This technique is often employed as a method of convenience; if it's impossible to get both of the actors together to film a shot, Over the Shoulder can be used with stand-ins who look, from behind, similar to the absent actor to complete the scene.
This is a standard technique from The Golden Age of Hollywood. Pick a major-studio film from the era before Cinemascope, any of them, and you'll find an example of this technique.
- Japanese director Yasujiro Ozu had a variation on this, filming conversations in shot-reverse shot sequences where each person in the conversation was centered and looking straight at the camera, rather than the over-the-shoulder style that is seen far more often.
- The prevalence of this approach in '30s-'40s film noir movies made it possible for Steve Martin to "act" with Bette Davis, Humphrey Bogart, Charles Laughton, etc. in Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid.
- Done to excellent effect in Mulholland Dr. as seen in the page image — unlike most movies, the camera is not stationary on a tripod, but ever so slowly floats eerily up and down through space, as if the film itself is slowly becoming entirely detached from reality.
- Some highly anticipated movies film actors in roles meant to be a surprise for the audience with Shot/Reverse Shot so the actor can be filmed separately from the rest of the cast and crew, dramatically decreasing the chance of a leak. This is probably why a scene from Spider-Man: No Way Home featuring a surprising new character was shot this way. The character in question, Tobey Maguie's Spider-Man, is never seen in a wide shot of the house he's supposed to have walked into.
- Star Wars:
- Any scene that involved both twins interacting in The Patty Duke Show.
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer:
- The episode "Lie to Me" from the second season features this ad nauseam in the outside-the-school discussion between Buffy and Ford.
- Angel's appearance in the series finale was filmed that way because David Boreanaz was only available for a short time.
- There was a Buffy/Giles graveyard scene which used Sarah Michelle Gellar's stunt double accompanied by looped lines for the shots that were over Buffy's shoulder.
- Michael and Hurley's conversation in season 6 of Lost were filmed this way, presumably because they only had Harold Perrineau for a short time.
- The field interviews in The Daily Show with Jon Stewart are usually filmed this way.
- Examined by Charlie Brooker on Screenwipe, where he showed how much Manipulative Editing can be accomplished by interposing otherwise pointless shots of the interviewer nodding to cover the edits in the subject's answers.
- Veronica Mars had to improvise an exchange between Veronica and a musician when the actor playing the musician couldn't come in to re-do the take. They hashed together the version where they were together with the one where Kristen Bell was delivering her lines to no-one.