Sometimes your villain isn't the Mad Scientist who wants to poison the city, or the Corrupt Corporate Executive who wants to control the world, or the greedy bank robber who's on a crime spree. Sometimes, your villain's just an average guy who's brought into villainy against their own will or control. This isn't Mind Control or possession, it's because they've been warped by events around them, and forced into villainy by forces outside their control. A broken shell of a human being, the only thing left is insanity.
To alter an old saying: "Some people are born into insanity, others have insanity thrust upon them." While their villainous actions have no excuse, their cause for becoming villains was entirely (or mostly) out of their hands.
It's rare to find a villain who is truly blameless in their origin, though it does happen. Even origins that lament the cruelty of fate, like The Joker's in The Killing Joke, eventually reveal that the origin is still largely due to the character's choices. Indeed, a villain who is fed up with abuse by others or out for revenge is still making the active choice to be villainous, and if it is still clear that the villain made the choice to be evil themselves rather than have it made for them, then they're not exactly broken, just enraged to the point of vengeance.
However, the trend seems to be that, the more arbitrary their fall into villainy seems to be, the more psychotic they become, as those screwed by the world become angry at the world, and seek to inflict their new madness on everyone. The end result of being Driven To Villainy is not a good person forced to do evil, but a legitimately evil villain, tragically warped by things they never had any control over.
A Sub-Trope of Anti-Villain. Compare Freudian Excuse when older psychological harm is the driving force, and Then Let Me Be Evil when enough people assume someone is a villain that they run with it. Hero-to-villain Mistreatment-Induced Betrayals can apply if the mistreatment is severe enough. Contrast Trapped in Villainy. Such a character may become a Woobie, Destroyer of Worlds. See also From Nobody to Nightmare. The more mundane version of this trope would be Society Is to Blame.
- Happens midway through Cross Ange with Chris, who had been resurrected by Embryo after being shot in the head by a Misurugi soldier and left for dead. Embryo, on top of saving her life, had fed her issues of resentment and fear of abandonment regarding Hilda and Rosalie, making her hate and desire to kill them, and gave her the attention she desired for so long. All of this, combined with the Ragna-mail he grants her to help destroy the people she felt abandoned her, earns him her allegiance.
- Quite a few examples in Naruto, whose author Kishimoto has turned traumatic childhoods into a fine art.
- Gaara comes to mind - upon birth, a demon was sealed inside him, with his mother becoming a sacrifice, so that he could become his ninja village's ultimate weapon. But said demon also makes everyone in the village terrified of him, and he grows up reviled as a monster. Finally, his own father (who arranged the whole thing in the first place), finding him growing unstable, sends assassins to kill him. The first assassin is his beloved uncle, the only one who seems to care for him, who reveals that he's actually secretly hated him all these years for killing his sister (Gaara's mom, the one who was sacrificed to make him what he was), and that his mother had died cursing the village and hoped that Gaara killed them all - his name, given by her, means "The Demon who loves only himself". Naturally, he finally snaps, and spends the next few years killing everyone he runs across as a way of proving that he exists. Oh, and the demon in question prevents him from sleeping, less it starts eating away at his mind.
- Tobi aka Obito Uchiha is an even more literal example. At him as well as in the previous example was bad childhood but he all the same remained kind and responsive child. But after his entire right side was is crushed by a boulder while saving Kakashi, he took with Kakashi promise to protect Rin at any cost. Later he was rescued by Madara, which decides to put his through Despair Event Horizon in order to made him the perfect accomplice for his plan. So he took under control various shinobi, including Rin, to create a situation where Obito would witness the death of the one person who made his life worth living. Ultimately Obito was witnessed how the love all of his life was killed his best friend who promised to protect her at any cost (though Madara himself admitted that it was only a happy coincidence). And despite easily being the most decent of all the Uchiha in the series, not even Obito was immune to the clan's most fatal flaw: their ability to love more deeply than anyone else. If anything, it was worse for him seeing as he was the most idealistic and emotional of all the Uchiha, and thus his sense of love was far deeper than usual. And also if take into account that Madara placed a seal on Obito's heart which would have prevented him from killing himself should he had abandoned the Moon's Eye Plan and opted for an easier way to end his suffering... you really can't blame the guy for going insane.
- Hayate Yagami from Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha A's? She is de jure the Big Bad, since all the fighting takes place for her sake but de facto she doesn't even know that her servants (whom she considers her family) are committing crimes for her and joins Team Nanoha immediately after The Reveal. Also, very much an example of Woobie, Destroyer of Worlds.
- Johan Liebert from Monster. No, really. Hard as it is to imagine, he was once a frightened little boy clinging to his mother's leg before he was systematically warped by secret psychological torture that actually happened to his sister, and that he managed to accidentally create as a false memory for himself and then even more brainwashing to become the perfect little East German super-soldier. While he was already a full-on Enfant Terrible by age 6 or 7, he wasn't born that way, and would not have become how he ended up without these traumas.
- It's implied that what actually broke him was, at the age of six, realizing that his mother favored one of the children more than the other when she willingly handed one over to Bonaparta. The knowledge that people were inherently different and that favouritism could drive people to do things like that
- Mao from Code Geass. A Yandere who shoots C.C. and proposes taking a chainsaw to her in order to make her 'compact' for a trip to Australia, as well as attempting to blow up Nunnally. Also adept at Breaking Speech-slash-Mind Rape, which he uses twice. However, he is also completely barmy because he cannot shut off the thoughts of others, thus mitigating his moral culpability for his above acts, as C.C. hints at before blowing his brains out.
- Aion in the manga version of Chrono Crusade was badly psychologically damaged after discovering the Awful Truth—so badly that it even had a marked physical effect on him. That event warped him into the Well-Intentioned Extremist we see him as in the series.
- Ken Ichijouji from Digimon Adventure 02 wished his older brother would disappear, and eventually had to cope with his death in a car wreck. A Compelling Voice brought him into Another Dimension and he finally lost it, becoming The Digimon Emperor.
- Almost all of the Black Lagoon cast not in major leadership positions. Hansel and Gretel are a particularly sad example.
- Heirverse: Jac was actual a pretty decent king before the shinigami killed Maria and Carlos
- Perhaps the best example of this trope is Max Eisenhardt aka Magneto from the X-Men. His origin story is enough to drive anyone to villainy, and yet, throughout the comics (and the movies) he is shown as not fueled by revenge, blind hate against humanity, or the desire to do evil. His ultimate motivation is to fight for his own kind - the Mutants - which he sees as persecuted by the common humans for being different and perceived as dangerous.
- Spider-Man is loaded with these: The Lizard is another example, as long as you don't count that time where they implied that Conners was in control the whole time (neither the fandom or writers do, however). Norman Osborn has gone so far as to feign that this is the cause for all his crimes.
- In the Spider-Man comics, the Hobgoblin from the year 2211 is revealed to be this. She's the daughter of that years' time traveling Spider-Man, who is forced to arrest her due to crimes that she would commit in the future, and placed in a virtual reality prison, which is programmed into her brain to keep her in a fantasy world. Her boyfriend tries to free her with a computer virus, which instead adversely effects the fantasy, warps her mind and drives her completely insane. True to form, her imprisonment is what caused her insane criminal spree in the first place. She uses her knowledge as an inter-dimensional researcher to create time traveling equipment and goes on a history-erasing rampage through time.
- Before it was retconned that he had actually been possessed the whole time, Hal Jordan's FaceHeel Turn into the Knight Templar supervillain Parallax was portrayed as this, having gone insane with grief over the annihilation of his hometown of Coast City.
- The Homelander in The Boys was never a saint, but he was driven to become a monster because he believed he was already hopelessly murderously insane when he saw images of himself committing horrible crimes (like baby eating) that he didn't remember. His clone Black Noir dressed up as him and framed him for his crimes to drive Homelander crazy so he could fulfill his purpose: to kill Homelander.
- King Sombra from My Little Pony: FIENDship Is Magic sways between being this and a Tragic Monster. Although actually an Umbrum that is inherently evil, he was born an innocent with a good heart and mainly driven to evil due to the inaction of Princess Amore who secretly knew the truth about him but did nothing, and ultimately was driven right into the clutches of the red crystal that awakened the evil within him and sent him after the Crystal Empire. Even at his worst, though, he still couldn't bring himself to harm his one friend Radiant Hope.
- Magneto from the X-Men Film Series. See Comic Books entry above.
- The Dark Knight's Harvey Dent/Two-Face. Given that he got his new worldview from The Joker while lying medicated in a hospital bed recovering from both a disfiguring injury and a horrible tragedy, you feel sorry for the guy as he performs his horrible acts throughout the rest of the film. Though there was some foreshadowing that he was walking along the slippery slope before the Joker gave him the push.
- Francis Dolarhyde out of the Hannibal Lecter film Manhunter:
Will Graham: As a child, my heart bleeds for him. Someone took a little boy and turned him into a monster. But as an adult... as an adult, he's irredeemable. He butchers whole families to fulfill some sick fantasy. As an adult, I think someone should blow the sick fuck out of his socks.
- In the Spider-Man Trilogy, both the Green Goblin and Doc Ock had elements of this. The former was driven insane by gas and the other by an AI and a Fail Safe Failure.
- In Pain and Gain, Paul objects to Daniel's kidnapping plan from the start and only goes along with it after he's promised that they won't physically hurt anyone. From there he gets progressively dragged further into the scheme and is eventually urged to kill the victim. His ensuing addiction to cocaine makes him spiral further out of control until he atones for his crimes and professes his guilt to the authorities.
- This seems to be the case with Major West from 28 Days Later. Though it doesn't even come close to justifying the horrible things he wanted to do, he seems as if he was a decent person once and a Father to His Men who had crumbled under the pressure of the apparent post-apocalyptic hell they now lived in and been driven to horrific extremes to keep his men from loosing hope and (in one case) attempting suicide.
- Lewis seems to be very much this in Touch, stating outright that he only acts as a tracker for the various criminal organizations of New York because it is what his mother did before him, and he was never allowed the opportunity to keep his powers to himself.
- The prequel to The Walking Dead, The Rise of the Governor reveals the backstory of what was a monster in the comics and makes him out to be a Tragic Villain.
- In the prequels to The Belgariad, it is revealed that Zedar's FaceHeel Turn was not a voluntary action of joining Torak, but rather a case of Torak incurably mind raping him.
- V. C. Andrews has this in the more infamous big bads in the series. The tragic past of the main villain is usually revealed in a prequel.
- Kissin' Kate Barlow in Holes by Louis Sachar was a sweet schoolteacher until the town she taught in lynched the man she loved because he'd kissed her, and they were different races.
- In Aunt Dimity Goes West, it is revealed that an infamous local mine disaster was due to sabotage caused by a disgruntled employee who had owned the claim originally, sold it for a pittance ($5,000.00), and later learned it contained a rich vein of gold (worth $200 million!). It also turns out that his wife committed suicide, his son was sent to an orphanage, and his great-grandson later reopened the mine and set a bomb in it to destroy the house built on the site by the owner's descendants.
- In Horus Heresy, Magnus is actually trying to warn his father of Horus' treachery, but the Emperor disbelieves him and sends Leman Russ to capture his Legion. On the way, Horus tampers with orders to make them say "kill" and to save the Thousand Sons, Magnus is forced to pledge loyalty to Tzeentch.
- A character in an early episode was mutated by a combination of Kryptonite and hypothermia. In order to prevent freezing to death, he had to drain people of their body heat (which, if he waited too long to do it, would result in their deaths) in order to survive, and a case could be made that he wasn't truly villainous, and was forced to kill people in order to survive. However the guy was made such a self-centered, vindictive psychopathic Jerk Ass that the point became moot.
- Another episode had a girl who had to regularly eat human flesh to keep from starving to death (regular food didn't work). She never actually killed anyone, just left them near death from the damage to their bodies. This was clearly a case of Horror Hunger, and in at least one instance, she urged a potential victim to run away.
- For real tragedy, see Davis Bloome in Season 8. A Nice Guy paramedic, Davis suffers from constant black outs and discovers that he has alien Serial Killer and Person of Mass Destruction Doomsday trapped inside him, and that the only way to keep the monster from taking over and slaughtering dozens of people is to kill individual victims. He thus becomes a Pay Evil unto Evil-type Anti-Hero, murdering those he considers to be deserving of it in order to keep his inner monster trapped. This eventually drives him completely insane, and results in his descent into true villainy.
- In the Criminal Minds episode "True Night", we see a comic book artist become a serial killer after he survived an attack which killed his (pregnant) fiancee, with his inability to protect her being the root of his villainy.
- The Queen from Once Upon a Time. She did many horrible things, but they were done because she crossed the Despair Event Horizon after her mother ripped her boyfriend's heart out in front of her. It was also kind of Snow White's fault, though she didn't do it on purpose.
- Rumplestiltskin was one of the main villains of the series. He committed many terrible crimes and screwed people over, but the reason he became the Dark One in the first place was to save his son. His son would have been forcefully recruited to fight a losing war against ogres on his fourteenth birthday (the reason kids were fighting is because so many people were killed that they were running low on troops). He was manipulated into becoming the Dark One by the previous one, who was tired of doing the job himself. The power was implied to be corrupting Rumplestiltskin. Never mind the fact that Baelfire left Rumplestiltskin because he became the Dark One (or more accurately, because he grew too fond of the power given to him by the Dark One's Dagger).
- Many criminals from The Wire are born into unrelenting and abject poverty, have no positive figures such as caring parents or role models around them, and the societal systems that are supposed to help them (schools, police, social services) are crumbling or being outright dismantled by Sleazy Politicians and the like. Is it any wonder many of them turn to theft and drug dealing?
- River Song in Doctor Who was engineered all her life to be a psychopath to kill the Doctor. In the end, it was the suit she was in that actually murdered the Doctor, not herself. Or something. Then she and the Doctor got married.
- Soaps like to pair this with Derailing Love Interests, when it becomes obvious that reason that the love interest in question went off the deep end is that they finally snapped after months or even years of being jerked around by their lover—As the World Turns Julia went from Mary Sue to Yandere as boyfriend and later husband Jack constantly flip-flopped between her and Carly.
- Fou-lu in Breath of Fire IV. He is a Physical God who is also the King in the Mountain for the country he founded as a God-Emperor (after being summoned there by a Vestigial Empire—who buggered up the summoning leading to aforementioned Physical God developing a Literal Split Personality that ends up displaced 600 years in the future). Unfortunately, said empire has become The Empire over six hundred years of hibernation, The Emperor doesn't want to give up his seat, one of The Emperor's main assistants is Mad Scientist Yuna who convinces him he can kill a god, and this ends up in increasingly more extreme methods by The Empire to kill Fou-lu (eventually culminating in the use of a Fantastic Nuke which runs on nightmares and created the the Cold-Blooded Torture and Human Sacrifice of people with very close connections to the target...with Fou-lu's girlfriend used as the Thermonuclear Country Girl because aforementioned Fantastic Nuke also works on the principle of Love Hurts). This cascading Pain Train Breaks The Cutie to the point Fou-lu ends up a Woobie, Destroyer of Worlds.
- [PROTOTYPE] has Alex Mercer, who wakes up in a morgue to find out that he has Easy Amnesia and has been turned into a horrifying Voluntary Shapeshifter. Cue Roaring Rampage of Revenge. This is played straight, subverted, and then inverted: Upon waking, Alex does horrible things like
eatconsume people in order to figure out what is going on. It's hard to blame him too much for being batshit crazy, though, considering he's been turned into a living virus and has no memory of who he is or what happened to bring him to this point and people have been trying to brutally murder him since he woke up. That's the played straight. It's then subverted when it's revealed that Alex himself is the one who released the deadly virus, dubbed "Blacklight", that turned him into a monster and is currently decimating New York state. Flashbacks show you that Alex is a sociopath who deliberately engineered an already deadly virus to become ten times more dangerous, and then stole a sample and unleashed it upon the general populace when he was shot dead with the mindset of "If I'm going down, I'm Taking You with Me." That's the subversion. Now the inversion shows up in this way: It turns out that Alex isn't the one who released the Blacklight Virus. Well, he is, but the twist is this: The Alex you've been controlling isn't the real Alex Mercer. When he was shot dead, he was actually killed off for real. Turns out that the Alex you know isn't even human; he's the Blacklight Virus itself in a human avatar. The reason this is an inversion is because it/he goes from originally being the Mad Scientist that the real Alex was, to a Sociopathic Hero, to a person who becomes empathetic enough over the course of the game to actually express disgust over who the real Alex was and risk its life to save Manhattan from being nuked.
- Myst III: Exile has Saveedro, whose entire homeworld was apparently destroyed and who now wants to force the man he blames to see what happened, so he steals a book from him. When he finds out the player isn't the person he's looking for, he kills you if he gets the opportunity.
- Keiichi, Shmion, Rena, and, to an extent, Satoko in Higurashi: When They Cry. They don't choose to become villains when they do start killing people, as it's caused by a combination of the Hate Plague, Hinamizawa Syndrome and some overall bad shit that happens to them.
- Bernkastel in Umineko: When They Cry. She's essentially an incarnation of all of the Rikas who died in Hinamizawa as her friends went insane and killed each other and the entire village was destroyed. Well, it's no wonder that the combination of all of that had some mental damage. It's the "having the power to screw around with other worlds" part that causes the problems.
- Isair and Madae, the Big Bads of Icewind Dale II. While their origins — half-demon half-elves shunned and misunderstood or manipulated by everyone, whose mother committed suicide when she first saw them — are undeniably tragic, it's very clear they've crossed the line into choosing villainy at the point the Legion of the Chimera started burning and looting the Ten Towns.
- Kael'Thas Sunstrider in World of Warcraft. His homeland was wrecked, his people's allies in the Alliance turned on them, and long term exposure to the Sunwell followed by its' removal had given his people addictions to magic. The only way to escape the Alliance general hunting him was to flee to Outland, and the only place to get large amounts of magic in Outland is to absorb it from demons. Tragically, Fel energy is even more addictive than normal magic and makes one Drunk on the Dark Side, to the point where Kael is willing to align with the same Demon Lord who ordered his homeland destroyed in the first place to get more power.
- Kael's boss Illidan a debatable example. His entire life consists of Well-Intentioned Extremist actions and being punished for them until he finally flees Azeroth altogether and bulids an empire in Outland in an attempt to escape the Burning Legion's ire. Like Kael, the influence of Fel magic made him more and more willing to enslave and slaughter anyone who didn't fall in line.
- The Zandalari trolls maintained strict neutrality for millennia until the Cataclysm caused their homeland to begin slowly sinking into the ocean. Realizing that the other troll civilizations were on the verge of extinction as well, they rallied the tribes in an attempt to build a new troll empire. They even allied with the Mogu and the Thunder King in hopes of finding a new homeland in Pandaria.
- The two evil gods in the Disciples series didn't get this way on their own. Bethrezen was once an angel of Highfather, and Mortis was once known as Solonielle, the goddess of the elves and the merfolk. However, Bethrezen was misblamed for creating the world of Nevendaar as a Crapsack World (the other angels screwed it up out of jealousy and blamed him), and Highfather imprisoned him forever in the molten core of Nevendaar. Naturally, Bethrezen grew to hate Highfather and his own creation, eventually creating a race of demons to free him and destroy the world. Solonielle's lover Gallean was brutally killed by Wotan for daring to suggest that Wotan's dwarves pay for slaughtering innocent elves. Wotan threw Gallean's heart into the sun, and Solonielle managed to catch it, but her flesh was burned off as a result. Thus she became the fleshless goddess Mortis, who massacres a magical people and turns them into her undead minions. After finally reviving Gallean, he takes one look at her and leaves. Basically, all gods are jerks.
- Grand Theft Auto 2: The manual jokes that the Krishnas went crazy on account of being run over all the time.
- Many of the demon hordes from Nexus Clash were mortals who were hunted by Knight Templar angels for nor being sufficiently Good, who in turn said Then Let Me Be Evil and made bargains with the Dark Powers to gain the power to fight back.
- Baten Kaitos Origins reveals that Geldoblame was this prior to becoming the sadistic megalomaniac he was by the time Baten Kaitos rolls around, albeit for somewhat shallow reasons. Initially he was a genuinely good man, if a little too unhealthily obsessed with Quaestor Verus (to the point of Ho Yay), and learning that Verus was the true Big Bad, a genuine monster who was only using him, was too much for him. Que a beautiful cackling swan-dive off the slippery slope.
- The antagonistic humans in Alien: Isolation are all driven to kill and attack purely out of the building desperation, paranoia, and Sanity Slippage caused by just trying to survive the Xenomorph and the aggressive Working Joes. You even hear them reassuring and trying to comfort one another and sometimes overhear them rambling about how they just want to see their families again, and some groups of survivors will only attack if you bother them or try to steal their stuff.
- RWBY: Ilia Amitola joined the White Fang after her parents were killed in a Dust mine and her human friends laughed about it, leading to her beating them up and breaking their teeth. She argues that the White Fang terrorism against humans is acceptable because there's no such thing as innocent humans — they either actively hate Faunus or stand back and let the hate happen. She's therefore willing to follow Adam's more extreme path to a world where the humans are broken and enslaved to the Faunus. She only comes to her senses when Blake uses her parents against her, asking what Ilia thinks her parents would say if they could see what their daughter's turning into.
- MAG-ISA: Kyle, Alice, and Chu were forced by their tragic childhoods to join the cult known as "The Order".
- In The Order of the Stick, The Dragon Redcloak's race (goblins) was, at least according to his god, created for the sole purpose of being slaughtered for easy XP by the PC races. In his Start of Darkness prequel, Knight Templar good guys destroyed his home, nonchalantly killing noncombatants such as children and old folks, including his entire family except for one of his brothers. So when a vision from his god showed him how he could potentially make the lives of his people better, he took it, despite it having the risk of undoing creation if it fails. As author Rich Burlew put it in the introduction:
- In Worm, this is the case for many of the villains. Bitch never had an opportunity to be anything more than a villain after she killed her abusive foster mother, Regent was born to a family of villains and forced to commit crimes with them from the moment he got his powers, and Skitter started out as The Mole before being screwed by Armsmaster and realizing that the system was broken.
- Lewis seems to be very much this in Touch, stating outright that he only acts as a tracker for the various criminal organizations of New York because it is what his mother did before him, and he was never allowed the opportunity to keep his powers to himself.
- Electro is done this way in The Spectacular Spider-Man. While working in Curt Connors' lab, he falls victim to an accident that leaves him charged with electric energy, unable to live safely without a suit covering him at all times. Over the course of the episode, his mentality degrades more and more as he fails to deal with the loss of his humanity and is repeatedly attacked by Spiderman (who doesn't realize the situation), and the cops (who do, but deal with it too harshly). His first criminal act is merely to try to hold Connors hostage until he can come up with a cure, but he eventually goes completely insane and detaches himself completely from himself and his sanity.
- An even better example is John Jameson from the same. After piloting his spaceship safely back to Earth, he is exposed to alien spores, which infect his body and increase his size and strength. His father convinces him to become a superhero, but the spores eventually effect his mind, making him more aggressive and filled with rage, eventually causing an extreme personality change. After Venom, acting as Spiderman, attacks him, he flies into a rage and goes on a rampage to kill Spidey. Though he is ultimately cured, the experience took its toll; the spores had him enough that, with them gone, he is obsessively addicted to them. He's last seen in an insane asylum, with a cell next to Electro, who echoes his position. If he appears again as a villain, the cycle will be complete. This is somewhat more evident as this than Electro, as, in this case, Jameson was one of the more heroic supporting characters in the series.
- Deconstructed with Demona from Gargoyles. If you ask her about it, she'd certainly tell you at length about how humans have always hated, feared, and mistreated gargoyles and all of her evil actions are justified to protect her race from the human threat, and she has a thousand years of tragic backstory to back it up. A closer examination of said backstory, though, shows that Demona's own track record of phenomenally poor decisions is responsible for at least as much of her suffering as outside agency and that her real motivation is somewhere between revenge and misdirected self-loathing which manifests as Fantastic Racism against humans. Ultimately, it is her inability to recognize her own culpability in the suffering of herself and those around her- and as a result, her inability to move on- which is the true tragedy of Demona.