The term "Mesopotamian mythology" covers the ancient religions of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, and Babylon. Obviously, Mesopotamia figures heavily in the Bible; Abraham and his kin were, mostly likely, natives of the Sumerian city of Ur. Several passages and allusions, including The Great Flood myths, are strikingly similar to descriptions in the Bible.
Sumer, as you might have learned in your World History classes, was probably the oldest human civilization. It flourished from the 5th to the 3rd millennia BCE. Sumer began and ended as a collection of city-states in what is now Iraq. It's usually assumed that Sumerians were responsible for the invention of year-round agriculture, writing, the wheel, irrigation, and beer. Since the Sumerian language has no known cognates, it's anyone's guess where they came from. Some "writers" take this a step further and argue that the Sumerians were either assisted by aliens or were aliens themselves.
As mentioned, Sumer was largely composed of various cities and settlements typically fighting among themselves. Thus, rather than a unified nation, in reality, Sumer was more akin to a collection of states that spoke a common language and worshiped largely the same pantheon.
Sumer began to decline in the 3rd millennium BCE. Like the collapse of any superpower, there were a lot of reasons for this, but the primary cause, it seems, was that they were displaced by Akkadians and various other Semitic peoples. After Sumer's decline, there arose the Akkadian Empire, who "borrowed" the Sumerian gods in a similar fashion to the way the Romans borrowed the Greek gods. The Akkadian Empire was not as fortunate as Sumer had been, though, and its rule collapsed after about a century. But the Akkadians proved to be a plucky lot, founding new cities of their own and retaking their old lands, only to be continually reconquered by their neighbors, restarting the whole process. They would eventually regroup into the united Babylonian civilization, establishing a stronger empire more organized and advanced than their predecessors for more than a thousand years.
Names and nation aside, the Babylonians never forgot their roots. The pantheon largely stayed the same, the method of writing from clay tablets was kept, and their mother tongue was preserved in literature among the priests and noble castes (and as a spoken language), to some degree. It's in this period that the majority of our knowledge from Sumer is derived. The Babylonians, if nothing else, were excellent record keepers, maintaining and adding to the Sumerian corpus and preserving their ancestors' more notable myths and stories... Until they were all conquered in 539 BCE by the Persians, which rendered the whole thing pretty moot.
Studying Mesopotamian mythology, in general, is a little bit easier than studying most Indo-European mythologies because the Mesopotamians were literate. Even so, there's a lot of conflicting information. The most likely reason is an evolution of their religion over time as the names of gods and places changed (or were rewritten) over time. As Mesopotamian mythology was largely forgotten until serious archeology got underway in the 19th century, is very ancient, and can generate some massive Values Dissonance for modern readers, it can seem quite strange and uncanny to modern eyes; when a creature from this mythos appears in modern fiction, it thus tends to be as a Mesopotamian Monstrosity.
Major characters of Mesopotamian Mythology include:
- Anu, god of heaven and the stars.
- Ashnan, grain goddess and Food God
- Enlil (Ellil) The god of the wind and the sky. Often identified with Jupiter.
- Enki (Ea) The god of water and wisdom. Enki was much more fond of humanity than most other gods and was generally a pretty groovy guy, if a bit eccentric. Often identified with Mercury.
- Ishkur (Adad), god of storms. He is either the brother of Enki or a son of Nanna and Ningal.
- Nammu, (Tiamat) goddess of the primeval waters.
- Ki, goddess of the earth.
- Lahar, cattle goddess and Food God
- Ninhursag (Ninmah, Nintu, Mamma, Aruru, Belet-Ili), goddess of nature and earth, and the wife of Enki. May or may not be the same as Ki, above.
- Ninlil (Sud, Mulittu), the wife of Enlil and usually the mother of Nanna, Nergal, Ninazu, Ninurta and Enbilulu.
- Nanna (Suen, Sin), god of the moon. His wife is Ningal, goddess of the reeds.
- Nergal, god of fire, destruction, war, plagues, and occasionally, the sun. Often identified with Mars.
- Ninurta, god of agriculture, healing, and destruction. Often identified with Saturn.
- Ereshkigal (Allatu, Irkalla), the ruler of the underworld, older sister of Inanna and wife of Nergal. They're the daughters of either Anu or Nanna. Often identified with Hecate.
- Inanna (Ishtar, Inana), goddess of warfare, love, and fertility. Often identified with Venus.
- Utu (Shamash), god of justice and the sun, son of Nanna and Ningal.
- Marduk, water, vegetation, judgment, and magic; son of Enki and Damkina. As the patron deity of Babylon who was created to justify the Babylonians' dominance, you could call him an Ur-Example of a Marty Stu.
Works on the wiki that represent Mesopotamian Mythology:
Tropes found in Mesopotamian mythology:
- The Almighty Dollar: The cattle-goddess, Lahar, and the grain goddess, Ashnan, are both examples of wealth goddesses in a culture which measured wealth in terms of fields of grain and herds of livestock. Written on clay tablets during the mid to late 3rd millennium BCE, the Sumerian creation myth is the Myth of cattle and grain.
- Always Chaotic Evil: The Allu, Asakku, Gallu and Rabisu.
- An Axe to Grind: Lugalbanda is one of the strongest mortals in the myths and wields an axe.
- Anti-Villain: An Ur-Example in Tiamat. She pleaded with her husband Apsu to not murder their children, and afterwards she went to war with the gods partly out of grief and partly because they flat out stated they would execute her anyway.
- Back from the Dead: Dumuzi, Inanna's husband, in a "Just So" Story about the origin of the seasons.
- Badass Boast: Several, both among gods and kings. Unusually, this boast of Anzud is an invitation rather than a threat that qualifies, nevertheless."I am the prince who decides the destiny of rolling rivers. I keep on the straight and narrow path the righteous who follow Enlils counsel. My father Enlil brought me here. He let me bar the entrance to the mountains as if with a great door. If I fix a fate, who shall alter it? If I but say the word, who shall change it? Whoever has done this to my nest, if you are a god, I will speak with you, indeed I will befriend you. If you are a man, I will fix your fate. I shall not let you have any opponents in the mountains. You shall be Hero-fortified-by-Anzud."
I shall smash the doornote and shatter the bolt,
- Inanna has a pretty badass one that she says in versions of Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld and in The Epic of Gilgamesh.
I shall smash the doorpost and overturn the doors,
I shall raise up the dead and they shall eat the living:
And the dead shall outnumber the living!
- Belligerent Sexual Tension: The courtship of Ereshkigal and Nergal. Ironically, when they finally liberate their tension, it only complicates things even more.
- Bi the Way:
- Some versions of the story of Inana's journey to the Underworld state that Inana and her servant/companion Ninshubur were lovers. In addition, some texts imply she wasn't averse to taking females to her bed either.
- Gilgamesh and Enkidu were very close companions, to the extent that certain variations of the story state outright that Gilgamesh loved him as a woman would a man. On the other hand, Enkidu was made to begin with when Gilgamesh terrorized his people such as forcibly taking husband's wives, and occasionally husbands themselves.
- Big Good: Enki is the main benevolent deity and the one who usually fixes the wrongs caused by other gods.
- Big, Screwed-Up Family: The line of the gods begins with three generations of incest to begin with, on top of close relatives who would've been cousins at most marrying and having children of their own.
- Bilingual Dialogue: Since a large portion of Sumerian texts were found on tablets of scribes and apprentice scribes, much of it was translated from their native Akkadian as writing exercises. This proved invaluable to modern archeologists in deciphering the language.
- Blow You Away: Enlil, god of wind and air. Also Ishkur, god of storms.
- Book-Ends: One praise poem to Inana wrote that she oversaw a warrior's life from the cries of their parents' love making up to their death screams on the battlefield.
- Boring, but Practical: Sumerians and their Akkadian descendants used clay tablets rather than expensive paper or papyrus to write as many others did. On top of being cheap and easy to make, the hardness of the inscribed clay survived to the present day in much better shape than any form of writing that came after until the invention of computers. It was also easily reusable (break, soak, make into new tablet), meaning they didn't need to bother with complex writing methods to save space like paper-using civilizations did.
- Broken Record: Sumerian poems love to repeat passages verbatim, a lot. The repetition made it easier for both storytellers and scribes to remember the contents, and also served as a chorus to the chanting that would have accompanied performances. This aspect is somewhat Lost in Translation as the rhyme and meter are left out.
- Canon Immigrant: Many religious scholars believe that Inanna, due to the difficulty in deciphering the origin of her name, her constantly changing parentage, and the fact that she explicitly had no responsibilities at first, was originally a Proto-Euphratean goddess incorporated into the Sumerian pantheon.
- Cessation of Existence: The fates of the dead varied depending on the number of children you left behind and the state in which you were killed, but those burnt to death had their souls extinguished in the smoke. This made for a particular Fate Worse than Death for the accused.
- Can be observed from looking at the oldest Sumerian myths to its later derivatives.
- Nammu went from the sole creator goddess in Sumerian myths to her more well-known Babylonian version Tiamat, a co-creator (who after the death of her husband, though, became a tyrant that is probably the Ur-Example of God Save Us from the Queen!).
- Sumerian Ereshkigal was the sole ruler of the underworld, but in later Assyro-Babylonian myths she was subdued by Nergal, or at least shared her power with him.
- Her sister Inana was regularly decreed to be the wife of a king, explicitly stated to have been given their blessing through her and consummated in ritual sex by a high priestess. Gradually over time, rulers asserted their bloodlines as divine, downplaying its significance. In late Sumerian and early Babylonian coronations, the reverse was true and she was said to submit to a king's dominance.
- Several other goddesses are known to us mainly as Shallow Love Interests that are also believed to have held more prominent roles in prehistory before being changed, as evidenced by the feminine "Nin" prefix attached to several deities.
- Child Eater: Dimme and Dimme-kur (Akhkhazu). Sometimes Lilitu as well.
- The Coup: When the younger gods (led by Marduk in the Babylonian version) overthrow Tiamat and Apsu.
- Crapsack World: Humans were created to be slaves to the gods and when they died, they all went to the same gloomy underworld. Any wonder why their scribes wrote stuff like this:"Tears, lament, anguish and depression are within me. Suffering overwhelms me. Evil fate holds me and carries off my life. Malignant sickness bathes me."
- Dark Is Not Evil: Though moody and demanding, most of the gods of the Netherworld weren't really evil per se.
- Death by Sex: Commonly said to be the fate of all of Inanna's lovers eventually. This is why Gilgamesh turns her down.
- Divine Conflict: The Babylonian creation myth Enûma Eli is likely the Ur-Example. It deals with the conflict between the primordial divine couple Apsu and Tiamat, and their descendants the Annunaki.
- Divine Parentage: The vast majority of humans who figure at all in the myths have this. Several rulers also claimed to be sons or honorary husbands to goddesses as justification.
- Dragons Are Divine: Tiamat, the primordial goddess of the ocean, is often depicted as a dragon.
- Dragons Prefer Princesses: In one myth, a dragon named Kur kidnaps the beautiful goddess Ereshkigal and takes her to the Netherworld, forcing her to become the queen of the plane for eternity. In a twist, although the dragon is defeated by Enki and she later gains some sympathetic moments in her interactions with Nergal, she is technically never rescued from her prison (though given that she has since turned it into a full fledged kingdom, it's easy to guess she doesn't want to go anymore).
- Eldritch Abomination: Though often described as dragons, Tiamat, Apsu, Kingu and Mummu fit this trope much better.
- Evil vs. Evil: The demon of sickness Pazuzu was often invoked to ward off a fellow demon Dimme to purge the afflicted.
- The Greek goddess, Aphrodite, is usually assumed to be an expy of Astarte, a Canaanite version of Inanna.
- Ereshkigal herself appears to be an underworld expy of her twin, Inanna (and some believe they may have even been the same goddess at one point!).
- Femme Fatale: Inanna, of course.
- Fisher King: The prosperity of a king's land and people are often depicted as tied to his health according to the tributes made for them.
- Garden of Love: A surviving set of love lyrics celebrates the relationship between the scribe god Nabu and his divine consort Tametu, who playfully make love in a garden.
- Gender-Blender Name: A decent number of obviously-male gods have names that start with "Nin" (like Ninurta above)—translated as "lord" when it applies to them, this word is otherwise exclusively feminine, meaning "lady", "maiden", or "sister". Then you have the issue with the priestess Ninshubur mentioned below, and it makes you wonder...
- Giant Corpse World: Marduk slew the goddess Tiamat, and he created the world from her corpse.
- The Glorious War of Sisterly Rivalry: Inanna and Ereshkigal had quite a massive one.
- The Great Flood: Possibly the Trope Maker. Somewhat amusing to note is that, in contrast to the stories of depravity and sin in later versions, Enlil brought down the flood because those pesky humans were crowding the Earth and making too much noise.
- Guile Hero: Enki uses his wisdom and knowledge to move things around for good.
- Hard-Drinking Party Girl: Ninkasi, Siris, and Siduri, goddesses of beer.
- Hermaphrodite: The supreme god, Anu, was sometimes portrayed as such, Depending on the Writer.
- Healer God:
- Eshmun was a god of healing during the Iron Age in Phoenicia. Eshmun was worshipped in Carthage, Tyre, Beirut, Cyprus, Sardinia, and Sidon.
- Kamrusepa is a Hittite goddess of healing, medicine, and magic.
- Nintinugga/Gula/Bau was the Babylonian goddess of healing, and consort of Ninurta.
- Ninurta was god of the South Wind and healing.
- Hero Antagonist: The monsters slain by Ninurta in his travels receive the interesting collective name of "Slain Heroes." It's unknown why they are supposed to be heroic.
- Horny Devils: Lilitu, Dimme, and Dimme-kur were sometimes portrayed this way.
- Hot as Hell: Ereshkigal is invariably described as very attractive, just as much if not more so than her sister.
- Human Mom, Non-Human Dad: Gilgamesh was the son of the goddess Ninsun and Lugalbanda, who was either a human deified after death or a demi-god himself (in which case he himself is an example, as those myths depict him as the son of the sun god Shamash and a human woman).
- I Have Many Names: Nearly all of the gods, which was somewhat inevitable when their worshipers spoke a variety of languages.
- I'm a Man; I Can't Help It: In his forced travel to the underworld, Nergal is warned by Enki not to eat, drink, wash or have sex with Ereshkigal there, as he would cause unspecified troubles by doing so. He resists successfully except the last, as he succumbs when he sees Ereshkigal naked while taking a bath (actually, she was a bit naughty and actually allowed him to see her knowing he would fall for it). They end up sharing a bed for six days.
- Immortality Field: Dilmun is the Ur-Example. A passage ("Its (Dilmun's) old woman says not "I am an old woman," its old man says not "I am an old man.") implies that it's a place of eternal youth. It is also described as a pure, clean, and bright "abode of the immortals" where death, disease, and sorrow are unknown and some mortals have been given "life like a god's." The Epic of Gilgamesh has Dilmun as one of the eponymous hero's destinations in his quest for immortality.
- Jerkass Gods: Very much so. That said, ancient mesopotamian records contain the first known prayers expressing love or otherwise positive psychology between humans and gods, so whatever the gods did, they did it right.
- Kung Fu-Proof Mook: Enki created two eunuchs or sexless beings out of clay and sent them to rescue Inanna from the Underworld. As the plane is ruled by a seductive goddess and apparently you cannot have sex there without causing danger and disgraces, it's very probable that Enki made them that way in order to prevent them from screwing things further.
- Loads and Loads of Characters: There were about six main gods and hundreds of minor, local deities.
- Lovable Sex Maniac: Enki had the rather disturbing habit of seducing his own (grand)daughters, but was usually one of the friendlier, wiser and better-natured gods. The same could be said of Inana in the sex department at least.
- Love Redeems: Ereshkigal is first portrayed as a quite callous goddess (possibly due to having been put in the Underworld against her will), but she notably warms up after meeting Nergal and falling in love with him, to the point she breaks down when he escapes from her kingdom after their six-day idyll. It goes in the other direction as well, as Nergal is at first willing to dethrone her to prevent the troubles she threatened to cause if the gods didn't send Nergal to her again, but at the end, he accepts her love and marries her.
- Making a Splash: Enki, god of rivers and lakes, uses the ability to control water more than once. Also his daughter, Nanshe.
- Mr. Seahorse: In the myth of Enki and Ninhursag, Enki becomes pregnant after consuming his own semen.
- Mix-and-Match Critters: Aqrabuamelu (scorpion men), Shedu (winged lions and bulls), Sirrush (dragon-like creatures with eagle talons and the forelegs of a cat), Zu (eagles with lion heads).
- No Ending: Frustratingly, most stories that survive to the modern day are incomplete, if not missing several lines of text. Sometimes, there's no beginning either, for that matter.
- Offing the Offspring: Apsu and later Tiamat attempt this in the Enûma Eli. It doesn't work out.
- Older Than Dirt: One of the defining legendariums of this idea, and some of the oldest works of human belief and imagination that have survived into the third millenium CE. They make for a fascinating look at what ideas and tropes were in play as far back as seven thousand years ago, and also what's changed.
- Our Demons Are Different: Most Middle Eastern demons, in general, are flat-out nasty, though they can Pet the Dog now and then.
- Our Ghosts Are Different: Classified as Alû, Edimmu or Gidim; they were usually not very nice.
- Our Giants Are Bigger: Humbaba, among others.
- Our Mermaids Are Different: A mermaid called Kulianna is believed to have fought and been slayed by Ninurta. Given that we don't know what the ancient Sumerians exactly meant with the term mermaid, it is unknown how different she was or even if she was different at all to the classic archetype.
- Primordial Chaos: Ammut and Tiamat are the first beings in existence according to the myths, and represent fresh and saltwater.
- Satellite Love Interest: Many goddesses (Aya, Sarpanit, etc.) have little-to-no roles outside of being some god's wife.
- Scales of Justice: Shamash a god of justice was affiliated with scales.
- Scorpion People: The Ur-Example and the Trope Maker — in fact, also the earliest known example of centaur-like creature of any kind, predating Greek centaurs by a considerable stretch — in the form of the scorpion-men, called aqrabuamelu or girtablilu in the original language, who are humans from the waist up and scorpions from the waist down, with a pair of huge scorpion claws. The Enûma Eli lists them among the monsters created by Tiamat in her war against the gods, and in The Epic of Gilgamesh a pair of gigantic scorpion-men guards the gates to the tunnel the sun passes through each night.
- Servant Race: Humanity was explicitly created to be slaves to the gods.
- She's a Man in Japan: Inanna's second-in-command, Ninshubur, is female in the Sumerian myths but was turned into a male in the later Assyro-Babylonian versions.
- Slap-Slap-Kiss: The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi.
- To Hell and Back: Inanna's Descent to the Netherworld is an Ur-Example, if not the Trope Maker.
- Token Good Teammate: Enki, who is the only god who was against the plan to exterminate humanity, and rescued humanity multiple times. He is also said to protect anyone who seeks his help.
- Tsundere: Inanna. She also seems to cross over into Yandere territory.
- Unholy Matrimony: Thematically speaking, the matrimony of Ereshkigal and Nergal united the queen of the Netherworld with the god of plagues and war. Subverted otherwise, however, because none of the two was actually evil and their union put a Happy Ending to a cosmic conflict.
- The Vamp: Lilitu, who was ordered by the gods to attempt to lead men astray. Ereshkigal as well, according to one version.
Works that reference and/or derive from Mesopotamian mythology
- Cthulhu Mythos (sort of)
- The Fate Series makes fairly heavy use of itnote ; Fate/Grand Order's seventh chapter, in particular, draws heavily on all three extant major myths for story themes, plots beats, and characters, and the third Christmas event (it's a long story) is a character study for Ereshkigal and mentions a good deal of the material found in "Nergal And Ereshkigal".
- Storm Constantine's Grigori Trilogy
- Snow Crash
- Clive Barker's Jericho, in which you battle Ninlil, Ki, Inanna, Enlil, Nanna and Utu
- Anything mentioning Adonis; originally, the tale of Venus and Adonis (which English-speakers know primarily from the Narrative Poem by Shakespeare) was a Semitic tale about a young shepherd named Tammuz/Dumuzi, also called "Adon", ("Adonis" is derived from this term, meaning "Lord"; cf. "Adonai", "The LORD" in Jewish usage) and the goddess Ishtar. The Romans liked the story enough to run off with it.
- Input Output has many characters take online handles from Mesopotamian mythology, usually calling it Babylonian mythology (which make sense, given that a decent lot of story is focused on an in-story MMORPG called Babylon.) There are plenty of references to the actual mythology as well.
- In The Order of the Stick (set in a Dungeons & Dragons RPG-Mechanics Verse) Babylonian deities are one of the three pantheons of gods who created the world, their worshippers mostly found on the Western Continent. Tiamat is a five-headed dragon and Queen of the Underworld, Nergal a lion-headed god of "death and destruction". Ereshkhagal, Ishtar, and Marduk have also been mentioned in passing.
- A supplement to The Dresden Files RPG includes a cult of Ishtar fighting human trafficking in Las Vegas.
- In Anatolia Story, after proving good skills at war and "mystical knowledge" (which is stuff that's basic stuff in modern times), Yuri is believed to be either a gift from or an incarnation of Ishtar. Eventually, almost everyone takes to calling her "Yuri Ishtar" or simply "Ishtar".
- Many songs by Melechesh.
- ABZÛ, as implied by the title.
- Carmilla the Series
- The Ys series borrows several names from Sumerian mythology for its ancient cities, ruins, and so on. Particularly Ys VI: The Ark of Napishtim, as is obvious with the title.
- The Scorpion King movies that serve as a prequel to The Mummy Trilogy take place during some vague ancient Mesopotamic time of myths whose main protagonist is the last member of the Akkadian people, wandering the world as a sellsword. There are many references to the myths such as the goddess Astarte in the second movie and Enkidu in the fifth one.