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"There is only one way this war ends. Last man standing."
"Down to Gehenna, or up to the Throne, He travels the fastest who travels alone."
Rudyard Kipling (quoted by Gen. Erinmore)

1917 is a war film co-written and directed by Sam Mendes and starring George MacKay, Dean-Charles Chapman, Benedict Cumberbatch, Richard Madden, Mark Strong, Andrew Scott and Colin Firth.

The story takes place on April 6-7, 1917, in the midst of World War I. With the Germans in apparent retreat, the Devonshire Regiment is scheduled to launch a full on attack on their front line. However, aerial reconnaissance has revealed that the Germans are planning to lure the Devons into a massacre. With the field telephones to the Devons' sector cut, the only way to get word to stop the attack is to send two runners: Lance Corporal Blake (Dean-Charles Chapman) and Lance Corporal Schofield (George MacKay). Blake has been chosen to deliver the message because he'll have extra motivation: his brother is an officer with the regiment. Having received their orders, the two soldiers go on a hazardous, harrowing trek through no man's land, hoping to reach the Devonshires and stop the attack before it's too late.


Notably, the story is told in Real Time and shot and edited to look as if it were done in one take a la Birdman or Rope.

Not to be confused with 1942 or Nineteen Eighty-Four.

The movie was given a limited release on December 25, 2019, and was widely released on January 10, 2020.

Previews: Trailer 1, Trailer 2, Trailer 3.

1917 contains examples of:

  • Action Dad: The ending reveals Schofield to be married with a daughter.
  • Action Film, Quiet Drama Scene: Granted, the "action" is generally of the subtler, tension-based variety, but the moments of relative peace and safety are used to help build character and add patches of levity. One of the most notable is the scene where Schofield runs into German forces in Ecoust and finds himself hiding in the home of a French woman taking care of an orphaned infant. It doesn't directly matter to the overall plot and is never brought up again, but it still stands out as a tender, hopeful moment in such a horrible circumstance.
  • Adult Fear:
    • Schofield mentions to Blake that he avoids applying for leave time since he hates the idea of briefly going home, knowing that he has to leave again for possibly the last time and leave behind his wife and daughter.
    • Blake's main motivation.
    Gen. Erinmore: You have a brother in the second battalion.
    Lcpl. Blake: Yes, sir. Is he...
    Gen. Erinmore: Alive. And with your help, I’d like to keep it that way. But they’re walking into a trap. Your orders are to deliver a message calling off tomorrow morning’s attack. If you don’t, we will lose sixteen hundred men. Your brother among them.
  • Agonizing Stomach Wound: Blake gets stabbed by a German pilot he'd rescued from a burning plane. Despite Schofield's attempts to get him back on his feet, every small movement makes him scream or groan in agony and he continuously falls back over. In the end, there's nothing that can be done to save him, and he dies slowly and painfully while Schofield stays by his side to make him feel better.
  • All There in the Script:
    • Almost all of the British soldiers with dialogue are named in the credits, including characters not referred to by name onscreen such as Captain Smith, Major Hepburn, Colonel Collins, Sepoy Jondular and Captain Ivins.
    • The presence of Sepoy Jondalar in the midst of a white unit is explained. He's part of ad-hoc force of Sikhs, Royal Scots and Worcestershire regiment sent to the front.
  • Ambiguous Syntax: During Captain Smith's Glory Hound warning, he says "some men" making it unclear if he is personally referring to Colonel Mackenzie while deftly avoiding directly accusing a superior officer of negative attributes, or has seen other cases of that behavior and merely worries that Mackenzie might be one such man.
  • Arc Symbol: The color white is used throughout the movie to represent both death and hope. The white cherry trees are one of the first signs of the Salt the Earth strategy employed by the German, but Blake points out that in the long run it will result in even more cherry trees growing in the area. Blake gets progressively paler as he dies. Soon before that they find milk, which Schofield later gives to a woman with a baby along with all his rations, giving them a slighlty better chance of living through the war. The white flowers appear again when Schofield is floating in the river, signaling that he's made it to the woods and he's close to his goal, but first he has to literally swim trhough dozens of white, bloated, rotten corpses to make it out of the water. Finally, he has to race through the trenches of the Devons, which are dug in white soil, closing in on the end of his mission while surronded by soldiers rushing towards certain death because he's too late to stop the first wave.
  • Armchair Military: As per real-life, all of the senior officers in the film, with the exception of Colonel Collins, are seen in bunkers behind the trenches, although they do try to maintain a good grasp of the situation and issue orders accordingly.
    • Although Erinmore is presented as An Officer and a Gentleman, other soldiers note he hasn't seen the front, really.
    • Colonel Collins is the sole staff officer shown venturing into the field, but his screen time consists of yelling at soldiers to move a fallen tree while sitting comfortably in his car.
  • Artistic License – Gun Safety: A rare Inversion where proper safety is out of place. A few modern weapon handling techniques are seen in minor places, such as trigger discipline, which was not a thing and not a part of military training until the 80s.
  • Artistic License – History:
    • When Blake and Schofield start crossing No Man's Land, they see an abandoned Mark II tank. The film starts on April 6, 1917; the tank was not used in the area until three days later.
    • At least two writers have argued that the depiction of the British Army officers verges on Historical Hero Upgrade in their concern for the lives of 1,600 soldiers.
  • Artistic License – Military:
    • An assault like the 2nd Devon's would have been made with artillery support, which doesn't take place.
    • The hospital tent is located right behind the trench, when they were actually located several miles away out of the range of enemy artillery.
  • Badass Mustache: General Erinmore has one, as do various sergeants and lieutenants in the Devonshires, seen preparing their men to go over the top. Colonel Mackenzie's is a fairly thin one, but does add to the air of authority that he carries.
  • Based on a True Story: The film was based on the various stories of the First World War that director Sam Mendes's grandfather told him in his youth. The German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line, Operation Alberich, forms the basis of the film's plot. The scorched earth policies shown to have been employed by them during the retreat, such as machine-gunning cattle, laying booby traps and chopping down trees, are also based on historical fact.
  • Bag of Spilling: Scholfield loses his equipment as the film goes on. His helmet is lost when he confronts the sniper, his rifle when he tries to take a German soldier down quietly, and, finally, he loses his webbing when he jumps into the river.
  • Bayonet Ya: Blake and Schofield mount the bayonets on their rifles before heading over the top.
  • Bearer of Bad News: Blake and Schofield have to hurry and tell Mackenzie and his outfit that the Germans are luring them into a trap and that an assault will accomplish nothing but butchery. And in the final scene, Schofield must tell Lieutenant Blake about the death of his brother.
  • Berserk Button: Schofield lashes out at Blake for thinking war is glorious and that medals somehow make you important.
  • Big Brother Instinct: An inversion with Blake as he's the younger brother, but is very determined to deliver the message that could save his older brother's life. Even when Schofield expresses doubts and cynicism, Blake pushes forward, knowing it'll save his life.
  • Big Eater: Blake is noticeably pudgier than Schofield, and admits that he took the special mission by hoping it was to be sent to get the rest of the men food. He constantly asks if Schofield's found any rations during their trek. Later, he identifies cherry blossoms and their subtypes like an encyclopedia, while glumly noting the Germans ate all the cherries off the tree.
  • Big Heroic Run: The big, climactic scene of an unarmed Schofield blitzing through the battlefield as fellow soldiers rush perpendicularly to him and explosions go off, all to deliver the message to call the attack off.
  • Bittersweet Ending: Schofield ultimately succeeds his mission, calling off the attack in progress and saving hundreds of lives, and delivers Blake's personal effects to his brother. However, Blake is still dead, Schofield has seen incredible horrors, and thousands more will die before the war finally ends. Worse, there is the implication that this happens all the time, with a General sternly claiming the war will be fought "last man standing."
  • Black Vikings: The film includes a noticeable amount of black and Indian soldiers sprinkled among the British Army, presumably for diversity. In real life, black and Indian soldiers would have served in colonial or segregated regiments. The Indian regiments had already been withdrawn from the Western Front by 1917.
  • Book-Ends:
    • The film starts and ends with Schofield resting in a field.
    • The whole film is structured symmetrically, with the midpoint being when Schofield is knocked out by the German sniper, which happens to be the only hard cut in the movie. There are several parallel moments, from the cherry blossoms, a river, and the trench runs.
  • Booby Trap: Blake and Schofield are on the look out for traps as they advance through German trenches. They notice a tripwire bomb–and a rat sets it off.
  • Brick Joke: Blake and Schofield leave the German trenches and come across a lone farm, with all but one cow shot dead, along with a dog right near the front door of the house. About fifteen minutes later, while a fresh platoon starts to drive away, one of the soldiers asks if that's a dog lying there.
  • Call-Forward: The Battle of Arras, the major British offensive of spring 1917 and just one more ghastly bloodbath in a war full of them, started on April 9, just two days after the story in this film ends. The main characters note in dialogue their suspicion that "something big" is about to happen. They are right.
  • Cassandra Truth: On his way to Colonel Mackenzie's bunker, Schofield tries to warn several officers about to launch the first wave that the attack has been canceled but they either don't believe him, are suffering from shell shock or reply that it's too late to call it off.
  • Central Theme: Hope. The movie alternates between the best and worst aspects of it without taking a stance in favor of either.
    • On the negative side:
      • Right off the bat the audience is informed that Blake hoped to get sent home temporarily soon, but his permission was taken away with no explanation.
      • The whole story happens because the British have noticed the enemy retreating and this gives them hope of a victory, but its a trap and acting on that hope would result in around 1600 men dying horribly and pointlessly.
      • Blake's rescue of a German pilot could be interpreted as a sign of hope since it shows he hasn't reliquished his humanity and mercy even towards the enemy, he's promptly rewarded with a horrible death.
      • It's the jaded, hopeless characters who are mostly presented as sensible, such as Schofield himself, Captain Smith giving him pragmatic and cynical advice and Colonel Mackenzie outright saying that hope is dangerous and pointing out that the whole mission was ultimately pointless since they will all die anyway when they eventually receive orders to attack .
    • On the positive side:
      • Blake and Schofield take their chances based on uncertain reports of a relatively safe route
      • Blake's hope of saving his brother and keeping his friend alive lead him to heroic feats, such as digging Schofield out of the debris.
      • Blake mentions that the cut trees will produce even more trees, so eventually the scorched countryside will return to its former beauty.
      • Hope is also represented by the woman and the baby, who have lost it all to the invaders yet cling to survival and are rewarded by a fortuitous encounter with a soldier that happens to be carrying supplies and milk.
      • Schofield's final run is an attempt to save lives even as fellow soldiers are dying all around him, he makes it in time to save most of them including Blake's brother.
      • The film ends with Schofield looking at a picture of his wife and child, implying that the hope of returning to them encourages him to carry on in spite of the horrors he lived through during the movie, and the horrors he lived before (as implied by dialogue) and will likely live before the war is over.
    • A case could be made to either side on the fact that Blake does succeeds in his objectives of saving his brother's life and not getting Schofield killed for coming with him, but Blake himself doesn't make it
  • Character Development: Schofield begins the film the more cautious of the pair, as he is implied to be a somewhat more experienced soldier than Blake is and has less of a personal stake in the way things play out than his buddy does. By the end of the film, desperate to save Blake's brother and see that both their mission and Blake's death were not in vain, Schofield throws caution to the wind and knowingly and willfully exposes himself to heavy enemy fire running parallel to the top of the trench line to see that the attack is halted.
  • Chekhov's Gun: The canteen full of milk, which is given to feed a baby Schofield encounters later.
  • Chekhov's Skill: It's mentioned early on that Schofield fought in the Somme and dealt with a French captain. His basic knowledge of French helps him in Ecoust.
  • Chiaroscuro: In the night scenes, the film averts Hollywood Darkness, and instead strategically chooses light sources to achieve dramatic effect (while making sure that the film can still achieve its oner effect). There are two notable scenes where the light/dark contrasting lighting is especially prevalent:
    • When Schofield wakes up in the bombed out French town, German flares fly over the town, lighting up the streets and exposing Schofield. These flares cast strong moving lights, creating constantly shifting shadows.
    • When Schofield enters the town square, he sees a massive burning building. This building provides the sole source of light for all the town street scenes afterwards (not counting the indoor scene which is lit by oil lights), and much of the time only the characters' silhouettes are visible.
    • The interplay of light and dark as Schofield runs through the archway combined is strongly reminiscent of the artwork of Giorgio de Chirico, an Italian artist active during World War I who often employed this trope.
  • Classy Cane: Captain Smith carries around a walking stick, with Mark Strong commenting that he chose to carry one after observing several World War I officers carrying them in old pictures.
  • Collapsing Lair: A trip-wire bomb causes the trench system to cave in, and Blake and Schofield narrowly avoid being buried alive.
  • Contrived Coincidence:
    • In the abandoned barn, Schofield just happens to find a bucket of milk, which just happens to have been collected recently enough that it isn't spoiled (milk spoils very fast without refrigeration), and just happens not to have been contaminated by dirt or grime, despite the entire farm complex being in ruins. Later in the movie, Schofield just happens to encounter a situation where the milk he collected in his canteen becomes extremely useful.
    • Out of all the places the German pilot of crash land his crippled plane, he inexplicably decides to aim it for the only building within miles.
  • Cut Phone Lines: General Erinmore mentions that the Germans cut the phone lines during their strategic retreat. The only way to get word to the 2nd Devons is to deliver the message in person.note 
  • Darkest Hour: For Schofield personally: he's watched Blake die, he's been absolutely put through the wringer physically and emotionally, and he's certain that it was all for nothing since the deadline to reach the 2nd Devons has passed by the time he climbs out of the river (over a bunch of corpses). As if to mock him, he finds a battalion of soldiers listening to a song about a soldier dying and going to heaven. He can barely bring himself to ask them where the 2nd Devons are. Fortunately, they ARE the second Devons. Instead of everyone charging at once they are going in waves, which means Schofield can still save some lives.
  • Deconstruction: Of war movies. The Oner-style filmmaking shows you how it truly feels like to be in a devastating war like WW1 far more than most of its ilk. It also takes a crap on the idea that war is somehow glorious, showing that it was never about the “heroes killing the bad guy” but simply surviving.
  • Decoy Protagonist: Blake is set up as the hero–-he has the personal stakes of rescuing his brother. He's the one chosen for the mission thanks to his good pathfinding skills, and he picks Schofield as a partner, who conversely gets his hand pierced by barb wire and is nearly crushed to death by a cave-in early on. Despite all the narrative conventions, Blake still dies halfway through, and Schofield is left to finish the mission alone.
  • Defensive Feint Trap: The Germans do this to the Allies during the movie, pulling back to new lines. The 2nd Devonshire goes after them, and run the risk of being massacred by the superior German defenses.
  • Determinator: Corporal Blake once he learns his brother's life is dependent on the mission's success. Schofield becomes this when Blake dies, and to an even greater extreme.
  • Double Knockout: Schofield opens a door with his rifle ready–and the German sniper is waiting for him. They both shoot each other at the same time. Schofield survives, thanks to his helmet, but the German is less lucky.
  • Ear Ache: Blake tells Schofield about another soldier who had a rat bite off his ear after he put on too much of a sweet-smelling hair cream.
  • Elaborate Underground Base: When Blake and Schofield cross No Mans Land and get to the German trenches, they take note of how much larger and meticulously constructed that side was to the British side (trenches were wider, walls lined with plywood, large underground facilities with metal bunk beds, telephone wires hung on nails hammered into the walls rather than on shaky poles in full view of the enemy, and tunnels that resembled mine shafts). This was Truth in Television.
  • Epic Tracking Shot: See also The Oner. The movie moves in Real Time following these soldiers as they move along in their mission. Especially notable is that Shaky Cam is averted, and so at several points the camera phases through the obstacles the soldiers had to bypass and will seamlessly rise above the trenches or down to the water line of a river and over a waterfall.
  • Faileda Spot Check: Potentially a double-sided instance occurs in the second half, when Shoffield is distracted by the burning building in Ecoust. He notices a German also staring at the fire, who then turns and starts walking towards him. The soldier moves maybe fifteen feet before stopping, noticing Schofield. Even with the flames, it's dark, so he doesn't realize at first that he's looking at an enemy combatant. Then he steps closer, freezes, and visibly tenses up. A few seconds later, he rushes Schofield, clumsily taking potshots as he runs for his life.
  • The Farmer and the Viper: The German pilot Schofield and Blake rescue from the burning plane being the viper. Schofield suggests putting him out of his misery, but Blake insists on getting him water. Not one minute later, the German pilot has fatally stabbed Blake.
  • Fat and Skinny: There's a noticeable physical contrast between Blake and Schofield; both are in good shape, but Blake is shorter and a bit on the pudgy side, while Schofield is comparatively tall and lean. Since they spend the vast majority of their shared screentime with helmets on, this makes it easier to tell them apart.
  • Fatal Family Photo: Subverted with Blake who dies clutching one, but he was already fatally wounded before taking it out. Defied with Schofield who does not look at his family's pictures until after he has completed his mission. He keeps his in a metal case, which he examines multiple times throughout the film, but the audience never sees the actual photos until the last scene.
  • A Father to His Men:
    • Captain Smith is patient, and concerned upon meeting Schofield, and does his best to accommodate him, while seeming fairly at ease with his own men.
    • Major Hepburn mentions that Lieutenant Blake is the kind of man to accompany his men over the wall, right into the thick of things and when we see Lieutenant Blake, he is helping some of his wounded men back to the medical tent while offering them reassuring words. Blake is clearly bleeding from a head wound, but is more concerned with making sure his own men are taken care of first at the regimental aid post.
  • Flare Gun: Lieutenant Leslie reluctantly gives Blake and Schofield a flare gun to signal that they've made it through the German trenches. He half-jokingly quips that if they get pinned down or they're about to die, that they should throw it back in their general direction as they hate losing the guns to the enemy. Thanks to Leslie's rude bluntness, Blake dismissively drops the flare gun in the dirt after firing it.
  • Fauxshadow:
    • The handgrenades Blake and Schofield are given at the start of the mission are never used.
    • Schofield badly cutting his hand on rusty barbwire and moments later accidentally forcing that hand into a rotting corpse gets presented as meaningful, but it ultimately never come up again. It's an apparent reference to Sam Mendes's grandfather, who provided the inspiration for the film and became a compulsive hand-washer as a result of his wartime experience.
    • Captain Smith advises to Schofield that when delivering the message to Colonel Mackenzie, he should make sure that there are witnesses, implying that he could potentially ignore the order to retreat. When Schofield manages to get to him, this issue has minimal impact — there are naturally other authorities in the bunker, and while Mackenzie resists listening to Schofield at first, he listens once it's specified that it's orders from General Erinmore and complies.
  • For Want of a Nail: Blake insists on leaving immediately upon getting their orders, as General Erinmore indicated they should, while Schofield wondered if they should wait until dark. It is left to the audience to decide how different things might have gone if they had left later. If they had waited then They wouldn't have encountered the pilot who ended up killing Blake, and might not have had the delaying encounter with the sniper. although on the other hand, they would have been traveling much slower through the dark, would have had far less time to make it to the Second Devons Battalion's camp and wouldn't have gotten a lift from Captain Smith's truck which, while brief, potentially saved a couple hours of traveling on foot.
  • Foregone Conclusion: Since the movie takes place in April 1917 and the war didn't end until November 1918, it's obvious that the coming battle will unfortunately not have much impact on the war as a whole, though it will make a huge impact on the 1,600 men about to charge into a meat grinder if they aren't warned off in time.
  • Foreshadowing:
    • When asked why he's not sending a full unit to deliver the message, General Erinmore replies with the Rudyard Kipling quote, "Down to Gehenna, or up to the Throne, He travels the fastest who travels alone." Initially, this seems like an erroneous quote by the General because he's obviously sending two men, not one...but it becomes tragically prophetic when Blake is killed and Schofield must continue the mission alone.
    • When Schofield stumbles upon a female French civilian who's caring for an orphaned infant, she asks him if he has any children of his own. Schofield doesn't answer, but the glimpse we get of the photo he carries with him at the end shows that he does.
      • Lieutenant Leslie snarks to Schofield that he'll surely get a medal for the mission — "nothing like a scrap of ribbon to cheer up a widow" — which visibly annoys Schofield. In the end it's revealed that he actually is married and is worried enough about making his wife a widow.
    • While the two men are exploring an abandoned German structure, Schofield and Blake spot a few eerie reminders of the absent men's sweethearts and family members, like names scratched in the plaster and an abandoned family photo indicating the extreme haste of the German withdrawal. Both men seem suspicious of why such a thing would be left behind. This foreshadows both men's own significant family photos — Blake's, abandoned on his remains, and Schofield's, carried to the end.
  • Freeze-Frame Bonus: Lieutenant Blake is briefly visible on the blood-soaked photo Corporal Blake shows Schofield as he's dying.
  • Friend or Foe: While roaming through the French town and encountering a building up in flames, Schofield sees the silhouette of a soldier walking towards him from it. It's unclear whose side he's on at first, but after a moment, he realizes who he's looking at and opens fire on Schofield.
  • Gaia's Lament: There are several shots and scenes that detail just how badly the war has ruined the once-beautiful countryside. Any portion of the film dealing with an actual battlefield shows barren rocks and mud, littered with rats and corpses, while the places between the battlefield are verdant and clean, though they're often still marred by battle (most notably the cherry trees which were cut down).
  • Gallows Humor: Before the pair go over, Lieutenant Leslie sprinkles whatever's in his flask on them and sardonically administers last rites.
  • General Ripper: Subverted with Erinmore. Unlike most portrayals of the World War I general staff, he recognizes that the German retreat is actually a trap and immediately tries to avert a bloodbath.
  • Glory Hound: Captain Smith warns Schofield that Colonel Mackenzie is very motivated to attack, and cautions him to give Mackenzie the orders to retreat with witnesses. Ultimately Downplayed. Whilst Mackenzie does indeed take a bit of convincing, he ultimately cancels the attack. What Smith sees as Mackenzie's hunger for glory is at least partly motivated by Mackenzie's impatience with the prolonged conflict and the high command's constant indecisiveness. Of course the colonel seems very keen to push for that decisive killer blow, no matter the cost, and one of the witnesses present thanks Schofield for talking the colonel down.
  • Got Volunteered: Blake gets woken up from a nap and told to pick a partner for an upcoming mission. He volunteers Schofield, because they're good friends, and he thought it was going to be something easy.
  • Heartwarming Orphan: The orphaned French baby Schofield meets absolutely melts his pessimistic heart, likely due to him being a father himself.
  • Heroic BSoD: Schofield suffers one after Blake is killed and pretty much is mode locked like it for the rest of the film. He has a full breakdown after escaping Ecoust and surviving the river, crawling over bloated soaked corpses only to break down crying. Subverted in that he's still able to carry on with the task of delivering the message.
  • Hero-Tracking Failure: Schofield has many near-misses during the film; this is justified when both he and German soldiers are running (and can't aim properly) but also when he's slowly trying to cross a bridge with a sniper lurking in a nearby building.
  • High Concept: The clip used for the trailers.
Gen. Erinmore: You have a brother in the second battalion.
Lcpl. Blake: Yes, sir. Is he...
Gen. Erinmore: Alive. And with your help, I’d like to keep it that way. But they’re walking into a trap. Your orders are to deliver a message calling off tomorrow morning’s attack. If you don’t, we will lose sixteen hundred men. Your brother among them.
  • Hoist by His Own Petard: It was Blake's insistance to rescue the German pilot that caused him to get fatally stabbed by said man that resulted in his death.
  • Home by Christmas: Discussed Trope. Blake mentions early on that command had said that all it would take is one big push and everyone would be home by Christmas. Given that the movie takes place in April, that push either fizzled out some time ago or is a long time coming, and Schofield angrily mocks him for it. note 
  • Hope Spot: An odd example: as while the audience and the main characters know that the German retreat is false from the start, Colonel Mackenzie, Lieutenant Blake and the rest of the Devonshires believe it be be genuine and a sign of key weakness from the enemy.
  • Humans Are Bastards: Not discussed but shown. Mendes states that his intention was to show how much damage we were causing to the environment with our destruction of the world by contrasting beautiful images of nature with the damage of war, and that at the end of the day, nature will win out, laughing at us.
  • Hyper-Competent Sidekick: Captain Smith is introduced surveying the farmhouse around the crashed plane with his men, offers some useful aide to the mission, and also inquires about its purpose and destination. His superior, Colonel Collins, is seen staying in his staff car, squawking out orders to try and remove an obstacle for the road and asking if there's a way around when there obviously isn't, and while he agrees to let Schofield ride in the truck with the men, he does it absently and with little to no curiosity about his objective and destination.
  • Imperial Stormtrooper Marksmanship Academy: Schofield is shot at multiple times at close range, but never takes much of a hit.
  • Inevitable Waterfall: Schofield jumps into a river to escape the German soldiers at Ecoust, and soon takes a plunge down a waterfall. Fortunately, this helps him lose his pursuers, and he soon makes it out no worse for wear.
  • Irony: Blake is chosen for the mission both for his navigational skills and the personal stake he has in seeing it succeed. (His brother is an officer in the unit that is about to be wiped out) Schofield, meanwhile, is chosen by Blake for a companion simply because they are friends and Blake thought they had something good coming their way, like being sent behind the lines to be fed. Blake is killed early on, and Schofield is the one who has to move heaven and earth to see that the job is done.
  • It's Personal: Part of the reason Blake was chosen for the mission was because his brother was a platoon leader in the 2nd Devons, and as such would be among the troops going over the top into the German trap if the orders calling off the attack are not delivered on time, giving the Corporal a personal incentive to make sure the mission succeeds.
  • Knight In Sour Armor:
    • Schofield is cynical, jaded, and extremely cautious, due to his experiences in the Somme and his fear of not surviving. However, he supports Blake, takes lead going over the top into No Man's Land, and develops the determination to carry through the mission.
    • Lieutenant Leslie is openly dismissive of the mission, crass, and mockingly baptizes the two soldiers for their suicide mission. It's made clear he's seen far too much fighting.
    • Colonel Mackenzie, who bitterly notes that even if the attack's called off, they very well may be going into another bull-headed rush for "glory" tomorrow, and tells Schofield to fuck off for stopping the charge.
  • Mildly Military: the British soldiers in the film, even the officers, seem unprofessional and mostly unfriendly to one another. Probably very accurate, given how long the war had lasted by the time the film takes place. The pre-war professional British Army of 100,000 men (the "Old Contemptibles") had been used up in the opening months of the war, and the British Army in France in 1917 was made up of hastily trained men recruited into "Pals Battalions."
  • Mobstacle Course: Schofield makes it to the Second Battalion, but the trenches are full of troops preparing to attack. He has to push past dozens of men to get from the back all the way to Colonel Mackenzie. Taken Up to Eleven when he opts to brave running across the open battlefield as a shortcut to the colonel to avoid the crowded trench. Even then he has to weave between charging soldiers on his own side.
  • Mucking in the Mud: A truck giving Schofield a ride briefly gets stuck in the mud, with his urgency at getting it unstuck causing the other passengers to realize that he's on a serious errand and ask him about it once they get moving again.
  • Never Trust a Trailer: Some of the trailers include a few seconds of the scene where Schofield is with a woman holding a baby. Out-of-context, the footage seem to imply it's either a flashback of Schofield's family back in England, or the movie would include a romantic subplot. It's actually neither, but merely footages from a scene when Schofield randomly encounters a French female civilian and briefly bonds with her.
  • Nice Job Breaking It, Hero!: The reconnaissance planes that shoot down the German pilot. Inadvertently put a major threat right into Blake and Schofield's laps.
  • Nicknaming the Enemy: The Germans are frequently referred to as Huns, which is true to history. Hun was used as a pejorative to call the Germans barbarians, based on a quote from Kaiser Wilhelm II during the Boxer Rebellion. "Boche" is used at least once as well.
  • No Good Deed Goes Unpunished: Blake and Schofield pull a German pilot out of a burning airplane, sparing him being burned to death. The pilot responds by fatally stabbing Blake.
  • Nothing Is Scarier: The vast majority of the film is oppressively silent, with long stretches of no dialogue between various events. Enemies are always hinted to be present just around the protagonists, but they remain invisible for most of the film and only make a few extremely brief close-up appearances. This is especially true when Blake and Schofield go through No Man's Land; the entire stretch is utterly still except for them, and with the danger they're in, crossing in daylight with no cover in full view of any Germans that might be on the other side, the tension is palpable.
  • The Not-Love Interest: The French woman to Schofield, whose interactions with him play out like a romantic encounter. Nothing comes of it because Schofield is already married.
  • Not So Different: When Blake and Schofield explore the German barracks, they see pictures of loved ones and a girl's name written on the wall, things they would likely find in a British trench as well.
  • Not What I Signed Up For: Blake eventually apologizes to Schofield for picking him as his companion for the mission, saying he'd thought they were just wanted to do something mundane like unload supplies.
  • Obligatory War Crime Scene: Heavily Implied by the woman with the orphaned baby in Écoust, given her initially mistaking Schofield for a German and the lack of towns people with the buildings being burned while the soldiers party and shoot any stranger on sight. Outright confirmed when Schofield had to climb over the bodies of the townspeople who appeared to have been executed and their bodies dumped in the river.
  • Obvious Trap: Lieutenant Leslie is highly skeptical of news of the German retreat. Pointing out that the German's trap should have been obvious to figure out, as countless men have died for a few inches of land, so they obviously wouldn't suddenly give up miles to the enemy. This is something Colonel Mackenzie evidently did not take into account when he saw an opening to gain ground and attack.
  • Officer and a Gentleman:
    • Gen. Erinmore appears very refined and upper-class. He's well read enough to casually quote Rudyard Kipling to Blake and Schofield: "Down to Gehenna or up to the Throne, He travels the fastest who travels alone."
    • Captain Smith. Concerned with both the importance of the mission and Schofields well being.
  • Oh, Crap!:
    • Blake and Schofield, while searching within the German bunker, collectively let out a panicked Rapid-Fire "No!" when they find a rat dragging its meal into a live tripwire, promptly detonating the trap right in their faces.
    • A subdued, double-pronged version occurs when after being convinced to look at the reconnaissance photos sent along with General Erinmore's orders, Colonel Mackenzie instantly calls off the next wave and then starts dejectedly speculating about what the next set of orders will be, showing that he both recognizes that he was in fact about to charge into a trap, and that the enemy not being as weak as he'd thought ensures the conflict he was hoping to end will continue to take its toll on both armies and the rest of the world.
    • Schofield, after surviving a trip down a rapid river, finds himself next to a battalion of British soldiers, who are watching a soldier singing Wayfaring Stranger, and decides to sit down too and take a rest. When the song is finished, Schofield asks the battalion for the directions to the 2nd Devons, only for them to answer that they are the 2nd Devons, and the attack has already begun. Cue Schofield's climactic mad dash for Col. Mackenzie to call off the attack.
    • Blake and Schofield get one when they realize the Old School Dogfight is sending a crashing plane their way.
  • Old School Dogfight: Blake and Schofield witness a British plane take out a German plane, and are nearly killed when the plane crashes on their position.
  • Old Soldier: Col. Mackenzie is incredibly cynical. He mentions to Schofield that even with this attack called off, another will be ordered in a few days.
  • The Oner: The movie is largely shot and edited to look like it was filmed in a single take, with hidden cuts happening during moments of darkness or as the heroes pass through a doorway. However, there is actually one visible hard cut in the film, when the German sniper shoots Schofield's helmet off, knocking him out, and the film cuts to black for a while. This mostly serves as a plot device meant to skip time forward a few hours, one which a non-Oner film would not have a problem with. Also serves as an Oh, Crap! moment to the audience.
  • Precious Photo: It's revealed that Schofield has a wife and child, and carries a photo of them around that pleads with him to "Come Back To Us."
  • Race Against the Clock: The heroes have a little under a day to reach the front line and call off the attack before the British soldiers charge into a trap and get massacred.
  • Rated M for Manly: Since the whole movie takes place on the front lines of a war zone, women are non-existent, save for a random civilian Schofield encounters.
  • Real Time: Basically, the film is two separate Real Time halves, as we follow Schofield and Blake in real time as they receive their mission and try to complete it. The only major departure from real time is that we skip from Schofield getting knocked out in the afternoon of April 6 to not long before 6am the following morning when he wakes up.
  • Reasonable Authority Figure:
    • Colonel Mackenzie, who despite heavy foreshadowing of him as a dangerous glory hound, obeys the written orders and calls off the attack now knowing it to be suicide, if still bitterly telling Schofield that it won't make a difference in the end. That said, Schofield did need to invoke high command's authority in front of witnesses to make him back down.
    • Captain Smith (and his briefly seen superior) are this as well, giving Schofield a ride to cut down on the time he'll spend in the field, and a little advice.
    • Most British officers are shown as this. Living in the trenches with the men is a healthy reality check of what war really is, and which properties are required from a field officer.
  • Red Oni, Blue Oni: During the mission, Blake is rushing and pushing to get to his brother as fast as he can while Schofield is there to tell him they have to be smart about how they travel. This is justified given how Blake has a very personal reason to succeed on this mission while Schofield doesn't at the moment.
  • Roman à Clef: Despite the (highly-publicized/advertised) fact that the film is based off of the stories told to Mendes by his grandfather, himself a veteran of the First World War, the film's depiction of him does not share his name. This is to hide the fact that his counterpart is not Blake-it's Schofield. Indeed, it ends with a shot of him looking at a picture of his wife and daughter and then a fade to black on Lance Corporal Schofield's face - and onto text letting us know that these stories are based off of the stories told by Lance Corporal Mendes, making this a Subverted Trope.
  • Rule of Three: The two British planes are seen three times by Blake and Schofield. The third time they shoot down a German plan that crashes into the farm where the soldiers are and ultimately leads to Blake's death.
  • Salt the Earth: At one point, just outside of Ecoust-Saint-Mein, Schofield and the company he's riding with drive past a dead herd of cattle, having been shot by the Germans to deny the advancing British forces access to fresh food.
  • Shell-Shocked Veteran: Captain Ivins, whose brief screen-time (which keep in mind takes place before the attack has even properly begun) has him shaking, sobbing and unable to understand or give any orders when Schofield tries to give General Erinmore's message to him. Schofield himself also counts as this, as he's become significantly more jaded due to his better experiences in the war. Going by dialogue, he survived the Battle of the Somme.
  • Shoo Out the Clowns: Some wisecracking soldiers in a truck that briefly gives Schofield a ride, but who part way with him after about ten minutes when their truck has to take a detour he can't afford to make. The loss of Blake just five or ten minutes before Schofield meets them, is an example of Shoot The Clowns. The film is a fairly serious, character-driven affair but Blake is far more jovial and upbeat than Schofield, and keen to tell the latter a darkly amusing tale about how a fellow solider lost an ear. Schofield later notes Blake had a knack for telling funny stories.
  • Shout-Out: The German soldier that Schofield strangles is named Bäumer. Paul Bäumer was the protagonist of All Quiet on the Western Front.
  • Shown Their Work:
    • Soldiers really did use corpses as landmarks in No Man's Land.
    • The Germans were viciously pragmatic in their scorched earth, killing cattle to deny troops easy food, destroying their artillery and booby-trapping their fortifications to prevent them being exploited by the British, even chopping down trees to delay advancing troops, stalling them for their trap.
    • The Germans in the Western Front put much more effort into constructing their tunnels and trenches than the British or French, using plywood to cover the mud walls, steel beams to support the underground structures, neatly pinning their wires to the wall, even moving heavy bedframes inside their tunnels.
    • Several soldiers are shown with their helmets having regimental badges on the front which were added later in the war.
  • Slice of Life: The initial framing indicates that this is a special mission to save countless lives, but the ending indicates that stories like these were happening every other day during the war, and without even the Bittersweet Ending this film has. The In Memoriam to Sam Mendes' grandfather even says it was based on his first hand experiences.
  • Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Cynicism: The film shoots straight down the center between nihilistic and idealistic, with Blake representing idealism and Schofield representing nihilism. Their fates invert. Blake dies as a result of his idealism when trying to aid the a wounded enemy, but Schofield ends up risking his life for the mission even though he scoffed at such selfless heroics at the beginning of the film. In the end, the senseless war may go on, and many more men will be lost, but at least one crisis has been averted by Schofield's actions.
  • Small Role, Big Impact: The German sniper (who the camera focuses on for perhaps fifteen seconds altogether, some of it from a distance and some of it as a corpse), who wounds Schofield. That action delays the mission until the next morning, causing Schofield to be chased and nearly captured by other Germans and arrive just too late to keep the first wave from being launched. The German pilot who kills Blake is one as well, having little to no audible dialogue and only about two minutes of screen time.
  • Spoiler Cover: The International Poster reveals that Schofield arrives alone to give the orders after Blake dies.
  • Stiff Upper Lip: Both the explanation of the mission's high stakes and the soldiers' acceptance of it are taken with traditional British restraint. When Captain Smith learns of Blake's death, his simple advice to Schofield is, "Don't dwell on it."
  • Strong Family Resemblance: As he is dying, Blake explains to Schofield he'll be able to find his older brother because he looks just like him (Blake).
  • Tactical Withdrawal: The 2nd Devons Battalion is prepared to attack to finish the Germans off, but General Erinmore receives photographic evidence that the German retreat was actually a tactical withdrawal.
  • Take Up My Sword: After Blake is fatally wounded, he makes sure that Schofield knows the mission parameters so he can complete the quest on his own.
  • That's an Order!: Schofield tries to get Mackenzie to cancel the attack, but Mackenzie refuses. Schofield declares that canceling the attack is a direct order from High Command.
  • Too Good for This Sinful Earth: Whereas Schofield is world-weary and cynical, Blake is more upbeat and good-hearted: he immediately takes off to help his beloved brother, still believes in the nobility of war heroism (and is shocked that Schofield easily traded his medal), saves Schofield's life and refuses to leave him behind during the cave-in, gives him his water, and saves the life of an enemy combatant and tries to ease his pain whereas Schofield wanted to put him out of his misery. Unfortunately, he dies for the last decision.
  • Too Dumb to Live: The German aviator, who knifes his rescuers. Doubles with an Ungrateful Bastard. Played straight by the fat rat, which triggers the tripwire in the German bunker.
  • Tragic Keepsake: Schofield takes Blake's rings and medallion off his dead body. He delivers them to Blake's brother at the end of the film.
  • Trailers Always Spoil: Blake dying halfway through the story can be guessed by carefully watching the trailers: they feature scenes from the whole movie, including some where Schofield is alone on-screen. That Schofield makes it to the front too late to stop the attack from happening all together can be surmised from the trailers, as well.
  • Trying Not to Cry: While Schofield is riding with the convoy of other soldiers, they obliviously joke around while Schofield is doing his best to not fall apart from grief, having just watched Blake die in his arms minutes before.
  • Ungrateful Bastard: The German pilot, who fatally stabs Blake right after he and Schofield save him from his crashed burning airplane. Judging by his panicked babbling after they lay him on the ground, he seems to be too rattled by the crash and flames to be thinking very clearly.
  • Unstoppable Mailman: Essentially what the two protagonists are, especially when they have personal reasons to get the message delivered successfully. Blake is determined to see the mission done to save his big brother from certain death, and later on following Blake's death, Schofield takes up his task and goes above and beyond to finish the mission and break the news to Blake's brother.
  • Vomit Indiscretion Shot: Downplayed. Schofield stumbles across a drunk German soldier vomiting during his walk through the ruined town, twice. However, the soldier always vomits far away in the background.
  • War Is Glorious: Discussed by Blake, who believes that winning battles and medals will bring glory to him. Schofield berates him for that line of thinking.
  • War Is Hell: Dead and decomposed bodies are a frequent sight, as are wounded and shell-shocked soldiers. The actual combat scenes are relatively brief and far from glamorous. Schofield clearly holds this view as the more experienced soldier and having survived the horrors of the Somme.
  • The Women Are Safe with Us: Schofield encounters a French woman who is absolutely terrified of the occupying German forces; her dialogue implies that the Germans have been looting the town at their leisure. He gives her his stockpile of food and milk for an orphaned baby she's caring for before he has to leave.
  • You Are in Command Now: On their way out, Blake and Schofield are sent to see a major at the front trenches and tell him about the trap. They are informed that major has been dead for two days and Lieutenant Leslie is in charge of his unit.
  • You Dirty Rat!: Blake and Schofield encounter multiple rats during their journey. One ends up triggering a tripwire bomb. After that, Blake particularly hates rats - but to try and lighten the mood, tells a tall tale about how one of the soldiers they both know lost an ear due to a rat particularly liking the perfume stuck to his ear. Notably, rats show up prominently when the main characters is in a near-death situation - Schofield is nearly killed by the tripwire, and the rat-infested farm is where Blake dies.

♫ I'm going there to see my Father
I'm going there no more to roam
I'm only going over Jordan
I'm only going over home. ♫

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