Alton Glenn Miller (March 1, 1904 circa December 15, 1944) was a big band leader popular in the 1930s and 40s. The subject of a major 1950s biopic, The Glenn Miller Story, in which he was played by Jimmy Stewart.
The Glenn Miller Orchestra's recording of "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", which they introduced to the world in the film Sun Valley Serenade, was the first ever record to be awarded a gold record. Said gold record, awarded in February 1942 to celebrate 1.2 million copies sold, actually predates the RIAA certification, which wasn't established until 1958.*
Also notable for being a Real Life example of Never Found the Body. When the war broke out, he volunteered for service, but was considered too old (and, perhaps, too famous) for active duty, and was instead commissioned a Captain in the Army Air Force, assigned to entertain the troops. Officially declared missing in action when his plane disappeared around the English Channel in bad weather, he was eventually declared dead in absentia. Historians ascribes the event to the type of plane he was traveling in being infamous faulty in cold conditions, meaning that Miller most likely met his end in the Channel after his plane shorted out, and the fact that his disappearance went unnoticed for 72 hours, due to the Germans launching a counter-offensive, meant that any recovery effort would have been downright impossible. But as any situations where a body is not recovered is wont to do, Miller's disappearance would spawn several Urban Legends about the true cause of his death being covered up the US Military, for reasons that ranges from the RAF had accidentally shot down his plane, over him being assassinated after going on a top-secret mission for Dwight D. Eisenhower to negotiate a German surrender, to him dying of a heart attack while in bed with a French prostitute.
These days he's mostly remembered for being mentioned in the All in the Family theme song (or, if you're British, a joke in Red Dwarf about aliens returning planes that disappeared during the War).
His works provide examples of:
- Big Band: One of the most succesful jazz band leaders of his time. So much even that after his death his band still went on tour under his own name.
- Blatant Lies: "Five O'Clock Whistle" has a youngster relating how her father didn't come home the night before, because (he claimed) the whistle that signalled the end of the working day was broken.You ought to hear what my mommy said
When papa came home and sneaked into bed
And told her he'd worked 'til half past two
'Cause the five o'clock whistle never blew
- Epic Swinging: In The Mood which goes on and on.
- Fake-Out Fade-Out: In The Mood keeps getting more quiet and quiet towards the end, only to suddenly erupt back in all of its loudness for the grand finale.
- Fake Band: Played by Real Band variant. In the movies Sun Valley Serenade and Orchestra Wives, each of which revolves around backstage drama in a fictional big band, the band members who aren't part of the plot are played by members of the Glenn Miller Orchestra, with Miller himself appearing as the bandleader in each film.
- 555: Famously averted by "Pennsylvania 6-5000", which was (and still is) the phone number of the Pennsylvania Hotel in New York, which was a major venue for live Big Band music at the time the song was written.
- Harsher in Hindsight: "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree" sounds innocent enough, until you realize that it was about World War II... and that Miller himself never "came marching home"
- Melancholy Moon: "Moonlight Serenade".
- Music of Note: Pretty much the most famous jazz band leader of the 1940s.
- Phone Number Jingle: The above-mentioned "Pennsylvania 6-5000", or "Pennsylvania 6-5-oh-oh-oh" as they call it later in the song for variety.
- Spiritual Successor: After the war, there was a mini-revival of the Miller sound with orchestras led by Jerry Gray (former Miller arranger), Tex Beneke (former Miller saxophonist and vocalist who led the Glenn Miller ghost band before going out on his own), Ray Anthony (former Miller trumpeter and last surviving member of the band as of July 2019) and Ralph Flanagan (who never worked with Miller, but did record for the same label [RCA Victor] and employ several ex-Miller musicians).
- Stop and Go: "In the Mood"
- Stuffy Old Songs About the Buttocks: "It Must Be Jelly ('Cause Jam Don't Shake Like That)" was one of several songs inspired by that popular expression, which did not necessarily compare the respective merits of the foodstuffs; Harry James and Woody Herman also covered the tune.
- Theme Song:
- "Moonlight Serenade" was his band's theme song, played at the beginning and end of every concert and radio broadcast. It was swapped out in favor of "Slumber Song" during the ASCAP boycott of 1941 note ; after the boycott it became the closing theme.
- "Make Believe Ballroom Time" was recorded as a new theme song for Make Believe Ballroom, a disc jockey program hosted by Martin Block (who co-wrote the song). That recording is notable as being the first to feature the Modernaires vocal quartet with the Miller orchestra.
- Took a Level in Cheerfulness: In The Mood is a joyful record.
- Top Ten Jingle: The 1930s Lucky Strike slogan "Sold! American!" note inspired an instrumental of that title, which was recorded twice (for Brunswick in 1938 and for Victor in 1939). Ironically, shortly after the second version was released, the band got a radio show that was sponsored by rival Chesterfield, which limited performances of "Sold American" due to obvious conflicts of interest.
- 12-Bar Blues: "In the Mood"