learned to play by repeating the movements on a autopiano... which played pieces for four hands! Playing his material is a truly monumental achievement even to this day.
- Chano Pozo: A short-lived but highly influential Afro-Cuban percussionist best known for his work in Dizzy Gillespie's various outfits, where he played a crucial role in the establishment of Latin jazz. A heavy drinker and brawler, he was shot dead at the age of 33; while there are multiple stories about why he was killed, the prevailing one is that he threatened a drug dealer who he thought had ripped him off.
- Bix Beiderbecke: A celebrated cornetist whose playing foreshadowed cool jazz and bebop. He played with a number of groups, recorded prolifically and was said to be Louis Armstrong's only true equal as a horn player before dying at a young age.
- Django Reinhardt: The first non-American jazz innovator, and one of the most influential guitar players of the 20th century. With the Quartette/Quintette du Hot Club du France, he replicated swing with an all-string ensemble, and, by combining this with some influences from Roma music (Reinhardt being Roma), created the sub-genre known as Gypsy Jazz (or Hot Club Jazz). He did all this in spite of the fact that his left hand (i.e. his fretting hand) had been badly burned in a caravan accident when he was a teenager, so that only two of his fingers on that hand worked properly. Most guitarists even today can't play like Django with four working fingers and a thumb, making him jazz's supreme Handicapped Badass.
- The Andrews Sisters: While they were actually a singing trio, they worked with many bands during WWII.
- Ella Fitzgerald: One of the most well-known jazz vocalists of all time, her range, accuracy, sense of swing, and the cheerful quality of her voice led many to consider her one of the greatest singers of the 20th century, period. Expect Vocal Dissonance (Sorry Ella). She was the singer in Chick Webb's orchestra and took over as leader after his death. After the swing era came to a close she remained popular and pioneered singing in a bop style.
- Cab Calloway: One of the other Trope Codifiers of scat singing, like Louis Armstrong. He was one of the first African-American performers to make it big, performing alongside Al Jolson at one point. He was also known for his dance moves, and brought jazz to a wider audience by appearing in Betty Boop cartoons. In his seventies, he acquired a whole new bunch of fans with his performance as Curtis, the janitor/mentor figure in The Blues Brothers.
- Glenn Miller: One of the most popular band leaders, he led his orchestra as one of the biggest record sellers from 1939 to his (literal) dissappearance in late 1944. His greatest hit was "In The Mood", not counting his work with the Andrews Sisters. Expect one of his pieces in any WWII setting. Generally regarded by jazz fans as not really a jazz musician, because his signature style of arranging left very little room for improvisation, but he doesn't really belong anywhere else.
- Billie Holiday: Also known as "Lady Day", probably the most famous jazz and blues vocalists of all time. Much emulated, her tragic life is as well known as her talent. Mostly known for her later work, when her voice had a hoarse and cracked quality that was very moving, although this is a pity, because her earlier work for Columbia (when her voice was in perfect shape) is as good if not better. She is often depicted in media, and even has a cult classic biopic starring Diana Ross. "Strange Fruit" by Abel Meeropol, her signature song, brought attention to the lynchings of blacks in the Deep South, and was voted by Time Magazine as the greatest song of the 20th century.
- Lady in Satin (1958)
Bebop, Cool and Modal
- Chet Baker: cool jazz trumpeter, famously handsome as a young man, who was also a lovely singer; beloved for his intimate way with a ballad but also a notorious junkie whose addiction to heroin seriously messed with his career for most of his life.
- Art Blakey: Brilliant drummer and bandleader whose band, the Jazz Messengers, created almost as many big names as Coltrane's various lineups. The Jazz Messengers' style of hard bop is one of the most important codifiers of mainstream jazz, but they were also one of the most sheerly exciting bands to listen to.
- The Dave Brubeck Quartet: Redefined what could be done with bebop, bringing odd time signatures and classical influences with such oddly-timed instant classics as "Take Five," "Blue Rondo a la Turk" and "Unsquare Dance"; pianist Brubeck was the second jazzman, after Louis Armstrong, to be featured on the cover of Time magazine, although it's much to his credit that he would have preferred Duke Ellington to have that honor instead, and felt he himself was honored because he was white.note They were also one of the first well-known integrated jazz bands — three white men and one black — and were known for refusing to play gigs in places where their bassist Eugene Wright would be discriminated against. The Brubeck quartet gained a sizable following in the late 1950s through their concerts at university campuses, and were one of the first musical acts in any genre to make college shows a regular part of their touring schedule.
- John Coltrane: Master saxophonist and spiritual thinker who went from being a sideman for Miles Davis to leading his own quartet, in which he blew jazz open with a revolutionary approach to composition and improvisation: his compositions became more and more complex to the point that only he could play them absolutely fluently, at which point he drastically simplified them, helping to codify Modal Jazz in the process. Extremely divisive in his day, with some critics thinking he was just going too far: now universally acknowledged to be one of the greats. Went on to be one of the codifiers of free jazz.
- Miles Davis: Jazz trumpeter and bandleader who started in bebop, went on to pioneer multiple styles of jazz (Modal Jazz, Cool Jazz, and Fusion, among others). His 1959 album Kind of Blue is the best selling jazz album in history, with 1970's Bitches Brew not far behind. Many great jazz musicians, from the 50's to the 70's and beyond went through his band for at least a short time. Famous for constantly reinventing his music, and for his signature style of slow, melancholy playing.
- Bill Evans: Considered one of the most influential jazz pianists of all time. Eschewed Tatum-style soloing for a more collective approach, choosing languid, breezy sound colors. His short-lived trio with bassist Scott LaFaro and drummer Paul Motian was one of the most influential bands in jazz, even though it only lasted from 1959 to 1961.note The jazz ballad, "Waltz for Debby", became an international hit, and a jazz standard. Lyrics have been added to the piece in many different languages.
- John Birks 'Dizzy' Gillespie: Trumpet player and singer from North Carolina, probably the most virtuosic trumpeter in jazz history, known for his brilliant and powerful tone and terrifying speed; Miles Davis devised his own style of playing trumpet precisely because he couldn't play like Gillespie. One of the founding fathers of bebop, wrote many important compositions and also brought Afro-Cuban influences into jazznote . Famous for his ebullient and often comic onstage persona, which has harmed his reputation among people who think jazz musicians should never smile; also for his peculiar habit of inflating his cheeks while playing, and for his strangely-shaped trumpet. His tireless gigging and infectious enthusiasm probably did more than anyone else to popularise bebop and establish it as the foundation of mainstream jazz.
- Dexter Gordon: A Tenor Sax phenom who helped spread bebop to other instruments. Famously eccentric; his interviews are trainwrecks. At the end of his life, gave a lovely performance as an ailing jazzman (which he was at the time) in Bertrand Tavernier's 1986 film Round Midnight.
- Vince Guaraldi: A famous jazz pianist who is most famous for his scores for the early Peanuts animated specials. For instance, his A Charlie Brown Christmas soundtrack has become a perennial holiday classic and many kids' first introduction to jazz. Despite his fame for the Peanuts score, his style was heavily influenced by Afro-Cuban Jazz and Brazilian music. Before he died, his later Peanuts scores experimented with harpsichord, Hammond organ, hard bop, fusion, and funk.
- Charles Mingus: Double bass player, composer and bandleader, the angry man of jazz, absolutely brilliant and over-opinionated in every place that counted. Known for taking pot shots at other jazz musicians, being an outspoken social activist, inspiring The Who to trash their instruments on stage, and writing a guide for how to toilet-train cats. Also one of the great jazz composers after Duke Ellington (who he cited as a major influence), writing longer, more complex compositions that seamlessly brought together blues and more avant-garde influences (as a teenager growing up in Watts, Los Angeles, he studied Schoenberg and Stravinsky alongside Ellington) in addition to more conventional jazz "tunes" based on 16- or 32-bar progressions. He was the first jazz musician to have his entire (gigantic) catalog acquired by the Library of Congress.
- Mingus Ah Um (1959)
- Thelonious Monk: Bebop's greatest composer and one of its founding geniuses; almost single-handedly defined its style with his jagged, quirky, exhilarating compositions, almost all of which have become standards. Became known for his odd onstage antics, his collection of unusual hats and his idiosyncratic style of piano playing — you have to be a really good musician to play so apparently haphazardly and still make it come out exactly right. One commentator said that Monk's compositions were like buildings which had been constructed, then decorated, and then everything had been taken away except the decoration, which was somehow still strong enough to keep the building up.
- Brilliant Corners (1957)
- Rahsaan Roland Kirk: The blind jazz multi-instrumentalist who played more instruments than one can count - often at the same time, which may be what he's most famous for. Also known for his virtuosic playing ability, improvisation, wild stage presence, DIY instruments, and outspoken politics.
- Charlie Parker: Kansas City alto saxophonist, composer and bandleader whose virtuoso approaches to rhythm, harmony, and tempo laid the foundations of Bebop and revolutionized jazz (and music itself!) like few others. Famous for his blisteringly aggressive tone, which was the result of constant practice; playing in a KC jam session as a teenager, he lost his way during a solo and was publicly humiliated, making him vow that they'd never catch him out again.note Friend and occasional co-leader with Dizzy Gillespie. A big eater, a big drinker and a big drug user, he was dead by 34 but jazz was never the same again. Clint Eastwood's Bird is a careful, reverential and misleadingly depressing biopic of Parker; he had his demons, to be sure, most of the time, he was swaggeringly confident, charming and mischievous, much like his music.
- Joe Pass: one of the most influential guitarists of bebop.
- Oscar Peterson: A Canadian jazz piano legend who was and still is often compared to Art Tatum in terms of virtuosity; indeed, Tatum was a major influence, but Oscar's style was more contemporary to the early bebop era of the mid 1940's (as opposed to the swing era of the 30's) while maintaining some of the more melodic idioms of swing as well as incredible ballad and blues playing. Criticised occasionally for his slightly formulaic approach, but one of the giants of Canadian jazz.
- Bud Powell: Pioneering bebop pianist and composer; with Parker and Gillespie, one of the great virtuosos of bebop. Liked to point out that, unlike horn players, pianists didn't need to take breaths, and so could play longer lines, which he did. Compositions tend to be high-energy and harmonically very sophisticated, requiring a high level of schooling to even understand, let alone play. Regarded by later players such as Barry Harris as one of the motherlodes of jazz piano. Unfortunately, a combination of drugs, alcohol and a police-inflicted head injury caused him to have a Creator Breakdown, and he was seldom the same afterwards.
- Sonny Rollins: Pioneering saxophonist whose career is one of the longest and most influential in jazz history, starting from the late 40s to this very day. Helped codify hard bop when barely out of his teens; was a junkie and convicted armed robber by his mid-20s; then inspiringly cleaned himself up and released a string of albums that earn him the status as John Coltrane's main rival. Noted for his thoughtful, angular phrasing and interest in Afro-Caribbean music, as well as pioneering the sax/bass/drums trio format, and for his occasional sabbaticals in which he stops playing in public for a couple of years and rethinks everything (most famously, he disappeared from 1959-61, until a journalist discovered he was playing on the Williamsburg Bridge every night). Appeared on The Simpsons in 2013 (where he was the inspiration for Bleeding Gums Murphy's habit of playing on bridges). Still playing in his mid-80s.
- Wayne Shorter: A master saxophonist and great composer who was a member of one of Miles Davis' most brilliant groups, the so-called Second Great Quintet (1964-68), whose Live at the Plugged Nickel is one of the foundational texts of mainstream jazz. Later went on to co-found the seminal jazz-rock band Weather Report and is still touring in his early 80s.
- Jimmy Smith: A jazz organist with a half-century recording career, Smith helped popularize the Hammond B-3 electric organ.
- Home Cookin' (1959)
- Tony Williams: Drumming prodigy who joined Miles Davis's band at the age of 17, went on to play avant-garde jazz, and with guitarist John McLaughlin and organist Larry Young he helped to invent jazz-rock with his band the Tony Williams Lifetime.
Free Jazz and Contemporary Jazz
- Derek Bailey: English guitarist, impresario, writer and record label owner. Born in Sheffield, arguably indirectly responsible for prompting more YouTube trolling than any other improvising musician. Was a Charlie Christian fan and Royal Navy bandsman who became a professional musician after leaving the service; worked as a top UK session man in the 50s and 60s before encountering free improvisation, whereupon he broke down his playing style and adopted a new one derived partly from his love of 20th century classical music, especially Anton Webern: splintered, dissonant, lots of artifical harmonics and note clusters, all based in absolutely rock-solid technique, but creating the impression in the minds of some people unfamiliar with atonal music that he was just plinking and bashing at random, hence the trolling. Insisted that what he played was not jazz, but free improvisation. Played with everybody on the improv scene from the late 60s to his death in 2005; wrote a brilliant book on improvisation (called Improvisation); a dry, sceptical, funny presence. In later years, revisited his roots with gorgeous albums of his unique, spiky takes on standard tunes. Could also shred.
- Steve Bailey: South Carolinian bassist, and probably one of the most famous fretless players outside of Jaco Pastorius and Jack Bruce and certainly one of the most famous six-string bassists in any genre. Currently the Chair of the Bass Department at Berklee. No apparent relation to Derek.
- Peter Brötzmann: German free jazz saxophonist best known for his blistering 1968 album Machine Gun, which remains one of the most formidable albums in the jazz canon to this day. Occasional collaborator with Derek Bailey.
- Ornette Coleman: Texan saxophonist, composer and bandleader with a uniquely loose, exploratory approach to playing and composing. His third album The Shape of Jazz to Come rewrote the rules of jazz harmony and melody, but his 1960 album Free Jazz, which is Exactly What It Says on the Tin, pretty much tore the rules into shreds and flushed them down the drain. Coleman got heaped with more derision than almost any other musician of his generation, some of it coming from his own peers, but he persevered and became a beloved figure. One notable later album is his dizzying 1985 collaboration with guitarist Pat Metheny, Song X. Coleman tunes such as "Lonely Woman" and "Mob Job" have become standards. Winner of the 2007 Pulitzer Prize in Music.
- The Shape of Jazz to Come (1959)
- Alice Coltrane: Widow of the late John Coltrane (see Bebop, Cool, and Modal above) who became a respected bandleader in her own right in the wake of her husband's death, recording a string of critically acclaimed albums in the late '60s and early '70s such as Ptah, the El Daoud, Journey in Satchidananda, and World Galaxy. One of the few jazz musicians to play the harp; also played the piano and organ. Also brought an extensive Indian music influence into her work (which John had already been starting to explore on his last few albums). Collaborated with Carlos Santana, Rahsaan Roland Kirk, and others.
- Eric Dolphy: Gifted multi-instrumentalist, playing alto sax, flute and bass clarinet with equal facility. Influenced by hard bop, free jazz and also 20th century classical music such as Bartok and Stravinsky; played with Mingus and Coltrane and was equally at home with both. His style was notable for its use of wide intervals; he used to listen to birdsong and try to imitate it. Beloved by everyone who worked with him, apparently. Died young of an undiagnosed diabetic condition after collapsing onstage in Germany.
- Out to Lunch! (1964)
- Hadrien Feraud: French bassist who made waves in the jazz world as a promising young rising star when he was still a teenager. Known for his virtuosic playing and deep sense of groove, as well as his unorthodox and obscure cover choices when performing with bands.
- Jim Hall: Widely regarded as one of the great guitarists in jazz; avoided the general tendency among 50s jazz guitarists to be super-fast show-offs and instead developed a subtle, thoughtful and highly musical approach which was very influential, especially on later players such as Bill Frisell and Pat Metheny.
- Herbie Hancock: Seminal keyboardist who started in hard bop and has lasted through many shifts of style. Wrote three of modern jazz's standards — "Cantaloupe Island," "Dolphin Dance" and "Watermelon Man." His lineup on the Head Hunters album helped to create jazz fusion by adding funk influences into the mix. The first artist to have a jazz-hiphop crossover hit with "Rockit", memorable now for its Mind Screw of a video.
- Keith Jarrett: American pianist who started out playing with Art Blakey and who worked for a while with Miles Davis but who in the 1970s became famous for his extended, rapturous solo concerts in which he would improvise continually for over an hour, incorporating into jazz aspects of classical music, folk, blues, gospel and other genres. The most famous document of this is his classic 1975 album The Köln Concert, which has become the best-selling solo album in jazz history, and deservedly so, as it's both inspired and enormously listenable (provided you're willing to listen to one guy play improvised piano for an hour.) Has gone on to make other solo albums, many of them equally great if not as celebrated, some incorporating more classical influences; has also recorded classical works, and played in a trio format. Has suffered from ill health for years, notably chronic fatigue syndrome, which almost prevented him from playing music at all for a while; is also notably intolerant of audience noise, the point that cough drops are issued to his audiences. His dark skin and Afro-style hair have caused him to be frequently mistaken for an African-American, even by other African-American musicians such as Ornette Coleman, but he's actually of white ethnicity.
- Wynton Marsalis: New Orleans trumpet prodigy, probably the most famous and popular living jazz musician (together with Sonny Rollins), who plays a more "traditional" jazz, with heavy influences from anything up to the Bebop and Cool jazz era. Has recorded both jazz and classical works. Respected for his immaculate technique and his longterm campaign to make jazz be treated as America's classical music, but controversial for his sometimes strident rejection, especially during the 1980s, of anything he regarded as anti-jazz, e.g. post-1965 avant-garde jazz and anything resembling jazz-rock or fusion.note
- His similarly acclaimed brother Branford is much more open to new styles and experimentation - he played on a Public Enemy track and performed with The Grateful Dead, for starters. As Wynton has got older, he too has become much more broad-minded: he was performing Ornette Coleman's music as recently as 2004.
- The whole Marsalis family, really. Ellis, their father, is a pianist, and other brothers include Jason, a drummer and Delfeayo, a trombonist. They also play classical as well as jazz.
- Brad Mehldau: Floridian pianist who started out as a sideman but soon developed his own polyrhythmic style and made a series of albums in the 90s called The Art of the Trio in which he blended classical-derived technique with improvisation. Particularly known for his interpretations of rock songs: he is a big fan of Radiohead and has covered several of their songs, but he's also done his own highly creative versions of tracks by The Kinks, Stone Temple Pilots, The Verve, Pink Floyd, Massive Attack, Nirvana and The Beatles — and that's just on one album (the admittedly four-disc 10 Years Solo Live, which also had room for standards, Mehldau's own compositions and pieces by Johannes Brahms). Rather than just solo over reharmonised versions of popular songs, he tends to break down the song structure and come up with new variations on the spot; has been acclaimed as the first jazz musician to successfully incorporate post-The Beatles popular music into jazz. Had a drug problem in the 90s but successfully cleaned up. Very brainy, interested in philosophy and literature, used to get mocked for his literate, ruminative liner notes but has now become a bit of a Living Master. Most recently collaborated with bluegrass mandolinist Chris Thile.
- Pat Metheny: Missourian guitarist, composer and bandleader. Started out as a massive Wes Montgomery fan, but his own early stuff was in a fusion vein, and became enormously popular; he's one of the few jazz musicians who can sell out big venues. Famous for his big hair, enormous toothy smile, spacious and accessible compositions and remarkable willingness to try anything: collaborated with David Bowie on the soundtrack to the film The Falcon and the Snowman, and with Ornette Coleman on 1985's blistering Song X in the 1990s, released an album of solo skronk guitar that his fans hated, but which was praised by Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth, and also collaborated with English avant-guitar legend Derek Bailey on the album The Sign of Four. Despite all this, still regularly sells albums by the truckload.
- Wes Montgomery: One of the most influential jazz guitarists. Taught himself six-string guitar at the extremely late age of 20, although he'd played four-string guitar since 12; played with his thumb, a habit he picked up from practising late at night and not wanting to wake up his sleeping family, which gave him a huge warm tone. Released a string of fine albums between 1958 and 1965, but then largely abandoned jazz for pop-jazz, playing bland instrumental version of pop hits. Died of a heart attack aged 45. Revered by many guitarists, most notably Pat Metheny, who regards Montgomery's 1965 album Smokin' at the Half Note as the album that taught him how to play.
- The Rippingtons
- Pharoah Sanders (yes, Pharoah, not Pharaoh): American jazz saxophonist who worked with John Coltrane in the 1960s, famed for his overblowing, harmonic, and multiphonic techniques on the instrument, plus his use of Coltrane's technique of "sheets of sound". No less a source than Ornette Coleman described him as "probably the best tenor [saxophone] player in the world". Has recorded some 30 albums as leader, of which the most famous and renowned is undoubtedly 1969's Karma, which centres around the 32-minute epic "The Creator Has a Master Plan"; as such, he is considered one of the central figures in "spiritual jazz" and a Spiritual Successor to Coltrane. Has collaborated extensively with other musicians such as Leon Thomas, Alice Coltrane, Tisziji Muñoz, and Sonny Sharrock, among others.
- Sonny Sharrock: Jazz guitarist from Ossining, New York, who took jazz guitar in a completely different direction from the mainstream. Instead of turning down, rolling back the treble and playing intricate harmonies, he cranked up the volume, played mostly melody and experimented with pure noise and extended techniques, developing them independently of Jimi Hendrix, who was doing similar things but in a rock context. Said that he didn't consider himself a guitar player but a "horn player with a really fucked-up axe." Became visible in the 60s for his work as avant-guitarist in the band of jazz-fusion flautist Herbie Mann, and also played with one-time Coltrane sideman Pharoah Sanders; also did uncredited work on Miles Davis's Jack Johnson. Career slumped in the 70s, but bass player Bill Laswell coaxed him back into the scene and he released a series of increasingly brilliant, raging albums before dying in 1994 of a heart attack aged only 53.note One of his last recording projects was the theme music for Space Ghost Coast to Coast. There is now a street in his home town named Sonny Sharrock Way.
- Sun Ra: His birth certificate states that he was born Herman Blount in the early 20th century Birmingham, Alabama, but Sun Ra would maintain throughout much of his later life that he was in fact a native of a far away planet. As such, his eccentric worldview and lifestyle would often overshadowed his extremely extensive body of music, which ranges from bop, to free jazz, to doo-wop. His world view, a unique blend of black nationalism, science fiction, and magic realism, would prove to be extremely influential in both the musical and literary worlds.
- Marshall Allen: The Arkestra's longtime alto saxophonist, who eventually stepped up as the bandleader after the deaths of Sun Ra and John Gilmore. He continues to perform to this day as both a leader and sideman at the age of ninety-six.
- The Futuristic Sounds of Sun Ra (1961)
- Space Is The Place (1974)
- Hiromi Uehara: Japanese jazz pianist who originally studied classical piano before being exposed to jazz. Known for her great technical ability and musically eclectic yet cohesive compositions that seamlessly blend a wide variety of different genres.
- John Zorn: Eclectic and highly prolific saxophonist and composer, best known as the bandleader for the avant-garde klezmer/jazz group Masada and the multi-genre band Naked City. Founded the experimental jazz and improv label Tzadik Records. Impossible to pigeonhole, mostly active in jazz, though his gigantic catalogue has tried out various genres and styles throughout the years.
Latin Jazz A special subdivision of Latin American bandleaders who mixed jazz with influences from salsa, mambo, cha-cha-cha, son and other genres.
A special subdivision of jazz are crooners. Sometimes they aren't seen as part of jazz at all, because they just sing jazz standards and don't play instruments themselves. But they are often categorized and closely associated with the genre as such. Crooning was very dominant from the 1920s until the early 1960s, but then lost popularity thanks to the emerging rock and roll scene. Nevertheless several several singer-songwriters from the rock, soul and pop world have emerged to keep crooning alive.
- The Andrews Sisters
- Charles Aznavour
- Paul Anka
- Fred Astaire: In his movies.
- Tony Bennett
- Michael Bublé
- Nat King Cole: Started out as a brilliant jazz pianist in a trio with equally brilliant guitarist Oscar Moore and a succession of bass players. Achieved fame as a singer in the early 40s, but continued as a singer/piano player until well into the 50s, and went on working as an in-demand pianist long after he'd achieved fame as a singer. Worked himself to death (admittedly, the heavy smoking didn't help) in 1965.
- Perry Como
- Harry Connick, Jr.: Mostly known for his vocals, but also excellent on the piano. Extremely popular — as in, one of the top 60 best-selling male vocalists in the country. Notable for the Louisiana influence on his music. Also an actor, among other things.
- Bing Crosby
- Merry Christmas (1942)
- Jamie Cullum
- Bobby Darin
- Sammy Davis Jr.
- Paloma Faith
- Marianne Faithfull: From the late 1970s and 1980s on she reinvented herself as a jazz and blues singer.
- Engelbert Humperdinck
- Burl Ives
- Gene Kelly
- Barry Manilow
- Dean Martin
- Nellie McKay
- Bette Midler
- Scatman John: Was actually a jazz crooner and scat singer, before he managed to score a number one pop/rap hit single worldwide with "(I'm a) Scatman" (1995), four years before his death.
- Frank Sinatra: Again, not normally considered a jazz singer, but an enormous influence on jazz musicians for the intelligence of his phrasing and his commitment to the emotional content of a song. His 1946 recording of "Sweet Lorraine" with the Metronome All-Stars is basically a jazz supergroup: besides Sinatra on vocals, the band features Coleman Hawkins on tenor sax, Johnny Hodges on alto, Harry Carney on baritone sax, Nat King Cole on piano and Buddy Rich on drums.
- Barbra Streisand
- Salvador Sobral
- Mel Tormé
- Rudy Vallee
- Sarah Vaughan
- Tom Waits: Waits is a cross between jazz, blues and alternative rock. But his first six albums, all recorded under the Asylum label, breathe very much the atmosphere of a jazz crooner and pianist in a late night bar (which he actually was for his early Live Album Nighthawks at the Diner). He had a huge shift in style after his frequent collaborator and now-wife Kathleen Brennan introduced him to the work of Captain Beefheart, which has been a major influence on his work since The '80s. Noted for his extremely gravelly voice, which is commonly used as a reference point in popular culture.
- Dinah Washington
- Amy Winehouse
- Monica Zetterlund: A legendary Swedish jazz vocalist. She's most famous for singing jazz treatments of Swedish folk tunes and popular music. Her most famous recording internationally was the Swedish version of "A Waltz for Debby", "Monicas Vals", with the Bill Evans Trio.
Jazzrock/ Jazzpop/ Fusion/ Nu Jazz
Some rock, pop and electronica musicians have created recordings that fuse this music together with jazz influences.
- The Allman Brothers Band: To a certain extent. While they're generally thought of as the Southern Rock band, improvisation was a major element of their sound, and lead guitarist Duane Allman listed John Coltrane and Miles Davis as two of his biggest influences. Drummer Jai Johanny Johanson also had a background in jazz (in fact, he was the one who introduced Duane to Coltrane and Davis).
- Bohren & der Club of Gore: German jazz band who mixes ambient with metal.
- The Brand New Heavies: British group who pioneered a freewheeling genre called acid jazz, which mixed together jazz, R&B, soul, funk, electronic and psychedelic rock influences.
- Brand X: A jazz fusion group whose best known member was Phil Collins, although his participation dropped off once he became the lead singer of Genesis. The core members were also progressive rock veterans, John Goodsall (Atomic Rooster) and Percy Jones (Soft Machine), while the current lineup includes Kenny Grohowski of Imperial Triumphant, who are mentioned below.
- Caravan Palace, which mixes traditional gypsy-style jazz with Daft Punk-style house and techno.
- The Cat Empire: jazz/latin/ska/funk/soul/indie fusion band from Melbourne Australia with emphasis on the fusion aspect. They also throw in rock, reggae and hip-hop elements when it suits them.
- Chicago: Started out as examples of this and Progressive Rock; moved more towards pop later on.
- Chick Corea: A pianist who got his start in the late '60s as part of Miles Davis' band and gained fame in the '70s as the leader of the jazz fusion band Return to Forever. The group's mix of fusion, Latin jazz and prog rock made them popular with rock audiences, and they are regularly cited as an influence by later jazz rock bands. After Return to Forever split in 1977, Corea embarked on a solo career that has netted him over 20 Grammys.
- The Cinematic Orchestra: London-based collective that combine traditional jazz improvisation with elements of electronic music, particularly Trip Hop and downtempo. From Ma Fleur onwards, they also added elements of classical music into their sound.
- Cynic: Progressive metal/fusion act that started out as technical thrash before taking a softer, more adventurous turn that went on to heavily influence a wide variety of acts and later went in a more rock-oriented direction.
- Dave Matthews Band: Their page on This Very Wiki calls them a "rock/jazz/folk/pop/jam band"appropriately so, as the lineup that made them famous consisted of one jazz fan (Matthews), three jazz musicians, and one classically trained violinist.
- Jonah Dempcy (and his various pseudonyms): similar to the aforementioned St Germain, combines jazz with the various types of electronic music, creating an alternatingly darker and lighter style. A word of warning: hip-hop, dubstep, and house are in his musical vocabulary, and he will use them.
- Digable Planets: A Brooklyn trio who were one of the leading groups of the jazz-rap genre that gained prominence in the 1990s. Scored a major crossover hit in 1993 with "Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)", which prominently used a Jazz Messengers sample. Broke up shortly after the release of their critically acclaimed but poor selling 1994 album Blowout Comb, which is now considered to be one of the most significant jazz-rap albums.
- The Electric Banana Band
- Ephel Duath: Something of a mixture of Black Metal and jazz, with Avant Garde Music and Progressive Rock elements sometimes thrown into the blender as well.
- Exivious: Dutch instrumental progressive metal/jazz fusion act that leans more towards the fusion side of the equation but still has a subtle metallic undercurrent.
- Kenny G: He has to be mentioned to some extent. An American saxophonist, Kenny G is probably the most successful jazz musician worldwide in terms of record sales, but he's probably the most controversial musician on this list. He's the best known exponent of "smooth jazz", a sub-genre which has been criticized by jazz critics and fans for being barely one step above Easy Listening lounge music. He defines his own music as "instrumental pop" rather than jazz, but his critics (most memorably, Pat Metheny) have pointed out that since he is an improvising musician working within an instrumental framework, he deserves be treated as a jazz musician.note
- Gordian Knot: An instrumental Jazz fusion band formed by Cynic bassist Sean Malone, whose music mixes elements of jazz, prog and metal.
- Grateful Dead: Jazz was one of the many genres that influenced them, and as with the Allman Brothers above, improvisation was an essential (arguably the essential) part of the sound. The jazz influence is most conspicuous during the years with Keith Godchaux on keyboards (October 19, 1971 through February 17, 1979), as he had a background in Dixieland and cocktail jazz; in the studio, the best exemplars of this are probably Wake of the Flood, From the Mars Hotel, Blues for Allah, and Terrapin Station; some of the most acclaimed live albums from his tenure are Europe '72 and Get Shown the Light (which includes the famous Cornell show from May 8, 1977), though, since the Dead were practitioners of extreme Genre Roulette (particularly during this period), some songs have more conspicuous jazz influence than others. Another noteworthy jazz fusion album in the Dead's catalogue is Wake Up to Find Out (March 29, 1990), which features Branford Marsalis on saxophone for "Bird Song" and then the entire second set (including a revival of one of the Dead's Signature Songs, "Dark Star").
- Imperial Triumphant: Avant-garde black metal act with extremely prominent jazz and modernist classical influences and musicians who are all schooled in jazz and still play it on the side. Current drummer Kenny Grohowski also plays in the current lineup of Brand X and is a regular Trey Spruance collaborator, primarily with Secret Chiefs 3 (who are not a jazz act, but take influence from it and have numerous jazz-related tracks).
- Jimi Hendrix: Hendrix is usually counted among blues-rock guitarists, but he was heavily influenced by John Coltrane and was extremely influential in the evolution of jazz guitar. Was planning a project with Miles Davis and Gil Evans at the time of his death.
- Allan Holdsworth
- Greg Howe
- Jaga Jazzist
- Norah Jones: Best known for her debut album Come Away With Me, which sold ten million copies and earned her Album of the Year and Best New Artist awards at the 2003 Grammys. Although strictly a jazz singer and pianist on that album, her later records have seen her incorporate indie rock and blues influences into her sound.
- Shawn Lane: Guitar genius whose style is difficult to pinpoint, but he's often classified as Jazz fusion.
- Jonas Hellborg: Swedish bassist who originally became famous for his partnerships with Lane and later introduced the former to Indian percussionist V. Selvaganesh, which kickstarted Lane's own infusion of Indian classical into his playing; after Lane's death, Hellborg went on to continue exploring Eastern and Western musical pairings and infusions.
- Magma: Strange French band who are Trope Makers and Trope Namers of a Progressive Rock subgenre called Zeuhl that draws a lot of influence from jazz, if obliquely; they have repeatedly cited John Coltrane as their biggest influence, if that's indication. The jazz influence is most obvious on the first two albums; it's a bit more oblique on the band's later music, but still there if you know what to listen for.
- Medeski Martin & Wood: Brought fusion into the 21st century with a mix of funk, hip-hop and jam-band sensibilities.
- John McLaughlin: English guitarist, started out playing 60s R&B and rock with the Graham Bond Organisation, soon moved into avant-garde circles in Britain, then went to America and played with Miles Davis before launching a solo career which involved him getting seriously into Indian spirituality and co-founding the highly successful jazz-rock band Mahavishnu Orchestra. Branched into a fusion of jazz and Indian classical music with Shakti; since the 80s, has mostly returned to electrified jazz. Famous for having short hair in the early 70s "because it is my guru's will", but also for his formidable technique as a player and his restless musical imagination. Not, repeat, not, host of political yak show The McLaughlin Group.
- The Boston Record (2014)
- The Nutty Squirrels: Bebop meets Alvin and the Chipmunks. Seriously.
- Panzerballett: German jazz fusion quintet with very prominent metal influences and Genre Roulette tendencies. Their drummer, Sebastian Lanser, is also known for his role in Obscura.
- Planet X: Instrumental jazz fusion/progressive metal supergroup helmed by Derek Sherinian and Virgil Donati. Known for having featured some serious big names as session musicians (Tony MacAlpine, Allan Holdsworth, Billy Sheehan, and Dave LaRue are but a few of the people who have contributed to it).
- Phish: A jam band similar to the Grateful Dead, Phish were strongly influenced by 1970s jazz-fusion groups, with the style being as influential to their sound as earlier jam bands, Progressive Rock and bluegrass were. Fusion was especially prominent in their sound in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and can be heard on concert recordings from that era, as well as studio albums like 1989's Junta and 1993's Rift.
- Pink Martini
- Puya: A Puerto Rican Jazz Fusion/Progressive metal band noted for drawing heavily from Latin jazz and salsa.
- Brian Setzer: A bit of an oddball entry, he's done a lot to revive interest in big-band swing, including creating arrangements that add parts for lead electric guitar alongside the brass section, and making arrangements of classical compositions redone in a big-band swing style with electric guitar leading. The the resulting arrangement works and works well.
- Shiina Ringo: A particularly eclectic example who started to gain acclaim in the late '90s for her Japanese rock/pop sound, and began to drift more towards jazz (and to garner more critical acclaim) in the mid-'00s. Her album Heisei Fūzoku (or Heisei Customs, 2007), a soundtrack for the film Sakuran, can be categorised as orchestral jazz pop. Its successor, Sanmon Gossip (The Threepenny Gossip, 2009), is a major example of Genre Roulette, but most of it qualifies as jazz of some sort or other; Wikipedia categorises it as "acid jazz". Her most acclaimed album, Karuki Zamen Kuri No Hana (Chlorinated Lime, Semen, Chestnut Flower, 2003), isn't as heavily oriented towards jazz, but still incorporates it at times. Her work is often particularly influenced by Latin American jazz; she has also covered several jazz standards, titled one of her songs in tribute to John Coltrane, and recorded several collaborations with Japanese jazz/rock band Soil & "Pimp" Sessions.
- Shining (Norway): Started out as an acoustic jazz band (and spinoff of Jaga Jazzist) for their first two albums (Where the Ragged People Go, 2001, and Sweet Shanghai Devil, 2003, the second of which was significantly more avant-garde) before moving into jazz fusion/progressive rock for their next two (In the Kingdom of Kitsch You Will Be a Monster, 2005, and Grindstone, 2007). Starting with Blackjazz (2010), they incorporated black metal and industrial influence without eschewing the jazz elementsnote , though evidently they'd been performing live in this style for quite some time already (somewhat out of necessity, since the earlier songs' arrangements were impractical to reproduce). Not to be confused with the Swedish band of the same name; while the two acts started out playing wildly disparate genres of music, both of them now incorporate elements of black metal and progressive metal into their sound, so this happens frequently.
- Snarky Puppy: A University of North Texas-formed jazz collective/supergroup lead by Michael League, they are easily one of the most popular jazz ensembles in America today. Their music consists of fusions of jazz, funk, rock, and EDM elements, with a jam band sensibility. You probably know them for 2014's "Lingus," in no small part due to Cory Henry's legendary solo.
- Esperanza Spalding: A fusion bassist and singer who is probably best remembered outside of the jazz world for winning the Grammy for Best New Artist in 2011, which made her the first jazz instrumentalist to win the award, beating out Justin Bieber, Florence + the Machine, Drake and Mumford & Sons in the process. Inside the jazz world, Spalding is one of the top contemporary fusion artists, known for incorporating indie rock, art rock, funk and R&B influences into her music.
- Steely Dan: Led by the songwriting duo Donald Fagen and Walter Becker, they were one of best known and most acclaimed jazz-rock bands of the '70s. Famous for being perfectionists in the studio, Fagen and Becker's sardonic lyrics, and their use of top-notch session musicians to create their signature sound.
- St Germain: a French musician, he's among the pioneers of Nu Jazz and the most famous exponent, combining electronic music with jazz.
- Tourist (2000)
- Thundercat: While notoriously difficult to classify, Thundercat (the solo work of former Suicidal Tendencies bassist, onetime Kendrick Lamar collaborator, and frequent Flying Lotus collaborator Stephen Bruner) is generally accepted as jazz-related, as he freely mixes jazz and jazz fusion with elements of hip-hop, soul, funk, psychedelic rock, synth-funk, and yacht rock.
- Trombone Shorty: A New Orleans-born singer and horn player associated in recent years with a funk metal take on fusion, popularized in part by his appearances on the cable series Treme.
- Backatown (2010)
- Us3: A British group who blended jazz and hip-hop together, and were somewhat associated with the jazz-rap subgenre that was popular in the mid-90s. The band were signed to the renowned jazz label Blue Note Records and were given permission to use whatever samples they wished from the label's vaunted catalog to create their debut album Hand on the Torch. The record was, for a timenote , the best-selling release in Blue Note history - outselling classic albums by Eric Dolphy, Herbie Hancock, Art Blakey and John Coltrane - and netted the label its first Top 40 pop hit, "Cantaloop (Flip Fantasia)".
- Weather Report: A jazz fusion band formed by keyboardist Joe Zawinul and the aforementioned Wayne Shorter, both members of Miles Davis' jazz fusion-era quartet. Among the band's best known recordings is the Grammy nominated 1977 album Heavy Weather, one of the best selling jazz fusion records of all time. During the late 70's and early 80's, the band's lineup famously included...
- Jaco Pastorius: Hugely innovative bass player from Florida; also a good drummer. Started out playing R&B, played on Pat Metheny's early recordings and also with Joni Mitchell. Pioneered the fretless electric bass when he acquired a Fender Jazz Bass which had had the frets ripped out and filled in, thereby making him the first bass guitarist who could make the instrument sing.note His first solo album contained an exhilarating and almost-unaccompanied rendition of the ferociously difficult Charlie Parker/Miles Davis bebop classic "Donna Lee", forever earning him jazz credibility. Volatile and erratic, but he was to the bass guitar in the 70s more or less what Charlie Christian was to the electric guitar in the 30s. Suffered from bipolar disorder and had major substance abuse problems, and died tragically young in 1987 after being fatally beaten by a club bouncer in Florida.
- Frank Zappa: Musical iconoclast who mixed classical music, rock, jazz and doowop in unique contrasts and combinations. Some of his albums have a very distinctive jazzrock feeling to them.
- The Disney tribute album Stay Awake (1988) features many different kinds of musical interpretations of classic Disney songs, some in a crooner version, others more jazzy and even avant-garde.
Poets whose recite their poetry accompanied by a bongo and conga arrangement are sometimes classified as Jazz as well.