Follow TV Tropes



Go To

Once upon a time, there were companies that transmitted radio and television signals to the extent of their signal strength. These companies bought entertainment content from a single source. The content sources bought the content they resold from a wide variety of entities called "studios".

The companies with the transmitters thought it would be a good idea to have a brand to identify with. The companies that sold content thought it would be a good idea for that brand to be related to them.


The studios thought, "What the hell. You want to buy content? Call it whatever you want, just send money."

The notion of "network" was born.

In today's world — where distribution of content is by cable, satellite, DVD, or internet — the folks with the transmitters are becoming increasingly irrelevant. Viewers care less about the "network" brand. The shows are becoming more relevant than the networks that broadcast them, meaning that the show is the brand. Which means that the "studio" is now what it is all about, for the viewer. Not so much for the networks.

In the USA, other than the "big four" note , the purpose of "network" now mostly serves to identify a niche outlet on cable/satellite; for example, the Food Network and Animal Planet tend to have a lot of cooking shows and wildlife shows, respectively. Going back to "the show is the brand" concept, many if not most "home-brew" "networks" and "channels" on the Web (say, on YouTube) are really best described as shows.


Related tropes:

Not to be confused with Network, a film about TV networks.

Networks Worldwide:

    open/close all folders 

    United States, Broadcast Television 
The Big Four

Other Broadcast Networks

Defunct Broadcast Networks

Spanish-Language Networks

  • Azteca America
  • Estrella TV
  • MundoMax (formerly MundoFox), a network which was owned by Colombian broadcaster RCN which carries archived and original programming dubbed in Spanish; originally launched as a sister network to Fox in cooperation with RCN, and carried the myriad of series airing on Fox's networks in Latin America. After Fox split from the partnership, the network languished with an affiliate base made up of low-tier stations and a lack of cable coverage, along with imported programming that wasn't compelling to American audiences. MundoMax signed off at the end of November 2016 because of these factors.
  • Telemundo; the #2 Spanish network. A sister to NBC.
  • Univision; effectively America's #5 network based on ratings if you count it among the English networks, but the #1 Spanish network. When it beat NBC for the #4 slot for the February 2013 sweeps it was a good day for Univision, but the exact reverse for NBC.
    • UniMás (formerly Telefutura), a sister network to Univision. Competes with Telemundo for #2 Spanish network.
  • V-me (formerly aired as a subchannel on PBS member stations; currently moving to a cable-only model)

Networks which air almost exclusively over digital subchannels (e.g., anything which is a .2 or .3 channel)

  • Create/World (two channels owned by a consortium of WNET Newark/New York, WGBH Boston, and American Public Television and airing on PBS affiliates; Create features craft, how-to, and travel programming, and World has news and documentaries.)
  • PBS Kids (24/7 feed of PBS children's programs)
  • The Local AccuWeather Channel (often not labeled beyond showing national forecasts from AccuWeather, shows Exactly What It Says on the Tin; is carried mostly by former NBC Weather Plus carriers and other stations. Formerly on ABC O&O's before their contract ended with ABC.)
  • Retro Television Network (original broadcast equivalent of TV Land. Used to have the NBC Universal libraries, but that deal was not renewed by new NBCU owner Comcast, leaving the network with spread out rights of other series from the few series not owned by the Big Five studios, very low cost Canadian Content dramas, car shows on the weekend, ancient reruns of the talk show Crook & Chase and syndication flop Cold Case Files; the latter examples Comically Missing the Point of what "Retro" means. Depending on the affiliate, additional programming - such as an extended newscast, extended weather information, first run syndication programs or new episodes of a network program that was pre-empted by local coverage and programming - might be run. Because of this, many stations have been fleeing to MeTV and Antenna TV, who are Friendly Enemies that grabbed that important NBCU deal out from under RTV's nose.)
  • This TV (airs almost exclusively series and movies from the libraries of MGM (at least what hasn't been sold off yet; you're not going to find their Golden Age films at all here, as those are the property of Turner Entertainment now), Owned by Tribune and MGM).
    • KidsClick, a daily children's block that also airs on affiliates of the Sinclair Broadcast Group.
  • Movies!, a Weigel/Fox cooperative mainly carrying classic films from the 20th Century Fox library in widescreen; effectively the new home for classic Fox films following Fox Movie Channel's re-brand as FX Movie Channel.
  • Antenna TV (Tribune network which shows mainly classic programming from the Sony Pictures library, which includes All in the Family and that show's numerous Spin-Off programs, along with library shows from the producer of Three's Company, and shares the NBC Universal library with MeTV.)
  • MeTV (Movies!' sister network via Weigel. Started out as a local channel in Chicago committed to classic television which has been very well received by viewers in the Windy City, then eventually split into two channels (one drama, one comedy). Expanded to Milwaukee when Weigel bought a home shopping station to put it on there. Went national in December 2010 with a schedule mainly consisting of archive shows from the CBS and Paramount libraries, and shares NBC Universal content with Antenna TV.)
  • NBC Plus (previously known as NBC Weather Plus, an automated weather network that was mostly shut down when NBC acquired a stake in The Weather Channel in 2008) was carried on most of the network's affiliates; as NBC Plus, it is restricted now to a few stations that keep it running out of apathy or being blocked from other sub-net affiliates.
  • NBC-owned stations replaced it with a locally-programmed "Nonstop" channel, which showed Headline News-like newscasts and lifestyle programming on a repeating loop. The Chicago affiliate of NBC Nonstop aired some hockey games of the Chicago Wolves AHL team, based in suburban Rosemont, Illinois.
  • The NBC Nonstop channels morphed into Cozi TV in 2012. Cozi is another retro channel in the vein of Antenna or MeTV, using the NBC Universal syndication and movie libraries (this is where RTV's programming went) and some of the Nonstop local programming.
  • Live Well Network (lifestyle network owned by Disney, carried by that network and several other large chains mainly bound to ABC affiliation, though the network is neutral on-air to its Disney ownership)
  • Bounce TV (a network programmed mainly to African-American audiences; hoping to be a broadcast equivalent to BET, though without that network's notoriety)
  • Music Video networks: TheCoolTV (which specializes in a eclectic blend of music videos) and ZUUS Country (nothing but country videos) take advantage of the Network Decay prevalent with MTV and CMT. However, both networks made little money and had few viewers, and are now only airing on a small number of stations from their 2012 peaks.
  • Qubo (Children's oriented network carried on Ion's stations, airing mostly educational animated series. Formerly ran the Saturday morning block on NBC and Telemundo before it got axed for PBS Kids Sprout shows, which itself got removed for yet another Litton Edutainment Show block in 2016)
  • Comet (Owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group and runs on their stations and several outside affiliates; features science fiction, fantasy, and horror programming from the MGM and Sony libraries plus reruns of Mystery Science Theater 3000. Is an Unabashed B-Movie Fan.)
  • Buzzr, a Game Show-focused network operated by and primarily drawing from the libraries of Fremantle Media (including, in particular, those of Mark Goodson)
  • Quest, a channel that specializes in travel, history, adventure, and science documentaries and reality shows aimed at young adults.

    United States, Cable and Satellite 

    United States, Over-the-top Television Providers 
(With vast marketing campaigns, they advertise themselves as networks in their own right with original content. See also Cable/Satellite Mudslinging.)
Internet Video on Demand
  • Apple TV+: The streaming service of the Apple company.
  • Crackle: A streaming service owned by Chicken Soup for the Soul Entertainment (and was formerly owned by Sony).
  • Disney-owned services:
    • Disney+: The family-oriented streaming service by Disney.
      • STAR: An upcoming hub within the Disney+ streaming service in certain countries for television and film content intended for an adult audience.
    • ESPN+: Streaming service exclusively for sports content.
    • FX+: Streaming service airing all FX and FXX original series.
    • Hulu: A streaming service for mature, R-rated content.
  • Funimation Now: An anime streaming service run by the distribution company of the same name (itself a subsidiary of Sony).
  • Neon Alley: A defunct anime streaming service formerly run by Viz Media.
  • Netflix: The video-on-demand by subscription service of its own company.
  • Peacock: A streaming service owned by NBCUniversal.
  • Prime Video: The video-on-demand by subscription service owned by Amazon.
  • REVRY: OTT service with queer content from queer content creators.
  • Tubi: A streaming service owned by the Fox Corporation.
  • ViacomCBS-owned services:
    • BET+ (joint venture with Tyler Perry)
    • CBS All Access
    • Pluto TV: A free, ad-supported streaming service. Archive content from ViacomCBS is featured, along with content from other companies.
    • Showtimenote 
  • WarnerMedia-owned services:
    • Crunchyroll: Anime streaming service overseen by Otter Media.
    • DC Universe: The streaming service venture of DC Comics.
    • HBO Max: An all-encompassing streaming service by WarnerMedia.
    • VRV: Bundles together content from Crunchyroll and related third-parties.

    United States, Radio 

    Canada, Broadcast Television 
Major English Broadcast Networks
  • CBC, the national, government-owned network.
    • Get Set For Life, the channel's beloved former children's block. Was rebranded as Kids CBC in 2003, and since another reformatting in 2007 has been generally known as Kids Canada.
  • CTV, owned by Bell Media (formerly CTVglobemedia), a division of a Canadian telecommunications and mass-media giant Bell Canada (who first took ownership of the network in 2000 as part of a joint venture with The Globe & Mail newspaper known as Bell Globemedia). Founded in 1961, CTV has the honour of being Canada's most-watched TV network. Has a sister television system called CTV Two (see below).
  • Global, formerly owned by the now-bankrupt media company Canwest before being sold in late 2010 to the Calgary-based cable and telecommunications company Shaw, who in turn sold their entire media division to Corus Entertainment in 2016. Tends to be quite popular in the west, especially in British Columbia, thanks to Canwest's 2000 acquisition of Vancouver's charter CTV affiliate BCTV, and its subsequent switch to Global in 2001.
  • Citytv, began as an independent station in Toronto (CITY-TV, now CITY-DT) and expanded into a network of its own through a chain of acquisitions by former owner CHUM Limited and current owner Rogers Media. Was formally a sister to A-Channel until CHUM got bought by CTV; due to Executive Meddling by the CRTC, CTV was forced to find a different buyer for Citytv. Briefly rebranded as "City" from 2012-2018.
  • NTV (CJON-TV in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador), which is technically an independent station and not a network per se (branding itself as "Canada's Superstation"), but carries news from CTV and both news and entertainment programs from Global. Was Newfoundland and Labrador's CTV affiliate until 2002.

Minor English Broadcast Networks and Systems

In Canada, while there are major broadcast networks recognized by the CRTC (either that, or big enough to just be called networks by the media), there are also smaller groups of commonly-owned stations referred to as "television systems", which may share programming and brands, bit not be as rigidly centralized as the major networks. The distinction has since become blurred from a regulatory standpoint (especially given that unlike in America, there are relatively fewer "affiliates" in Canada's major networks, and CTV is not even legally a licensed "network" in CRTC terms), but smaller groups of this nature are typically considered systems.

  • CTV Two, a secondary network to CTV which airs overflow programming with younger or more niche audiences. It is the successor to the NewNet group of independent stations (named because the stations were originally known as "The New XX" using the last two letters of the callsign; i.e. "The New VR" for flagship CKVR, and "The New WI" for CHWI in Windsor) formed by CHUM in 1995. Took on the A-Channel brand in 2005 after CHUM switched its A-Channel stations Western Canada (which it had obtained through its purchase of Craig Media) to Citytv, and was acquired by CTV in 2007 and later re-launched as just A. In 2011, alongside the transition to digital television, A re-launched as CTV Two. The system also includes CTV Two Atlantic (the former Atlantic Satellite Network, a cable channel in Atlantic Canada that served as a partial CityTV affiliate) and CTV Two Alberta (formerly Access, an educational TV service owned by the provincial government), as well as two former CBC affiliates in BC that Bell received via its purchase of Astral Media.
  • E!! Network (formerly CH, after flagship station CHCH Hamilton) Secondary network to Global, formed from the leftovers of Canwest's acquisition of Western International Communications (WIC) in 2000; the group owned affiliates of several networks, but the majority of its Western stations switched to Global, and the rest became part of CH.
    • The economic meltdown killed this network in August 2009; Global sold off most of the E! stations (some of them for as little as $1), the E! station in Red Deer, Alberta (CHCA-TV) went completely silent, CHBC in the Okanagan (based in Kelowna, BC) switched to Global (it was worth keeping since its news programs were still doing well), and the Jim Pattison Group stations became affiliates of Citytv. CHCH is now heavy on local news in the daytime and programs its primetime lineup with leftover syndicated and network shows, while CJNT tried to be a multicultural independent with some programming from its Hamilton sister, until its owners gave up and sold it to Rogers (who affiliated it with City). As a condition of the deal, Rogers and its former owner chipped in resources for a new, proper multicultural station in Montreal. CHEK-DT in Victoria, BC has a similar schedule to CHCH.
    • E! wouldn't return to Canada until 2010, when Bell Media bought out CHUM and replaced it's Star! network with a domestic version.
  • Omni Television, a group of multicultural stations (two in Toronto — CFMT and CJMT, branded as Omni.1 and Omni.2 respectively, along with Omni Alberta in Edmonton and Calgary, and Vancouver, and a must-carry specialty service which simulcasts them through the rest of the country) owned by Rogers which primarily broadcast ethnic programming throughout much of the day (including foreign-language newscasts), along with overflow programs from City. CFMT was Canada's first multicultural station ever, and later joined by CJMT so they could focus more exclusively on different ethnic groups. The stations were also known for filling a portion of their schedules with syndicated fare, such as game shows, sitcoms and The Late Show and The Late Late Show, to attract mainstream viewers and advertisers so they can pay the bills (although after acquiring Citytv, Rogers began to scale back on this practice now that they had conventional English-language stations in their portfolio). After Rogers bought the region's former multicultural station (and former CH station) CJNT to switch it to Citytv, Omni also backed and affiliated with a new startup multicultural station in Montreal (ICI, "International Channel/Canal International") Also contained a pair of religious stations with a similar format for a period, which are now known as.......
  • Joytv, a multi-faith religious station in Vancouver (okay, actually Fraser Valley/Abbotsford, but close enough) and formerly Winnipeg, which have a very similar format to the Omni stations, but with religious and family-oriented syndicated fare. In fact, they were Omni stations for a period: the Fraser Valley station was originally owned by the non-profit Trinity Television, known as NowTV, and supported by both donations and advertising. Facing financial issues, Trinity sold it (along with a yet-to-have-launched Winnipeg station) to Rogers, who re-purposed the Omni brand from its Toronto stations on them. When Rogers bought Citytv in 2007, it was forced to sell these two stations because they now owned more than one English-language station in Winnipeg and Vancouver (duopolies are only allowed in a single market if they primarily broadcast in different languages , meaning that Rogers can only get away with Omni/City duopolies if they are multicultural, and Rogers can have three in Toronto because the two Omni stations cater to different cultural groups). They were sold to the non-profit S-VOX (owners of cable channel Vision TV), who re-branded them under a similar format as Joytv in September 2008 (the stations branded using their call letters as an interim measure). S-VOX later sold its broadcasting outlets to Zoomer Media, a company led by Citytv's original creator Moses Znaimer.
    • Concurrently, Rogers reached a deal to purchase Vancouver's Channel M (who infamously swayed the CRTC away from Rogers' bid for a multicultural license by being locally owned), giving Rogers a proper multicultural station in B.C.. It was re-branded as Omni BC in September 2008.
    • In September 2013, the Winnipeg station dropped all non-religious programming and re-branded as Hope TV, essentially becoming a 24/7 televangelist channel. Around the same time, two of Canada's religious networks (Miracle Channel and Grace TV) had effectively affiliated themselves with TBN and Daystar, so there may have been method to that madness.
  • Yes TV, formerly the Crossroads Television System (CTS), which is operated by Crossroads Christian Communications (best-known as the producer of the long-running 100 Huntley Street). It is basically the Canadian equivalent of PAX (prCe-Ion, anyway), in a way, with a mix of religious and secular, family-friendly programming. It consists of one station in Ontario (Hamilton, with transmitters in Ottawa and London) and two in Alberta (Calgary and Edmonton). In September 2014, the stations re-launched as Yes TV in an effort to embrace positivism, and mark a programming strategy with a more aggressive focus on picking up overflow Reality TV, Game Shows, and U.S. syndicated fare that the other networks didn't want.
Far North broadcast networks, broadcasting in English and Native languages
  • CBC North
  • Aborginal Peoples' Television Network (APTN; formerly TV Northern Canada). Mostly rebroadcasters of flagship station CHTY-TV Yellowknife, although headquartered in Winnipeg. Available nationwide on cable due to must-carry requirements (its one of the few legal "networks" in the eyes of the CRTC).
French Broadcast Networks
  • Ici Radio-Canada Télé, the CBC's French-language service.
  • TVA, the leading French language private network, owned by the conglomerate Quebecor (a company better known in English Canada for the Sun newspaper chain).
  • Noovo, the perennial third-placer of the Quebec TV networks (it even called itself "the black sheep of TV" at one point), was established 1986 as Télévision Quatre Saisons (later shortened to TQS). It has gone through many owners starting with the Pouliot family in 1986-95 (they also owned the Montreal CTV affiliate), then Vidéotron very briefly in 1995 (they already owned TVA and had to sell off one of the two due to monopoly concerns), then Quebecor in 1995-2001 (they in turn had to sell it off when they acquired Videotron and TVA), then a joint venture between Cogeco and CTVglobemedia from 2001-08, then Remstar from 2008-20 (who renamed the network V in 2009), and now Bell Media as of 2020 (who renamed the network Noovo, after the network's streaming service of the same name).

English Educational Networks

  • TVOntario (TVO, owned by the Ontario government)
  • Knowledge Network (cable channel in British Columbia owned by the provincial government. They also acquired the BBC Kids specialty channel from Shaw and converted it into a commercial-free network. Despite this, it's still partially owned by the BBC's commercial arm.)
  • Citytv Saskatchewan, formerly SCN, the Saskatchewan Communications Network (cable-only) (formerly owned by the Saskatchewan government and sold to Rogers Media, but still carries educational shows in the daytime)
  • CTV Two Alberta (formerly Access) (formerly owned by the Alberta government and privatized, but still carries educational shows). Originally cable-only, then expanded to over the air with transmitters in Calgary and Edmonton.

French Educational Networks

  • Télé-Québec, Quebec's province-owned public broadcaster. Originally launched in 1968 under the Radio-Québec name as a producer of educational TV and radio programs, it started broadcasting on its own in 1972. It acquired its current name in 1996, long after having abandonned radio productions.
  • TFO (Télévision française de l'Ontario), Ontario's French-language public broadcaster. Originally launching in 1987 as La Chaîne Française—a branch of TVO, it has since been operated by an autonomous crown corporation. It formerly operated OTA transmitters in regions of the province with sizable Francophone populations, but since 2012 it's been cable-only (while transmitters were being built out, TVO briefly continued with its practice of airing French-language programming on Sundays to ensure OTA availability. On the other hand, La Chaîne aired English programming.) It is available on some cable systems in New Brunswick and Manitoba (the latter catering to the native Métis population), and the network also partnered with Louisiana's PBS system to provide French-language children's programs.
    • Canal Savoir (local community owned French language educational channel in the Montreal area)

    Canada, Cable and Satellite Television 
Canadian Multichannel Networks (cable and satellite) in English
  • Bell Media cable networks, which include:
    • The Comedy Network, a network that airs comedies. Known for airing numerous shows from Comedy Central.
    • CTV News Network
    • HBO Canada: Once a joint venture between Bell Media and Corus Entertainment, that operated as individual multiplex channels for The Movie Network and Movie Central. After Movie Central closed in 2016, Bell's feed took over.
    • MuchMusic: Canada's answer to MTV, right down to the Network Decay. Unlike MTV, it still airs music videos frequently, though there have been attempts to lower the minimum amount of music played in favor of entertainment programming. Interestingly enough, Bell also owns a Canadian version of MTV (The second incarnation, which replaced talktv).
    • Space, the main Canadian science fiction channel. It often broadcasts programming from Syfy but it should also be noted for being the home of Orphan Black, Bitten, and Killjoys.
    • TSN (The Sports Network), Canada's version of the Worldwide Leader (who in fact owns a minority stake in it too).
  • CBC News Channel (formerly CBC Newsworld)
  • Corus Entertainment cable networks, which include:
  • Family Channel, a family-oriented pay-TV channel that operates as a specialty network. Until September 1, 2015, it was the de facto Canadian Disney Channel. Originally owned by Astral Media (who also owned The Movie Network and half of Teletoon), it was sold to DHX Media (a.k.a. that one company that gobbled up Cookie Jar and DiC) in 2014 after Bell bought out the company. The next year, DHX cut Family's ties with Disney, while Corus Entertainment launched a domestic version of Disney Channel.
    • Family Jr. (Originally a 24/7 version of the Playhouse Disney block) Launched as both a multiplex of Family and a French-language channel, now known as Télémagino. Its name was previously used for Family's own preschool block, before it became a Disney-branded block.
    • Family CHRGD (aka "CHRGD, Powered by Family", or just "CHRGD") a specialty channel aimed at boys that originally launched as a Canadian version of Disney XD
  • Super Channel, A pay-TV service owned by Allarco Entertainment. It is not to be confused with Movie Central, although Allarco was the original owner of that service. Super Channel is known for airing numerous American cable dramas, Starz original series and, briefly, Anime.
    • Ginx eSports TV Canada: a multiplex version of the U.K-based video game channel. Coincidentally, Rogers would shut down the Canadian version of G4 in the same year this channel was launched.
  • The Weather Network (often abbreviated TWN), Canada's response to The Weather Channel (oddly enough, they also own a minority stake)
Canadian Multichannel Networks (cable and satellite) in French
  • Canal D, which airs content similar to the Discovery Channel. It helps that Bell owns it as a result of the Bell-Astral merger.
  • MétéoMédia, the French equivalent of The Weather Network.
  • Musique Plus, the French equivalent of MuchMusic.
    • Max, the French equivalent of the now-defunt M3, without the music.
  • Le Réseau des Sports (RDS), the French equivalent of TSN.
  • Télétoon, the French equivalent of Teletoon.
  • VRAK, essentially a French-Canadian version of ABC Spark.
  • Z, a channel showing Speculative Fiction content.

Local 24-Hour News Networks (in English)

  • CP24, a local cable news channel in Toronto operated by CTV's station there, CFTO-TV. Was originally a sister to Citytv (the "CP" stood for "CablePulse", referring to CityPulse, the name of Citytv's newscasts at the time), but when CHUM got bought by CTV, they divested Citytv to Rogers but kept CP 24.
  • Global News: BC 1, launched in March 2013 as a sister to Global BC (CHAN-DT in Vancouver).

Local 24-Hour News Networks (in French)

  • Le Canal Nouvelles (LCN), operated in Quebec by the TVA network.
  • Ici RDI (Le Réseau d'Information), CBC News Network's French expy.

Defunct Channels

  • C Channel (five months in 1983). Essentially a prototype to the Canadian Bravo (unrelated to either the American Bravo or the now-defunct UK Bravo, although it does share more similarities with the American Bravo).
  • CKXT-TV/-DT (2003-2011). Local TV station licensed to Toronto and serving southern and eastern Ontario with rebroadcasters in Hamilton, London and Ottawa. Originally owned by Calgary-based Craig Media (the owners of the original A-Channel in Western Canada that merged into Citytv) from its sign-on in 2003 to 2005 and branded as "Toronto 1", then sold to Quebecor and operated through TVA from 2005 to April 18, 2011 as SUN TV (as a sister to the Sun group of newspapers). Operated as a simulcast of Sun News Network from April 18, 2011 to the station's shutdown on November 1, 2011 (the Ottawa transmitter shut down earlier).
  • CityNews Channel, which tried to be a de facto replacement for CP 24 after CTV decided to separate it from Citytv rather than keep it with Rogers after they bought CHUM.
    • M3, Like Much, but trying to skew more towards more older viewers with a "Hot Adult Contemporary"-type music slant and more "mature" dramas and sitcoms. Originally known as MuchMoreMusic.
  • Movie Central (formerly Superchannel; Western Canada only; owned by Corus Entertainment) and The Movie Network (TMN; formerly First Choice; owned by Bell Media), Canada's designated pay-TV services. At one point in their early years, both were marketed as one service. In 2016, Movie Central was closed as Bell expanded TMN to the west coast.

    Canada, Over-the-top Television 
English Internet Video on Demand
  • CBC Gem: Features primarily CBC material, but also carries international productions like Das Boot and Thunderbirds Are Go.
  • Crave, owned by Bell Media and carrying content primarily from Bell Media's library.

French Internet Video on Demand

  • Club Illico, owned by Vidéotron
  • Ici, owned by CBC

    Mexico, Television 
  • Televisa, which originates many of the telenovelas carried by Univision, and is divided into several networks (full descriptions within the main Televisa article;
    • Canal de las Estrellas (Channel of the Stars)
    • Canal 5
    • Gala TV
    • Foro TV
  • TV Azteca, Televisa's troubled but Spirited Competitor, which offers the "Azteca 7" and "Azteca 13" networks, along with a metro channel for Mexico City; all mainly carry entertainment, telenovelas and news programming
  • Multimedios Televisión, a smaller network based in the northern part of the country in Monterrey focusing on that region; this network mainly airs live studio variety shows, sports discussion and news programming, along with limited sports (it owns Monterrey's Sultanes baseball team, airing weekend home games, along with local lucha libre events). But as of 2018, it has acquired licenses to launch new stations in Mexico City and Guadalajara, along with the channel 6 position nationwide, suggesting it will soon join the Televisa/Azteca arms race.
  • Canal Once, a network originating from the Instituto Politécnico Nacional, one of Mexico's largest universities and focusing on cultural and news programming, along with locally-originated drama shows
  • Canal 22, the only nationwide government-owned network, also carrying cultural and news programming
  • Imagen TV, Mexico's third and newest network.

    UK, Television 
  • The BBC (various channels, 1936-39; 1946-present)
  • ITV (1953-present)
  • Channel 4 (1982-present)
  • Channel 5 (1997-present)
  • Sky (1982-present)
  • Other Satellite & Cable Channels
  • Internet Video On Demand
    • Online on-demand services operated by individual networks — BB Ci Player, ITV Player, 4oD, ,Demand Five and Sky On Demand respectively.
  • Former Channels
    • Setanta (1990-2009)
    • Bravo (1985-2011; no relation to the American channel)
    • Channel One (2007-2011; renamed from Virgin 1 in 2010)

    UK, Radio 

    The Netherlands 
The public broadcasting system in the Netherlands has a very unique structure; it is overseen by an umbrella group known as the Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (NPO). Broadcast time on the NPO channels and radio networks are, in turn, assigned to various member-based organizations, each with different scopes and ideologies that reflect the people of the Netherlands, based on their overall size (to the extent that even promos and advertising have a specific organization assigned to them). NPO itself runs three main channels, NPO 1 (the general, flagship channel), NPO 2 (which is oriented towards the arts, current affairs and politics, and religious programming), and NPO 3 (which is more youth-oriented). The broadcasters largely consolidated in 2016 due to budget cuts, resulting in:

  • AVROTROS, a merger of AVRO and TROS. Primarily involved in entertainment programming, especially game and reality shows (they are also responsible for the Netherlands' entries in the Eurovision Song Contest). AVRO was the very first broadcaster in the system, with a liberal ideology. TROS was established in 1964, and, unusually for the time, was focused strictly on entertainment programming rather than trying to serve a religion or ideology. Its popularity led some of the other groups to similarly broaden their programming for wider appeal.
  • BNNVARA, a merger of BNN (Bart's Neverending Network, founded by Bart de Graaff as the Brutaal News Network, but re-named following his death in 2002) — which carried entertainment and issues-based programming targeting young adults, and VARA — which is aligned with the Labour Party. The VARA half is best known for De Wereld Draait Door, which is one of the top programmes in the country. BNN was best-known for De Lama's (the Dutch version of Whose Line Is It Anyway?), and being a Refuge in Audacity (even by the country's liberal standards), such as Try Before You Die (where one episode featured a host streaking at Wimbledon), and their 2007 stunt De Grote Donorshow (a reality show where viewers were asked to help decide who a terminally ill woman should donate her kidneys to. The show was actually a hoax designed to bring awareness to the lack of organ donors in the country; Bart de Graaff was the recipient of a donor kidney, and the special marked the fifth anniversary of his death).
  • Evangelische Omroep (EO), an evangelical broadcaster serving the Protestant Christian faith.
  • KRO-NCRV, a merger of a Catholic-run organization with a Protestant-run organization, and is now the main Christian-oriented broadcaster. KRO was, in its heyday, known for its mystery programming.
  • VPRO, which is dedicated to cultural and intellectual programming (they're historically socialist), and primarily known for its documentaries and films.
  • Max, which mainly serves viewers over 50. Also known for the long-running, poker-themed game show Met het Mes op Tafel.
  • WNL, a conservative broadcaster. Formerly referring to its acronym as "Wakker Nederlands" (but now officially meaningless), it primarily produces several right-leaning news and public affairs programmes, including NPO 1's morning show.

There are two public service broadcasters in the system; NOS (which handles news and sports), and NTR (which handles "informational, cultural and educational programs"). There are also other religious and philosophical groups, designated as "special" broadcasters, who receive airtime for their shows. Some of them have merged with or partnered with the larger groups.

The NPO runs five channels carried primarily on pay television providers;

  • NPO 1 Extra, a classic TV channel; formerly NPO Best
  • NPO 2 Extra, an arts channel; formerly NPO Cultura
  • NPO Nieuws, a news channel
  • NPO Politiek, a political affairs channel. When the parliament isn't in session over the summer, it becomes NPO Sport.
  • NPO Zappelin Extra, a children's channel

The NPO also formerly ran a sixth channel — NPO 101 — a youth channel programmed by BNNVARA. It became NPO 3 Extra in March 2018, and shut down entirely that December, with NPO 1 Extra and NPO Zappelin Extra becoming 24-hour channels.

There are also other commercial channel groups too:

  • RTL Group; technically their channels are based in and also available in Luxembourg, since the Netherlands did not allow domestic commercial television channels until 1992. Their Dutch channels originally began as a joint venture with an offshoot of the influential, former offshore radio operation Veronica, which had previously participated in the public system)
    • RTL 4 (the flagship, largely focused on entertainment)
    • RTL 5 (mainly focused on imports and reality)
    • RTL 7 (mainly focused on men. Was actually known as Veronica initially, and later known as Yorin.)
    • RTL 8 (mainly focused on women. Timeshares with RTL Telekids, a kids channel)

  • Talpa, owned by John de Mol of Endemol and The Voice fame. Talpa's channels are part of a joint venture with Sanoma known as SBS Broadcasting, who acquired ProSiebenSat.1 Media's Dutch business. Talpa had run a channel of its own called Tien, but it didn't perform well, and Talpa sold it to RTL (who replaced it with the aforementioned RTL 8) in exchange for briefly holding a share in RTL's Dutch subsidiary.
    • SBS 6
    • NET 5 (mainly focused on women)
    • Veronica (mainly focused on men. Yes, this is the same Veronica from earlier. It timeshares with the local Disney XD channel)
    • SBS 9



    Middle East 

    China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan 


    South Korea 

    Latin America and Brazil 
  • Argentina:
    • Telefe
    • América
  • Brazil:
    • Rede Globo, the #1 channel in Brazil, as well one of the biggest telenovela developers in the world, being Mexico the #2.
  • Chile:
    • Canal 13, formely called Universidad Católica de Chile Televisiónnote , known for produce original teleseries and TV series.
    • TVN (also called Televisión Nacional de Chilenote ), the only nationwide government-owned network, which also made original content as well transmitted cultural programming. Also has two brother channels: Canal 24 Horas, a 24-Hour News Channel based on TVN's main news program, and TV Chile which only is exhibed in cable and satellite outside Chile with the best of TVN content for chilean people in other countries.
  • Venezuela:
    • Venevisión, its programming borrows quite heavily of the above Mexican channels.
    • TeleSUR, venezuelan channel but sponsored by various Latinamerican govenments, Venezuela included.

    The Philippines 

    New Zealand 


How well does it match the trope?

Example of:


Media sources: