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Looping Lines
aka: ADR

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This is where an actor is called back to do the lines again, usually because something went wrong with the sound recording on-set. Also known as "automated dialog replacement" (ADR).

The fun part? Now the actor gets to do the line with the intended emotions while lip-synching themselves.

This is much more common than you may think. As a rule of thumb, listen carefully to how an actor speaks. If the delivery suddenly sounds much more polished and closer to the microphone, they've been ADR'd. This technique is used on a wider and more noticeable scale in Asian live-action productions, particularly Bollywood and Japanese tokusatsu and Dorama television serials.


This is the standard way to record dialog in dubbed foreign productions and in anime. Western Animation, on the other hand, generally has dialogue recorded beforehand (a technique known as pre-lay). Contrast Voices in One Room. Japanese voice recording tends to use both styles at the same time – all the actors are in the same room clustered around three microphones, but 98% of the time they are acting to pre-made lip flaps (very few anime are recorded pre-lay style; AKIRA is the major exception).



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  • In Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, Hayden Christensen and Ewan McGregor had to record grunts for when they were fighting. That's right. Grunts.
    • This is standard procedure for fight scenes, such sounds made on-set are drowned out by the sounds of the fight.
    • Looping was a fact of life for every actor in the Star Wars universe. The most well-known case is Darth Vader, who was famously played by David Prowse but voiced by James Earl Jones, as no one would be afraid of Prowse's voice. Prowse wasn't informed of this until the movie came out.
    • On the opposite side of Prowse's situation, Anthony Daniels was originally intended to only be C-3PO's suit performer, but his performance was so charming that he was allowed to also do the voice. Remarkably, decades later the same thing happened with Ahmed Best's portrayal of Jar Jar Binks.
    • Very noticeable in A New Hope as dialogue tends to fluctuate in volume and intonation even in the same scene.
  • The Lord of the Rings — the entire trilogy — was dubbed in post: the enormous noise of the on-set fans and the assorted background noise made it impossible to hear any of the dialogue spoken while recording.
    • Notably averted with Bilbo's speech at the party, as Ian Holm couldn't recreate the drunk tone while looping those lines sober. That gave the sound editors quite some work.
  • In the pre-Internet, pre-videotape, pre-digital era of actual filmed pornography, sex scenes were typically filmed without sound; performers would then add all the various grunts, groans and exclamations afterward. Most of the time this would be done haphazardly, with only minimal care for any visible Mouth Flaps; this often added an unintentional Hong Kong Dub quality to the scenes.
    • Still the case in quite a lot of digitally shot porn. Sadly, in most of the rest of the cases, decent audio normalization and levelling would be a huge help. Sigh.
    • This is hilariously referenced in Jesus of Montreal where one of the actors is introduced while looping lines for a porno. Halfway through, he cries out that he's been reading the wrong lines and he's told that it doesn't matter and that no one will notice.
      • This trope is often completely averted with "gonzo" and "reality" porn, where all the live audio is left in, up to and including "actor" directions. There's a bit of a Broken Base as to whether or not this adds positives to the scenes (with the director acting as something of a narrator) or renders said scenes unwatchable with the sound on.
  • Hugo Weaving as V in V for Vendetta had to dub all of his lines, both because of the mask and because the character was originally played by James Purefoy, who left a few weeks into filming. Due to the mask, they only had to redub rather than reshoot Purefoy's scenes.
  • In Dr. Strangelove, there is a noticable scene where Major Kong is saying "Dallas" but you hear "Vegas", in order to prevent a "Funny Aneurysm" Moment based on the recent assassination of JFK in Dallas.
  • The "chompers" scene in Galaxy Quest features Sigourney Weaver's character seeing the completely nonsensical hallway full of banging metal blocks and exclaiming, "Screw that!"—except that from the movement of her mouth it's entirely clear that she originally said "fuck". Presumably the line was looped to keep the film to a PG rating. There are also a couple of other lines in the film that don't disguise the dub as well.
  • The plot of Singin' in the Rain (such as it is) centers around this.
  • This was standard practice in many Italian movies until about The '80s. Films with multilingual casts (such as many Spaghetti Westerns) were often shot without any microphones on set, and with each actor saying his lines in his own language. Hence, these films do not have one original or "official" language track; every version is a dub.
  • A good chunk of the dialogue from The Descent had to be dubbed in, because the sets were polystyrene and sure didn't sound like a cave or rock while they were walking or moving around on it.
  • Cillian Murphy rerecorded all of his lines for 28 Days Later during Post Production, replacing a faux-British accent with his natural Irish accent because he thought the British accent sounded too fake.
    • There was quite a bit of ADR going on, according to Danny Boyle. Several shots were actually set up to accommodate ease of ADR (faces in shadows, the actor out of frame etc) and a handful of new lines were added to otherwise wordless scenes.
  • An infamous goof in Eegah! was a result of the botching of one of these: at one point, while the main characters are walking, one of them suddenly "shouts" "Watch out for snakes!" despite the fact that the character obviously isn't speaking and the quality of the line's audio not matching the rest of the movie.note  As such, "Watch out for snakes!" has become a Running Gag on Mystery Science Theater 3000, (where Eegah was shown) and went through a bit of Memetic Mutation as well.
    • Eegah himself was portrayed by Richard Kiel but voiced by Arch Hall Sr., who was also one of the leads.
  • The scene in Love Actually where Aurelia removes the cup holding down a portion of the book Jamie is working on had to be redubbed due to the noise of the large fan sitting off camera.
  • Thunderball, the fourth James Bond film, shows Q introducing Bond to his new tricked-out briefcase, accompanied by the line "Now pay attention, 007". This line would later become one of many famous motifs in the series, but Desmond Llewelyn does not move his mouth.
    • The Bond films in general rely heavily on ADR for the same reason as the The Lord of the Rings trilogy, to the extent that the 007 Stage at Pinewood Studios, the world's largest stage, is a silent stage, as its primary use is for big action scenes.
  • In Hot Fuzz, Simon Pegg redubbed most of his lines from the second half of the movie to make his voice sound more like an 80s action hero.
  • A visible example shows up in The Godfather: Sollozzo learns that Don Vito Corleone is still alive after the assassination attempt he ordered, and says to hostage Tom Hagen "That's bad luck for me, and bad luck for you if you don't make that deal!" before apparently releasing him. However, if you look closely you see that Sollozzo just says "That's bad luck for me, and bad luck for you": there was a short scene that was present in the book but cut from the film, where Tom Hagen arrives back at home and exclaims "Boy, if I argue against the Supreme Court I'll never do better than I did against that Turk tonight!", having convinced Sollozzo not to kill him on the grounds that he could still negotiate a deal with Sonny despite the Don being alive.
  • Evil Dead 2 has Ash, after his hand has been possessed, screaming and running around, then saying very distinctly "Work shed." Those two words were looped in ADR, and it sounds like it. In fact, Bruce Campbell relates on the commentary that years later, when he met Kurt Russell for the first time, Russell walked up to him, shook hands, and without preamble demanded Campbell "say 'Work shed'."
  • According to the post-production supervisor, Super Mario Bros. had the most ADR-looping of any film she had ever encountered.
  • Averted in the Assembly Cut of Alien³. Some of the restored scenes were cut before the ADR was recorded, and since they didn't do any re-recording for the DVD, it can be difficult to hear the dialogue. Thankfully, subtitles are available.
  • Quite a bit of dubbing was going on in the last half of Dazed and Confused. It's not terribly noticeable except when one character is visibly speaking (and gesturing dramatically) and you're hearing a different character's voice. Then it's odd.
  • Happens all the time with Tommy Wiseau's lines in The Room, for no adequately explained reason. Even in the interviews on the DVD, looped sentences and fragments appear seemingly at random. It's incredibly obvious whenever it happens, because the words don't match up to the lip flaps at all.
  • In Dracula (1979), the dialogue just before Dracula sucks Lucy's blood had to be looped because the dramatic fog machines made too much noise.
  • During the opening of Hell Up In Harlem, lead character Tommy Gibbs is sitting in a taxicab that's being pursued by two mob henchmen. At several points, Gibbs can be heard saying lines (such as "Run that red light!", "Step on it, man! They got guns!" and "Here's $500 - don't stop for anything!") that don't match up to his mouth. This is due to the fact that Harlem rewrites the ending of Black Caesar with different dialogue placed in existing scenes.
  • When filming Popeye, some of Robin Williams' mumbling was so incomprehensible he had to re-record the dialogue and add it later.
  • Some Like It Hot: Tony Curtis' dialogue when he was dressed up as a female was dubbed by Paul Frees since Curtis had too deep of a voice to do a proper falsetto. He did attempt it during filming though, and one or two of his quick lines slipped through. Notably, Frees also had a small on-camera part as the owner of a speakeasy.
  • In Back to the Future, Crispin Glover (George McFly) lost his voice due to nervousness while filming. For some scenes, he had to silently mouth his lines, with his voice being dubbed in later at a recording studio.
  • Bane's dialogue in The Dark Knight Rises had to be looped twice, as feedback from an earlier version of the film found that his voice was too muffled. Compare the original to the final version.
  • Many instances in the Clue feature film. For example, in one scene, the police rush the mansion and Martin Mull's Colonel Mustard throws his hands up in surrender, exclaiming "I'm only a guest!" However, his lip movements don't match the words being said, and in fact one TV spot for the film featured the unaltered scene; Mull actually said "I'm only a dinner guest!", with very different tonal inflections.
  • The President's Analyst - during production, J. Edgar Hoover apparently expressed his disapproval of the portrayal of his agency, the FBI (and his own proxy character), so they changed the name to the FBR (Federal Board of Regulation), along with the CIA, now the CEA (Central Enquiries Agency) - footage already shot has obvious overdubs for the name changes. A disclaimer at the film's beginning heavily lampshades this.
  • Mallrats had to have quite a bit of ADR, mainly to remove references to a Deleted Scene and its accompanying plot thread. Further ADR was then used on a censored version that aired on ABC in 1998 and was reused for basic cable screenings into the early 2010s; it was even more noticeable because the new voiceovers didn't match with the original voices (especially Jay's).
  • For no known reason, all of the dialogue in Dancin': It's On! was ADR'd by the original actors.
  • Saving Christmas has a scene where several characters "talk" while holding coffee mugs over their faces to "hide" the fact that the actors' lips weren't actually moving at the time. It's not very convincing.
  • In Ryan's Babe, all of the dialogue is like this. It's executed so poorly, at one point, one guy says his line, followed by the line from another guy responding to him.
    Bill: I'll have another one, Jim! No more today, Bill! Please escort this gentleman to the door!

    Live Action TV 
  • Anthony Stewart Head had to loop many of his lines as Giles on Buffy the Vampire Slayer in order to incorporate the character's mild stutter. This was such a hassle that Head declared he would never play a character with a speech impediment again.
  • The Babylon 5 episode "Comes the Inquisitor" was originally broadcast with Sheridan referring to the historical murders in London's West End. Unfortunately for JMS, the historical Jack the Ripper committed murders in London's East End. The error was pointed out in a usenet post and corrected for the subsequent broadcast, in spite of misgivings by the writer given that the original scene had the camera was right on Sheridan's face for the whole scene. Watch his mouth, and it's very obvious he says "West" when the audio says "East".
  • On Jeopardy!, Alex Trebek often re-records his reading of a clue in post if he stumbles over a word, but no lip-synching is involved because the screen usually shows the text of the clue rather than his face. This was taken to its logical extreme in a week of episodes in 2015, where all of the clues were re-recorded in post due to Alex having a cold at the time of taping that left him sounding very rough. A disclaimer was added at the start of episode indicating as such.
  • Lost required a lot of looping because almost all of the action was filmed outdoors in Hawaii. The ambient noise at times covered up the dialogue.
  • It has been suggested that Donald Trump looped his boardroom speeches on The Apprentice. This may be to complete the editing "story" about why someone is getting fired, or simply to insert something more eloquent than what was actually said.
  • This is the standard method of recording lines in Super Sentai despite the fact that it's Live-Action TV: the actors act out their scenes in front of the camera and then re-record every single line in a recording studio. According to one director, this is by far the hardest part of production, and also explains why most characters end up in a Milking the Giant Cow situation.
  • Used for comic effect in Garth Marenghis Darkplace as part of the Show Within a Show's Stylistic Suck. Sometimes the looped lines blatantly miss the Mouth Flaps, or characters will yell lines of expositions without moving their lips. One scene ends with a minute-long sequence panning across random objects in the room while two characters rapidly fire off looped exposition from off screen in a clumsy attempt to fix plot holes in post.
  • The Made-for-TV Movie KISS Meets the Phantom of the Park was heavily looped. This led to Peter Criss, already fed up with the filming and his bandmates, refusing to loop his lines — so all his dialogue was looped by a voice actor. This is hardly the only problem with the movie, but it's by far the most glaringly obvious.
  • The early Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Battle" featured the appearance of Picard's old ship, the Stargazer. The show was shot to the original script before the model shots of the ship were filmed, which had intended to use the old movie Enterprise model to represent it, and Laforge names it as a Constitution-class ship. However, the producers then changed their mind and made up a new model representing a previously unseen class. Levar Burton then redubbed his line using a similar-sounding but different class name, Constellation.
  • Very rarely a line is dubbed over quickly days or hours before broadcast of a series to remove a line in the wake of a tragic event where a punchline which was fine days before would now go over like a lead balloon, as in when Lauren Graham redid a Gilmore Girls one-liner punchline about Bali to instead be Maui days after the Bali nightclub bombings. However the Closed Captioning track had already been laid down (which is much, much more complicated to fix, requiring almost a complete re-do of an entire scene), so viewers with it on still saw the Bali reference.
  • There's a point in a Scrubs episode where Dr. Cox is yelling at Elliot (that narrows it down a bunch...) and begs to "Aiisha", even though it's very, VERY obvious for anyone watching his mouth that he's saying "Allah".
    • In a Season 4 episode, Dr. Cox imitates making a call with a phone from the early 20th century. At one point during the imitation, he spouts a few repetitive lines of gibberish, which don't match the movement of his lips at all.
      • In an odd inversion of this trope, in the same season, it is apparent during the breakfast table conversation between J.D., Turk, Carla and Neena that for some reason, none of their lines were re-recorded in the studio. There's background hiss and it really sounds like none of the lines were recorded close to a microphone.
  • On TV shows like Glee and Victorious where the cast is singing, they will lip sync to a prerecorded track of themselves singing so the audio quality is better and so they can concentrate on dancing instead of singing and dancing at the same time.
  • The Doctor Who episode "Midnight" had a lot of ADR, because it was essentially filmed as if it were a play. So much so that the corresponding Doctor Who Confidential episode was pretty much entirely about the ADR process.
  • The looping in of lines in Burn Notice isn't very smoothly done, and there are strong changes in ambient noise and acoustics that are sometimes overly noticeable.
  • A lot of reality shows include ADR-looping to explain the rules over and over each episode, for the audience's sake. This is very noticeable in shows like Project Runway and Top Chef.
  • Averted in the classic The Twilight Zone (1959) episode "The Eye Of The Beholder". Two different actresses played the main character, one with the bandages on and one with them off. The latter actress was told that they'd dub in the former's voice after filming... but she was on set during the filming of the bandaged scenes, and as a result she managed to mimic the other actress's voice well enough that they didn't need to.
  • Mad About You uses it In-Universe when Paul makes a documentary about his family. A sound problem makes him want to loop a sentence his mother said, but she's so taken aback by her normal voice that she overcompensates in her inflections when she re-reads her words. Fortunately, Paul's wife Jamie can do an excellent impression of Paul's mother so she does the looping instead.
  • When The Avengers switched from videotape to film in season 4, and Emma Peel became John Steed's new partner in crime, the show's shooting became more flexible: For on-location scenes outdoors, they would be shot mute, with the dialogue being rerecorded by the original actors in post-production (as was the norm for British television at the time).
  • In the Even Stevens pilot, the characters' voices never match their lips when they say "Stevens". The family's name was changed from Spivey to Stevens after filming and the new name was looped in before the episode aired.
  • Arrested Development uses audio looping to a very noticeable degree, though whether it's to get different line readings or to rework scenes after the fact is unclear.
  • In the episode of The Greatest American Hero that aired only three days after Ronald Reagan was shot by John Hinckley Jr., two occasions where the students addressed the protagonist as "Mr. Hinkley" were hurriedly and very obviously dubbed over with a drawn-out "Mr. H", and in at least one case manifestly not by the actor speaking on screen. Two other instances took place at an airport and were masked with the noise of an airplane taking off, but one use of "Mr. Hinkley" late in the episode made it through anyway. (After that, the character's name was carefully avoided in the scripts until he suddenly became "Mr. Hanley.")

  • It's pretty common to overdub vocal and instrumental parts for live albums and concert films in a studio in post-production for much the same reasons as looping lines in movies. For example, a guitar part might be re-recorded to get rid of feedback.
  • Looping may also be used to Bowdlerise a song's radio edit if the full version has a word that radio would be hesitant to play. For instance, "Toes" by Zac Brown Band censored the line "I've got my toes in the water, ass in the sand" by looping in "toes" again to cover up the word "ass".

    Stand-Up Comedy 
  • The album version of the special Bill Cosby: Himself, in addition to abridging many of the sketches, also loops lines at least twice: at one point, to cover up a flubbed line about "brain damage", and at another point in the "Chocolate Cake for Breakfast" skit when he accidentally says that he was awakened at 4 AM instead of 6 AM.

    Web Original 
  • Dr. Horrible. Everyone singing is their own voice, but it's a dub of the official musical track over the scene. So they're essentially lipsynching to themselves.
    • This practice is near-universal for filmed musicals, due to the difficulties of having a full orchestra (or even a partial one) on set during filming, of coordinating an offstage band to an on-camera singer (who can't be looking at the director), and of having to do multiple takes - more people involved means more chance for error, and when even one screw-up requires a do-over, it's far, far easier to simply prerecord the tricky bits.
      • In addition, it means that choreography can be quite elaborate without having to worry about breathless singing.
  • That Guy with the Glasses has done this a few times:
    • In Atop the Fourth Wall, when Linkara is leaving Lord Vyce in a barren universe, Lewis dubbed over his lines due to weather conditions.
    • JesuOtaku redubbed a lot of his live action skits in his episodes from 2009-2011 for quality reasons, but left his first review alone to show how far he came.
  • One episode of Tom Scott's Things You Might Not Have Known series, "Nearly Everything You Hear in the Movies is Fake," discusses this trope (as well as The Coconut Effect). Scott also throws in some Painting the Medium to illustrate the difference: Everything before 0:47 (save for the end) in the video was recorded on location, while everything after was dubbed over later.

Alternative Title(s): ADR


Example of: