Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Arabic: المملكة العربية السعودية; Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyyah as-Suūdiyyah), is a huge Western Asian country and the country of the Islamic holy sites. Also, the sacred homeland of the Prophet Muhammad and the birthplace of Islam. Home of two of the world's biggest tourist meccas... Mecca (now you know how the word came into English) and Medina.
The country is an absolute monarchy, founded by Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud at the end of World War I, who wanted to unite all the vast land around the ancestral home of his family, which had been something of the historical pastime of his dynasty like the English Kings tried to conquer France and Scotland. But like them, it wouldn't have been a pastime if they got it over and done with. What most people don't know is that the Saudi Arabia that exists today is actually the *third* dynastic Saud state to hold sway, and the middle of the road in terms of size. But every time the Sauds would start to get powerful, the surrounding forces would combine to smack them down.
The Saudi family's rose to royal might in the 18th when the leader of a relatively small clan with big dreams made a savvy alliance with religious philosopher, Wahhab. The patriarch of the Saudi dynasty gave Wahhab political protection and armed muscle, and in term Wahhab offered him legitimacy and the Ikhwan, or "Brotherhood", a group of Wahhab's militant followers driven by his fiery preaching and radical philosophy.
Over the next several decades, this alliance carved out an imperial emirate across most of Arabia that is actually larger than Saudi Arabia is today and influence stretching beyond that even, with Ikhwan raiding as far afield as Damascus. However, their fall was just as rapid as their rise. The new Saudi emirate recognized neither the Ottoman Caliph who was the nominal ruler of Arabia and Sunni Islam or the claims of Turkey's treacherous vassal Egypt to the Red Sea Coast of Arabia. The Staunchly Sunni massacres of Shiites along the Persian Gulf alienated the equally Shiite Imperial Iran. Finally, they subsidized Wahhabist Piracy in the Gulf and Straits of Tiran right around the time the Napoleonic British Empire was becoming involved there. As if to cap this all off, the atrocities the Ikhwan committed in the holiest cities in Islam when they captured them scandalized the entire Muslim world almost more than the French had.
So all of these powers decided to set aside their differences and go after the Saudis. The main heavy lifter was to be Egypt's newly instated Muhummad Ali and his equally new Westernized army. He promptly invaded Arabia and killed every Saudi he could while the British put down the pirates, leaving the leaders of the Saud on Ottoman execution blocks and the survivors to flee into the desert to lick their wounds.
A few years later they came back and bounced the Egyptians out to establish a far smaller but still powerful emirate. It held sway for several decades but never managed to obtain the world fearing scope of the first. However, a combination of Tribal Politics, a Decadent Court, and new arch-enemies in the form of the Rashidi clan eventually toppled the Sauds and forced them to flee to Kuwait, whose leader welcomed him in.
A few years later, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud led a war party that retook Riyadh, reopening the war for Arabian supremacy and starting the modern Saudi State. You can read more about the process in his page, but over the next several years of byzantine politics and both victories and defeats he was able to steadily consolidate his power until World War I broke out. Then, the Saud- like other anti-Turkish Arab rebels- made a deal with the Western Allies who distracted and eventually destroyed the Turkish Empire, while the Saud used the opportunity to polish off all other rivals (including the Ikhwan) to dominate what is now Saudi Arabia.
And because succession has de facto gone from older brother to younger brother and *then* father to son, the throne is still being passed to his various sons today. With the passage of time, however, there has been a lot of bickering among members of the royal family. Most of that has cooled down with time, too, but given the old age of Ibn Saud's surviving children and grandchildren there is a Succession Crisis everybody can see coming in the near future. Expect more squabbles in the next decade or two. The latest change to the succession came in June 2017, when Muhammad bin Nayef, a grandson of Ibn Saud, was removed as Crown Prince in favor of Mohammad bin Salman, a considerably youngernote son of current King Salman. Muhammad bin Nayef had only been elevated to Crown Prince in April 2015, when Ibn Saud's youngest surviving son, Muqrin, was removed from the position.
Saudi Araba is well known for its massive oil and gas reserves and sparse desert, being something of a Qurac in fiction. Economy is primarily driven by these oil and gas, but the country is also counting on the multibillion dollar annual pilgrimage business during the Hajj season, which attracts millions of Muslims all over the world to Mecca. Because of its historical significance as the homeland of the Arabs, including several nomadic tribes (such as the famous Bedouin people), Saudis are sometimes seen as Proud Warrior Race Guys. Popularly, Saudis are seen as extremely conservative and devoutly religious, sometimes to the point of fanaticism. Despite its renown as a staunch supporter of Sunni Islam, the country has a surprisingly large population of non-Sunnis, notably in the Eastern Province, which has a Twelver Shia majority, and the southern Najran Province, which has an Ismaili Shia majority. Since the founding of Islam, Mecca itself has been serving as a room for Muslims of various sects and schools to discuss with impunity. Many of the aforementioned Hajj pilgrims chose to settle throughout the centuries, making the city one of the most cosmopolitan in the world.
Saudi Arabia has a long history of being an ally of the West, starting when The British Empire provided muscle to the Al-Saud in their struggles against their Turkish-backed Rashidi rivals and continuing well after America took over for Britain. They tend to spend time buying military equipment from them and allowing them to use the country as a launching platform for Operation Desert Storm against Iraq. However, this relationship has always been an uneasy one. The first significant interaction between the Saudi dynasty and the West was when the former sponsored pirates in the 18th/early 19th century that attacked British shipping, they didn't support America in the most recent invasion of Iraq, and they took domestic flak for supporting the first invasion. On top of this the country as a whole has a reputation as a terrorist cultivator, not the least of which because Osama bin Laden was a Saudi national. The Saudi state backs the Palestinians in the ArabIsraeli Conflict; for this reason, it does not recognize Israel.note Reports of anti-Semitic propaganda being widely distributed by official channels and taught in schools have led to complaints on several occasions.
A note on the Saudi flag from The Other Wiki: do NOT change the orientation of the Arabic text in white. Seriously, don't. This of course means that if you plan on hanging it vertically, you need to buy another flag with the writing still going properly right to left, and a properly-made flag is actually folded over so that the writing is seen going the right way, no matter what angle you look at it. The caption translates what the writing is; it's something of a big deal for Muslims in general.
The Saudi Arabian flag
Saudi Arabia in fiction:
- JAG: In "Head to Toe", A female naval aviator serving with the U.S. Air Force in Saudi Arabia is defending herself on not wearing an abaya, and arguments are made for abiding by the culture, subjugation of women and treatment of foreigners. When Mac is subjected to the same treatment she sides with the defendant.
- Tom Clancy has some action going on here in various Ryanverse novels. They're generally 'good guys'.
- The Kingdom a team of FBI agents have to work with the local law enforcement in Saudi Arabia to hunt down a terrorist group responsible for the bombing of civilians.
- The character Pullum Purna from Street Fighter EX is an example of a Saudi character. Although, she's a walking cliché and sports an outfit that has absolutely nothing to do with Arab culture. In fact, any woman wandering around Riyadh in Pullum's revealing, harem-style outfit would be arrested on the spot.
- However, Shaheen, debuting in Tekken 7, was designed with the help of the game's Middle-Eastern fanbase, and has a much more realistic look for a modern Arabic character.
- Episode 2 of SEAL Team season 2 takes place in Saudi Arabia where Bravo Team must work with the Saudi military to stop a Shiite terrorist group from poisoning a water treatment plant with anthrax.