Ella Fitzgerald (born Ella Jane Fitzgerald, April 25, 1917 June 15, 1996) was a famous American Jazz singer, known for her skilled vocals, incredible sense of swing, and her happy singing style.
Fitzgerald had a tough life growing up and was homeless for most of her teenage years in New York City. There she would dance for pennies to any passerby, thinking she'd become a great dancer. In 1934, the Apollo theatre held an amateur night, and Ella signed up to dance; however, seeing a better dance group before her, she opted to sing instead. The rest is history.
She was heard by one of the musicians in Chick Webb's influential band and was picked up by Chick Webb, The King of Swing himself. She cut one of the most influential and popular jazz songs with the band, A-Tisket, A-Tasket (1938), at 21. During The '40s, she slowly grew her reputation but hadn't yet broken through the white audience mainstream. Once signing with Verve in The '50s (a label created specifically for her), she put out various cover albums of famous songwriters and composers like Cole Porter, George Gershwin, and Irving Berlin, and in turn, created jazz standards and solidified her stardom. She collaborated with many famous musicians of her time like Frank Sinatra, and most famously, Louis Armstrong. Still prominent throughout The '60s and The '70s, she continued to sing and keep up with the times. Classics of this period include her Ella in Berlin album and her collaborations with guitarist, Joe Pass.
As time went on, Fitzgeralds voice began to deteriorate along with her health due to her diabetes, so she retired from public life. In 1996, she died a musical legend.
Not only did Ella Fitzgerald win 14 Grammys and Honorary Awards in her lifetime, but she was also inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame six times. Her centennial is in 2017 and will be celebrated by the Smithsonian and the Grammy Museum.
Ella Fitzgerald and her works provide examples of:
- Affectionate Nickname: She earned the nicknames, First Lady of Song, Lady Ella, and Queen of Jazz throughout her lifetime.
- Cover Album: These made Ella break into the mainstream and solidified her career as the jazz vocalist. She sang everyone.
- Covered Up: Invoked by no less than Ira Gershwin, who said, "I never knew how good our songs were until I heard Ella Fitzgerald sing them."
- Corpsing: In her live recording of "Mack The Knife", Ella begins to get the giggles when she forgets the lyrics to the song halfway through. She quickly recovers and nails the performance.
- Crossover: Her many albums with Louis Armstrong.
- Glass-Shattering Sound: Appeared in one of Memorex's "Is it real or Memorex?" TV commercials, in which her voice breaks a wine glass when she hits a high note... and then replaying the recording of her singing also causes glass to shatter.
- I Am the Band: This came into play when Ella took over Chick Webbs band after his untimely death.
- Improv: In her concert album Ella In Berlin, she had a memory lapse on the lyrics of "Mack The Knife," and proceeded to make up her own words and scatting over the music instead. The result won a Grammy Award.
- Ironic Nursery Tune: Her first big hit was a rendition of the Nursery Rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket," which her interpretation with Chick Webb turned from a children's ditty into a sophisticated swing number.
- Jazz: A prominent figure in jazz and its subsequent subgroups (bebop & scat)
- Live Album: Her most famous is Ella In Berlin: Mack the Knife.
- Lyrical Tic: Her scatting can be one.
- Multiple Demographic Appeal: She sung jazz, pop, standards, and even Rock & Roll, and made everything her own.
- Odd Friendship: Marilyn Monroe and Ella's friendship. Maybe not as odd as one might think: both were shy people and both were judged by the way they looked throughout their careers.
- Out-of-Genre Experience: Ella was willing to tackle songs in any genre from jazz to rock, but probably the most unlikely was a TV performance of "Three Little Maids From School" from Gilbert and Sullivan's The Mikado, as a trio with Joan Sutherland and Dinah Shore.
- The Quiet One: Ella was a very shy person.
- Scatting: Her skill was legendary.
- Soprano and Gravel: A series of duets with the gravel provided by none other than Louis Armstrong.
- Spiritual Successor: Ella was one to her idol, Connee Boswell, from the famed harmonizing group, The Boswell Sisters.