Joan of Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc, 6 January circa 1412 30 May 1431) was a peasant girl who rose from obscurity to lead the French army to several victories during The Hundred Years War, resulting in the coronation of Charles VII as King of France — she did not personally kill anyone, but carried a battle standard and led the army, as well as making tactical decisions. She was born about 1412, and from the age of twelve claimed to see visions of and hear the voices of Saints Catherine, Michael, and Margaret (one of the less understood aspects of her life — either she was lying, or she was mentally ill in some way, or had Meniere's syndrome (which affects the inner ear) or God really was telling her to drive out the English: the reader can draw their own conclusions without stating them here), who she said told her to drive out the English and bring Charles VII to Rheims, then under English control, for his coronation.
After gaining the approval of Charles and a theological commission, she arrived at the siege of Orleans in 1429, where only 17-years-old she led the French to victory; contemporaries acknowledged her as the heroine of the engagement after she was wounded in the neck by an arrow but returned to lead the final charge. She led the French to several other victories, including at Reims, and was present at Charles VII's coronation. In October, Joan took Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier and was granted nobility.
However, a risky skirmish on 23 May 1430 led to her capture. Contrary to popular belief, the Duke of Burgundy, who actually held much of France under English control, was not interested in selling her for ransom. She attempted several escapes, but all failed. The Duke of Burgundy eventually sold her to the English, who wanted their king, Henry VI, to be recognized as the legitimate ruler of France; therefore Joan's victories had put a major crimp in their plans. Formal religion was still very strong during this time, and painting Joan as a heretic helped to cast aspersions on Charles VII's claim to the crown. Perhaps unsurprisingly, she was tried and convicted of heresy before a pro-English court, and forced to sign a renunciation of heresy she did not understand because she was illiterate. Heresy was a capital crime only for a repeat offense; she promised not to wear male clothing, which was considered heretical, but resumed it either as a defense against rape or, in the testimony of Jean Massieu, because her dress had been stolen and she was left with nothing else to wear.
In any case, the church court rejected her supporters' explanations, and she was burned at the stake in 1431. In 1456 her conviction was posthumously reversed, and in 1920 she was declared a Catholic saint.
Her fame also made writers base characters on her, thus the Jeanne d'Archétype.
For further information, see the book Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint, by Stephen W. Richey. For a famous fictional portrayal, there is George Bernard Shaw's play Saint Joan, which fictionalises large amounts of the story and actually seems to make an attempt to redeem her accusers. Mark Twain's impassioned Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc is considered one of the best things he ever wrote. See also Carl Th. Dreyer's famous and critically lauded The Passion of Joan of Arc, which recreates her final days and is a seminal piece of early cinema in its own right.
Tropes as portrayed in media:
- Barefoot Poverty: Sometimes depicted as such in paintings, even ones taking place during her war career, to reflect her humble upbringing.
- Battle Ballgown: Portrayed with this in some illustrations, though there's no proof she wore one. note
- Beethoven Was an Alien Spy:
- The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel reveal that Joan was actually rescued from her burning by Scathach the Shadow and is alive and well in Paris, now over 500 years old. This is a Retcon from a previous book that implied she did die.
- And some Buffy the Vampire Slayer comics imply she was the Slayer.
- Also Puella Magi Madoka Magica states that she was one of many Magical Girls, alongside women like Queen Cleopatra, Queen Himiko (maybe) and Anneliese "Anne" Frank. Joan would later get her own series.
- In the Nasuverse, there are hints that Joan (spelled Jeanne) was being influenced by the Counter Force, and that she made a deal with Alaya to become a Counter Guardian after she died. Even if she didn't, she likely would have ascended to the Throne of Heroes anyway. She becomes one of the 2 protagonists of Fate/Apocrypha and plays a prominent role in Fate/Grand Order.
- Axis Powers Hetalia plays her mostly straight when France tells a young woman named Lissa in the modern day about her, but it's implied that Lissa is actually Joan reincarnated.
- Jeanne d'Arc casts her as a Magical Girl of sorts who fights against the English... and their demonic allies. In this version, it is not her but her best friend Liane, acting as a Body Double, who is burnt at the stake; Joan herself arrives too late to rescue her and has an Heroic BSoD at the horrible sight.
- In The Secret World, your Templar handler, Richard Sonnac, reveals that Joan of Arc was an early member of the Templar faction. He claims that her revealing her faction affiliation (and presumably, her powers) to the world was what resulted in her getting burned at the stake. That being said, he strongly advises (read: demands) that you keep your own faction membership and Bee-imbued powers a secret from the public, lest you meet the same fiery fate.
- In Continuum, Joan of Arc was/is a spanner, and makes up a substantial portion of the police force of Atlantis.
- In Strike Witches: The Movie, one of pictures showcasing Witches across history depicts Joan as being a Witch, depicting her with glowing Mercury's Wings and tail feathers.
- In Witchblade, she was one of the many holders of the titular sentient weapon.
- In Miraculous Ladybug, she was one of the many holders of the Ladybug Miraculous.
- In the Alternate Universe Code Geass manga Nightmare of Nunnally, it's implied that C.C is Joan of Arc, is still alive and wreaking chaos as the Eternal Witch.
- Boyish Short Hair: While many paintings depict her with long flowing hair, she claimed the voices commanded her to cut her hair as well. Her trial transcript describes her as wearing her hair cut above her ears, "en-round like a young coxcomb."
- Germans Love David Hasselhoff: Japanese popular art has rather fallen in love with Jeanne, especially in the post-Cold War era. While part of this is just Japanese pop culture's love of cute girls, it also helps that Jeanne can be easily compared to several prominent women warriors in Japanese history.
- Hearing Voices: Part of what makes her story so fun; her Call to Adventure was the recorded apparition of three saints sending her to lead the French to victory.
- Historical Badass Upgrade: Fictional examples not only portray her as an Action Girl who is at the lead of her army during a charge, but often even portray her as a Master Swordswoman of immense physical strength enough to match a knight's physical conditioning and often being singlehandedly responsible for changing the tides of the Hundred Years War towards France's eventual victory. Some fictional works even portray her as having magical powers. While nonetheless her real life counterpart had very impressive achievements, she is far from the Knight in Shining Armor propaganda and fictional works portray her as in real life. By her own words, she had never killed anyone and didn't directly command, though the noblemen that did attested to taking her advisement due to believing she was divinely inspired. She was also not the only woman to serve in the French army — many widows joined up after their husbands were killed — and not even the only woman to lead an army. But she was by far the youngest to do all those things.
- Historical Beauty Upgrade: From the historical records that saw her in person, she was described as reasonably good-looking but someone masculine with a short and sturdy build and short hair. Most artistic depictions of her often show her as extremely feminine and beautiful to highlight her angelic nature. Its also not uncommon for her to be portrayed as a blonde or redhead instead of a brunette.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: Retellings of her story tend to leave out less than savory decisions that Joan made, including that she was willing to threaten her enemies with massacres, and in at least one case she carried out her threat on the town of Jargeau, with hundreds of civilians being killed in the process. Also, Joan has been attributed with feminist and/or populist views, despite telling one woman what was, in her era, to Stay in the Kitchen.
- Historical Villain Upgrade: In Henry VI Part 1, where her voices are made more demonic in nature, her virginity is hinted to be a lie, and even some of the French distrust her. To be expected of a Theme Park Version of the English perspective of the Hundred Years' War. Years later, another British dramatist, George Bernard Shaw, wrote Saint Joan which went a long way to rub away centuries of anti-Joan English propaganda.
- Jeanne d'Archétype: Trope Maker, Trope Codifier and Trope Namer.
- Knight in Shining Armor: Joan is sort of a female example. She is usually portrayed in full plate armor when not in a Battle Ballgown. She more likely wore leather armor like most soldiers when she was actually in battle. She also had a chain mail overshirt, a long tabard and (rarely depicted) a big hat.
- Lady of War: One of the common depictions of her, though there's no proof of it.
- Only One Name: Her signature was just her personal name and there is no record of her using "d'Arc" herself. Surnames were also not universally used at the time, and it was the local custom in her region for girls to use their mothers' surname (as she said herself at her trial). Her mother was known both as Isabelle Romée and Isabelle de Vouthon, while "d'Arc" comes from her father Jacques.
- Red Baron: She did however refer to herself as "La Pucelle" ("The Maiden").
- Shrouded in Myth: Even before she died, her name had become legend. And in the centuries that followed, she would come to become associated with various ideologies and causes, in time becoming intertwined with the French nation, thanks in part to her mother's endless campaigning and promotional activities.
- Spell My Name with an "S":
- The modern French spelling of her name is Jeanne, and is pronounced like "Jah-ne"; "Joan" is an Anglicization. Works in the modern era, especially ones not originating in English, have tended to preserve the French spelling and pronunciation out of respect, though some still go for Joan. Her name was the one word she could write, and she spelled it "Jehanne".
- "d'Arc" is a later approximation of her father's surname, spelled "Darc" in contemporary records, as apostrophes weren't used in surnames at the time. Thus she did not come from a place called "Arc", but rather from Domrémy.
- Thou Shalt Not Kill: She refused to break this commandment, and typically acted as the standard bearer. Since the standard bearer is the most visible and most tempting target a given army can have, it's entirely possible this was a Wounded Gazelle Warcry to motivate her forces.
Appears in the following works:
- Henry VI Part 1, being a play written by an Englishman, depicts Joan as a scheming villainess.
- Joan of Arc is a 1900 film by Georges Méliès that may be the first Biopic ever.
- The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928), concentrating solely on Joan's trial, suffering, and death, is one of the most famous films of the silent era.
- Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, by the Sieur Louis de Conte is an 1896 novel by Mark Twain. A textbook example of Genre Adultery, it was originally published anonymously so that people wouldn't see Twain's name and expect it to be funny. Twain's wife Olivia regarded it as his best novel.
- Songs of Love and Hate by Leonard Cohen includes "Joan of Arc" in which Joan meets the fire.
- In the novel Bad Dreams by Kim Newman, there is a flashback depicting the immortal villain's encounter with Joan.
- The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc is a 1999 film starring Milla Jovovich that is a deconstruction of the Joan legend. Very Loosely Based on a True Story.
- In book series The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel (2007), she's an immortal.
- In the original Puella Magi Madoka Magica, Joan appears in a flashback that shows her as a Magical Girl, holding on her Soul Gem as she's about to be burned at the stake. It's fair to assume that Madoka used her wish to spirit her and many other magical girls to another plane of existence, sparing her from being burned to death.
- Puella Magi Tart Magica is a spinoff of Madoka Magica that details the life of Joan (the titular Tart) as a Magical Girl.
- An episode of Wishbone adapted the story. It claims to have adapted it via the Twain novel, not that it contains much that is specific to that version.
- Joan appeared as one of the historical figures in Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure; amongst other things she managed to take over an aerobics class at the San Dimas Mall. She was played by Jane Wiedlin of The Go-Go's.
- In Witchblade, Joan is portrayed as a past wielder of the Witchblade, which was confiscated by the Catholic church at her execution.
- Operatic renditions include Verdi's Giovanna d'Arco, Tchaikovsky's Maid of Orleans and Gary Ruffin's 1970 rock opera The Survival of St. Joan. David Byrne is said to be writing another one.
- In theater, there's George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, written in response to her canonization, which is often credited with re-popularizing her in England.
- Jeanne d'Arc, Joan is the protagonist of this strategy-RPG that fuses the Hundred Years War with a Final Fantasy Tactics-esque storyline about demons and transformation bracelets.
- While she made no appearance and had no mention in the original Fate/stay night visual novel, Jeanne has taken a prominent position in the wider "Nasuverse", particularly later Fate media. Her resemblance to King Arthur (it's, uh... complicated) is a major plot point in Fate/Zeronote , and Gilles' vision of her at his death in Zero was her first appearance in the Nasuverse. After this, she is the main protagonist of Fate/Apocrypha and is one of the playable Servants in Fate/Grand Order.
- In Bladestorm The Hundred Years War, she is a major French-aligned NPC with a position roughly equivalent to Edward the Black Prince (who died decades before Joan's rise to fame) on the English side.
- In Age of Empires II, Joan is the main hero of the French campaign, going from unarmed peasant girl who must be escorted to a mighty Hero Unit.
- She is the third Frank hero of Age of Empires: Castle Siege. There, she has the power to convert nearby enemies.
- Drifters has Joan as a pyromaniac Dark Action Girl and one of the villainous Ends, who serve a Black King out to exterminate humanity since he and his groups are people who once loved humans, but were betrayed and murdered by them. The Black King is all but stated to be Jesus, an appropriate lord for her..
- Her clone is one of the main characters of Clone High, depicted as an angsty goth girl as a result of failing to live up to the Jeanne d'Archétype, who is desperately in love with her best friend Abe, and can't seem to ever make him realize said infatuation.
- Deadliest Warrior dedicates a whole episode pitting her and her French army against the forces of William the Conqueror. Joan wins, by the way.
- In Kamikaze Kaitou Jeanne, Joan's reincarnation Maron Kusakabe is a Magical Girl on a Mission from God to seal demons hiding in works of art, which possess and corrupt pure-hearted people who admire their beauty. At some point, Maron travels through time and actually meets Joan herself. Not to mention, the villain Noin Claude was in love with Jeanne (and later with Maron).
- In Rage of Bahamut: Genesis, Joan is the leader of the Orleans Knights and is armed with the legendary spear Maltet, which she uses to kick a lot of ass. Unfortunately, she's still burned at the stake despite the crowds trying to rescue her, and as she crosses the Despair Event Horizon at the sight of the peasants' suffer, the demon Martinet (Gilles de Rais) takes advantage of it and corrupts her, which leads to her FaceHeel Turn.
- Appeared in a Family Guy Cutaway Gag, portrayed as a girl trying way too hard to be One of the Boys. Everyone found her insufferably annoying because she just would not shut up about how she "wasn't like all the other girls". They burned her at the stake just to get rid of her.
- Das Mädchen Johanna (literally, "That girl Joan"), a 1935 propaganda film by Nazi Germany, with the Austrian actress Angela Salloker as Joan. According to The Other Wiki it includes "heavily underlined" political parallels between the June 30 purge and that of Trémoille, and between the Reichstag fire and the execution of Joan in Rouen.
- In the French animated series Il était une fois...: L'Homme ("Once upon a time... man"), episode 13 is dedicated to The Hundred Years War and logically includes Joan. It shows her at first as a long-haired peasant girl who introduces herself to the nobles and the Dauphin, then as a short-haired Lady of War adored by the crowds, at the coronation of Charles VII... and at her execution.
- In Gasaraki, Joan is the third of Miharu's past incarnations. She claimed to her king that she "received visions from the heavens" to serve her kingdom and successfully summoned her Kokai to fought enemies, but due to her conscience ordering to stop slaughtering lives, she ended up caught by the enemy country and was put to death by being burned at the stake. This also marks Phantom's first encounter with a Kai. (In this case, Miharu.)
- Appears in The Chronicles of Wormwood as the sex-crazed mistress of the (Anti-)Anti Christ. Who is English.
- In Miraculous Ladybug, she is mentioned to have been a precursor to Marinette as the holder of the Ladybug Miraculous.
- In Code Geass: Nightmare of Nunnally, Nemo tells Nunnally that C.C is either a clone of Joan of Arc or (most likely) Joan herself. Either way, she survived being burned at the stake due to her Complete Immortality.
- The French comic series Jhen starts with the protagonist trying to rescue her but failing.
- In Dove Keeper, one of the main characters, Jehanne, discovers she is Joan of Arc and that one of her former war companions, Gilles de Rais, used blood sacrifice to resurrect her.
- The protagonist in Perfect Dark is named Joanna Dark, in reference to Joan of Arc.
- Joan's story was dramatized in a three-part 1999 CBS/CBC miniseries simply titled Joan Of Arc. In it, she is portrayed by Leelee Sobieski, whose performance was nominated for an Emmy Award.
- The main heroine of Nobunaga the Fool is Jeanne Kaguya d'Arc whose other name when she's disguised as a Bifauxnen is Ranmaru Mori, the real life Nobunaga's companion.
- The Phantom of the Opera (1962) features a Show Within a Show opera called Saint Joan, about the life of Joan of Arc, written by the Phantom In-Universe.
- History Bites presents Joan of Arc as "The Celibate Celebrity of 1429." It focuses primarily on her lifting the Siege of Orleans, with her ultimate fate being discussed in the epilogue.
- The World of Ice & Fire: Jeyne Poore is Westeros' equivalent to Joan of Arc, being one of the Faith Militant's rebel leaders during the uprising against Maegor the Cruel who was betrayed by her enemies and burned at the stake as an witch.