The Six Million Dollar Man — the show that put "bionic" into the popular lexicon. More importantly, it set the stage for the Super Hero genre to be taken seriously in popular entertainment.
Lee Majors starred as Col. Steve Austin (no, not that one) in this sci-fi action-adventure series that ran from 1973 to 1978. Seriously injured in a test flight, former astronaut Austin is given artificial ("bionic") replacements for his legs, his right arm, and left eye, leaving him with superhuman speed and strength and telescopic vision. He can run more than 60 MPH, jump several stories, see objects from miles away and in the dark, and lift impossible weights. Upon his recovery, he goes to work for Oscar Goldman (Richard Anderson), head of the Office of Scientific Investigations (there are many other definitions for OSI out there — this is the one actually seen on TV). Other regular or recurring characters includes:
- Dr. Rudy Wells (Martin Brooks), the inventor of the bionic technology.
- Barney Hiller, another bionic agent who went rogue (originally named Barney Miller in his first appearance, but his name was changed due to the success of the Hal Linden sitcom).
In a spring 1975 episode, Jaime Sommers (Lindsay Wagner), a tennis pro and Austin's love interest, is injured in a skydiving accident. Austin pleads with Goldman to save her life, and she too is fitted with bionic parts (legs, one arm, and an ear). Eventually her body rejects her implants, and she dies, at least as far as Austin is concerned. Fan outcry was so great, ABC demanded the series reorganize the start of the third season and run a two-parter bringing her back to life. So after Jaime is rescued by a radical medical procedure, she goes to work for the OSI in her own spinoff series, The Bionic Woman (1976-1978), living undercover as a schoolteacher on an Air Force base when not on missions for the OSI. And Jaime herself became a recurring character on Six Mil during its third and fourth seasons, taking part in a number of crossover stories until Bionic Woman was cancelled by ABC in 1977 and moved to NBC, ending these crossovers for good.
The Six Million Dollar Man was based upon the science fiction novel Cyborg by Martin Caidin, and the original pilot TV movie, aired in 1973, was written by Henri Simoun and an uncredited Steven Bochco (NYPD Blue). It was followed by two more TV movies produced by Glen Larson (Battlestar Galactica (1978)) that attempted, without success, to recast Austin as a James Bond-like character. When the series returned as a weekly hour-long show in January 1974, it was now produced by Harve Bennett (Star Trek), who restored much of Caidin's original characterization to Austin (though Caidin's version of the character was rather different — he was more of an assassin, carried a poison dart gun in a bionic finger, and his non-seeing bionic eye was a miniature camera). Later, Kenneth Johnson, who later went on to be involved with the TV series The Incredible Hulk, Alien Nation, and V (1983), joined as a writer and went on to create the character of Jaime Sommers and produce the spin-off. Johnson advocated a somewhat "kindler, gentler" show, and it was in a two-parter he wrote that the show's most iconic recurring character, Bigfoot, first appeared.
The series was followed by made-for-TV movies in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In the last of these, Bionic Ever After? (1994), Steve and Jaime finally got married. As for bionic kids — Austin's estranged son by a pre-series marriage, Michael, appears in The Return of the Six-Million-Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman (1987), where he is fitted with bionics far, far exceeding those possessed by his father. In the second film, Bionic Showdown (1989), a new bionic woman named Kate Mason is introduced, played by Sandra Bullock in one of her first roles.
The series is known for its slow-motion special effects which, while often derided by some modern-day viewers, were in fact based upon similar slow-motion effects used by NFL Films in its acclaimed series of sports archive films (and even before that, films like Olympia had also used the technique). The slow-motion action actually wasn't consistently used until midway through the second season, but it was decided that speeding up the action usually didn't work, with Lee Majors on the 2010 DVD release of the series, saying, it looks like something out of the Keystone Cops. With CG effects still years away, slow-motion was the only practical option.
Majors, an acclaimed actor from such films as The Ballad of Andy Crocker and The Francis Gary Powers Story, but best known for his work in westerns like The Big Valley, was chosen because of his stoic demeanor, although episodes such as "The Coward" (in which Austin discovers the fate of his long-lost father), and "The Bionic Woman" showed that he had the range if he required it. His co-star, Richard Anderson (Forbidden Planet), played Oscar Goldman and provided a fatherly figure to both Steve and, later, Jaime. Three actors played Dr. Rudy Wells: Oscar-winner Martin Balsam in the first pilot, noted voice actor Alan Oppenheimer for the first 2 seasons, and Martin E. Brooks thereafter. In 1977, Anderson and Brooks made US TV history by becoming the first lead actors to play the same roles in two ongoing series on two competing networks, when they were allowed to appear on both Six Mil on ABC and Bionic Woman on NBC. They also reprised their roles for the later reunion films.
Two award-winning episodes were written by Star Trek veteran DC Fontana — "The Rescue of Athena One", starring a pre-stardom Farrah Fawcett (then Mrs. Lee Majors) as America's first female astronaut, and "Straight on 'Til Morning" starring Meg Foster (Cagney & Lacey) as a stranded space explorer. Monte Markham, who was Caidin's first choice to play Austin, portrayed Barney Hiller (aka Miller), the Seven Million Dollar Man.
The show was immensely popular and served as a template for later sci-fi action-adventure shows that leaned more toward action-adventure than sci-fi. Glen Larson's Knight Rider, for instance, is cast from the same mold, although some elements were changed: the mortally-injured Michael Knight was given a talking supercar rather than superhuman abilities, and fought crime for a foundation rather than for the government. Jake 2.0 is a more recent homage, with Lee Majors actually appearing in an episode (and the "bionic sound" is heard more than once in the episode just to drive the point home).
In the 1970s, the utterly exorbitant $6 million seemed about the right cost to create a bionic mannote . Oddly enough, due to the rapidly-falling costs of technology, it still seems about right, despite inflation. A proposed film remake starring Mark Wahlberg will be heavily inflation-adjusted with the name, "The Six Billion Dollar Man".
The Six Million Dollar Man provides examples of the following tropes:
- Achilles' Heel
- Extreme cold could make the bionic heroes' parts stop working until they warm up.
- In ""The Rescue of Athena One", Steve discovers that the normal cosmic radiation in space interferes with his bionics, effectively reducing him to the strength of a normal man (or worse).
- Steve's natural arm is vulnerable and often injured.
- He seems to also have the skull equivalent of a glass jaw (which is in contrast to the original novels in which his skull was also replaced).
- Several episodes also establish that if you take out Steve's legs, it leaves him at death's door.
- There are limitations to how far down Austin and Sommers can jump.
- His bionic parts are powered by miniature nuclear fuel cells. In one of the Bigfoot two-parters, the cells burst when his legs are damaged, exposing him to lethal levels of radiation.
- Anchored Ship: Jaime Sommers, due to her losing all memory of Steve, including being in love with him after being brought back to life and (briefly) falling in love with her doctor. Although Steve attempts to weigh anchor, and the two become close friends, it is not until the reunion TV movies - by which time Jaime's memories of being in love with Steve have returned - that the ship sets said once again.
- Backdoor Pilot: An uncommon example of an unintended pilot. The two-parter that introduced Jaime Sommers, the Bionic Woman, was only ever intended and commissioned as a one-off story, but it proved to be so popular that it ended up acting (in tandem with "The Return of the Bionic Woman" follow-up) as a backdoor pilot for the eventual spin-off series (forcing the producers into some very creative thinking considering the first story killed the character off).
- "The Bionic Boy" is sometimes cited as a backdoor pilot, though watching the actual episode reveals this to be unlikely given its resolution.
- "The Ultimate Imposter", unlike "The Bionic Woman" and "The Bionic Boy", was conceived as a backdoor for a potential spin-off.
- Backwards-Firing Gun: "Wine, Women and War" has Steve Austin crimp the barrel of a mook's gun closed with his bionic fingers. The mook doesn't notice this and, despite Austin warning him not to fire, he shoots and nails himself (though it's unclear whether he actually shoots himself or gets knocked out by backfire).
- Better Than New: Austin is given bionic replacements for his legs, his right arm, and one eye, leaving him with superhuman speed and strength and telescopic vision. The iconic opening credits come close to citing the trope by name.
- Bigfoot, Sasquatch and Yeti: A recurring "guest star". Bigfoot's actually a cyborg like Steve, built by aliens hiding in the woods to keep people away, though he appears to be more cybernetic than human.
- Brought Down to Normal: Happens to Barney Hiller/Miller when it is determined that he cannot handle being bionically powered.
- Happens occasionally to Austin when his bionics malfunction or are exposed to extreme cold.
- Bullet Time
- Comic-Book Adaptation: Charlton Comics published both a color comic book and a black and white illustrated magazine aimed at adult readers during the run of the series. In the 2010s, Dynamite Comics launched The Bionic Man, a reimagined version of the story based upon an unproduced Kevin Smith script for an SMDM film. In 2014, Dynamite dropped the reimagined Bionic Man in favor of The Six Million Dollar Man Season 6, a direct continuation of the TV series; it has since published several more titles set in the TV continuity, including a crossover with, of all things, G.I. Joe. In the UK, the magazine Look-In published a weekly comic strip titled Bionic Action in the 1970s that featured both Steve and Jaime. In the mid-1990s a new US comic book series titled Bionix was announced, again to feature both Steve and Jaime, but it was cancelled despite being promoted in various magazines, though a few pages of sample art were published.
- Contrived Coincidence: Not once, but twice, injuries similar to Austin's are inflicted on people close to him. Jaime loses her right arm and both legs, while in the Return of the Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman reunion movie, Austin's son suffers the exact same injuries as his father, except he loses his right eye instead of his left.
- Fortunately for Steve Austin, his personal physician and close friend, Dr. Rudy Wells, is also the creator of bionics. (This is in the original TV movie; the series proper subtly retcons this away over time as it establishes that Rudy was involved with the OSI (and bionics) well before meeting Austin.)
- Conveniently Close Planet - In the two-parter with the Venus Probe, we're told that we sent an unmanned space probe to Venus, it grazed the Venusian atmosphere (thus activating its internal pressurization), then it accidentally missed Venus and, after hurtling blindly through interplanetary space, crash-landed back on Earth. While it's true that a transfer orbit that takes you from Earth to Venus will eventually take you back to the Earth's orbital distance from the sun, the Earth won't be anywhere nearby when you get there.
- Cryptid Episode: The infamous episode where Steve Austin fights with Bigfoot.
- Cybernetics Eat Your Soul: Barney Miller (later renamed Hiller) narrowly misses this trope in his first appearance.
- Cyber Punk: the show itself isn't Cyber Punk, but almost every cybered-up "Street Samurai" looks to Steve Austin as inspiration. Many a Cyber Punk novel, anime, comic, and film will use some variant of the line 'We can rebuild him. Faster. Stronger. Better.' in homage to the show
- Does Not Know His Own Strength: Austin makes a few clumsy mistakes in the early episodes, such as hitting a golf ball too far in "Wine, Women and War" and throwing a heavy door open too fast in "The Rescue of Athena One".
- Jaime Sommers' iconic accidental tennis ball crush takes place during her original two-parter on 6MDM.
- And the 1994 reunion movie is even more vicious: Steve lands in the drink after an attempt to deal with Jaime's poorly functioning arm doesn't go as hoped (he responds by shoving water at her). Their racquetball match starts off innocently enough, but then their bionics kick in without them realizing it.
- Early Installment Weirdness: The pilot episode has Austin working for the OSO, not the OSI, and his boss is Oliver Spencer, not Oscar Goldman. Subsequent episodes retconned Spencer out of existence, except for the syndicated episodic version of the pilot, which had to make do (it wasn't until Dynamite Comics' Six Million Dollar Man comic series in 2014 that an attempt was made to incorporate Spencer into the overall continuity).
- Many of the famous tropes of this series - the slow-motion running, the "na-na-na-naaa" sound effect and the procedure for depicting the bionic eye at work - were not finalized until the second season. In fact, the first time we see the bionic eye work (in the second TV movie), it glows green! (And the bionic eye surprisingly is not used at all in the first TV movie, other than the implication that Austin's sight is restored by it.)
- The second and third TV movies that launched the series depicted Austin as a Bond-like secret agent, a womanizer with something of a licence to kill and a knack for wearing rather ridiculous tuxedoes. The third pilot film also attempts to introduce a SPECTRE-like big bad. Much of this was dropped when the weekly series began, and by the third season Austin was almost never shown killing anyone. Or wearing a tux. And the SPECTRE expy was never heard from again, although a similar organization would be featured in the first reunion movie.
- Easy Amnesia: In "Stranger at Broken Fork", Steve finds himself in a strange town and can't remember who he is or how he got there. Or that he's a super-powered cyborg.
- Eye Scream: A minor case in the opening credits with a brief shot (taken from the pilot movie) of a doctor holding onto part of Austin's bionic eye. However, the series omitted an aspect of the original novels in which Austin's eye, as it was initially a camouflaged film camera, had to be removed whenever the time came to develop the film.
- Flashback with the Other Darrin: The fact three different actors played Rudy Wells becomes evident on numerous occasions: by the time of the episode "Return of the Bionic Woman", Martin E. Brooks had taken over the role from Alan Oppenheimer, but flashbacks to the first Bionic Woman episode were required, which featured footage of Oppenheimer. The syndicated version of the pilot, aired as "The Moon and the Desert", featured Martin Balsam as Wells, and Balsam recorded new dialogue for the syndicated version. However the opening credits still credited Martin E. Brooks. One later episode of SMDM featured a number of key flashbacks to an Oppenheimer episode, resulting in the actor returning for a one-off guest appearance and substituting for Brooks.
- "Flowers for Algernon" Syndrome: Steve Austin never lost his bionic capabilities, but the "bionic boy" who appeared in one of the early episodes (no relation to Steve Austin's long lost son in one of the later TV movies, who also got bionic parts) lost his bionic legs again by the end of the episode.
- Also Barney Miller/Hiller, who after proving himself incapable of handling his bionic powers has his bionics "tuned down" to human capabilities.
- Glasses Pull: Oscar Goldman seemed to love these.
- Government Agency of Fiction: The O.S.I. (Office of Scientific Information)
- The Great Repair: "Little Orphan Airplane"
- Heroic B.S.O.D.: Steve, after the apparent death of Jaime.
- Iconic Outfit: Steve's Captain Ersatzes that appeared on The Venture Bros. and Duck Dodgers were both wearing the red tracksuit seen above. (They're also both on at least friendly terms with Bigfoot.)
- The tracksuit sported by the Kenner action figure is based upon the outfit Steve is shown running in during the pilot movie (footage later featured in the opening credits - the high-speed run along a fence). In "The Seven Million Dollar Man", "The Bionic Woman" and at least a couple other episodes, Steve wears a version of the tracksuit that is even closer to the action figure.
- Innate Night Vision: In addition to a 20-to-1 zoom, Steve's bionic eye can see in the thermal infrared.
- Lensman Arms Race: While Steve and Jamie's bionic legs could propel them at 60 miles per hournote , the bionic legs given to Steve's long-lost son in the later TV movie could make him run at 300 miles per hour.
- Licensed Pinball Table: Produced by Bally in 1978. Click here for details.
- Male Might, Female Finesse: "The Secret of Bigfoot," which has Steve encounter a band of aliens living in a secluded woodland. They have a huge android called Sasquatch, whose strength keeps Colonel Austin in check. Sasquatch's chief controller is Shalon, an alien humanoid female with a device on her Utility Belt that allows her warp time around herself, an effect that mimics teleportation. Only Steve's bionic eye can track Shalon in this accelerated mode.
- Manipulative Bastard
- Oscar falls into this category in the early episodes.
- His predecessor, Oliver Spencer (featured in the pilot TV movie) is the epitome of this trope as he orchestrates a dangerous mission for Steve simply to see if he would survive; if he hadn't, Spencer was prepared to simply build another bionic man and try again. He also asks Rudy if it's possible to "turn off" Austin like a robot when he wasn't needed for missions.
- Market-Based Title: "Welcome Home, Jaime - Part 1" and "Kill Oscar, Part II" were shown in the UK as part of The Bionic Woman.
- Mind Reading: In one episode, a psychic man was captured by the Bad Guys and forcibly hooked up to a psychic-amplifying machine. The O.S.I. used another psychic (a plucky teenage girl) to track him down. Her mind reading abilities provided Oscar with an excuse to do another Glasses Pull.
- Mission Control: Oscar, in many episodes.
- Mood Whiplash: A rather odd case in the original Bionic Woman two-parter. Several scenes showing Jaime and Steve romancing and enjoying themselves - clearly getting on well - are accompanied by a song called "Sweet Jaime" sung by none other than Lee Majors (meaning it wasn't an off-the-shelf track, but written and recorded specifically for the episode). The lyrics heard are all about the romance breaking down and things going "flat" even though what we see on screen indicates nothing of the sort! ( This does not include the verse heard playing after Jaime's "death", of course.)
- Named After Somebody Famous: Stephen F. Austin (1793 – 1836) was the man after whom the city of Austin, Texas was named.
- New Powers as the Plot Demands: Occurred occasionally with Steve, often involving his bionic eye. Although its best-known functionality, telescopic zoom and night vision, were established from the start, other functions were revealed in later episodes including the ability to see people rendered invisible and, in the final TV movie, it was suddenly given a targeting capability. In the Charlton comic books, one story randomly gave Steve the ability to shoot a powerful laser beam out of the eye, while the very next issue gave the eye the ability to receive transmissions from a tiny bionic eye inside a Steve Austin doll. One episode also randomly gave Steve's bionic arm the one-off ability to act as a Geiger counter. It could be argued that most of Steve's powers count as this if one bases things on Martin Caidin's original novel in which Steve's bionics were nowhere near as powerful or flexible as they became on TV (but they had gadgets added for mission-specific situations, like pop-out fins for an underwater raid).
- Non-Human Sidekick: Bigfoot, after Steve becomes the Sasquatch's BFF.
- No Plans, No Prototype, No Backup: Other than the failed experiment with Barney Hiller, and the fact Jaime was rebuilt only after Steve's urging, there is no indication of another bionic person being created until the reunion movies. In "The Secret of Bigfoot", Austin makes the false claim that there is an entire army of bionic men. The possible reasons why there isn't:
- Candidates for bionic implantation need to be missing limbs. There are plenty of amputees among the general population, but since the technology is top secret, you have to find an amputee with a security clearance who is willing to put himself into danger after he's been modified. There isn't a very big recruiting pool to choose from. (That said, it should be noted that Jaime Sommers was a civilian tennis player with no security clearance and that didn't disqualify her from not only being implanted, but becoming an active field agent within weeks of the surgery.)
- Also, we should note that the technology didn't always work right. In the case of Steve Austin, it worked spectacularly, his body adapted superbly, and so did his mind. He was able to control his power and his temper, he continued to think of himself as a "normal man" for most purposes, etc. He was the exception. Jaime Sommers was able to handle the power all right, but her body kept trying to reject the bionics and this brought her close to death on several occasions. Barney Miller/Hiller had not been able to handle the temptations of power, and some of the other instances of bionic implementation also went wrong in various ways. Steve Austin was both lucky and an exceptional man before he was made bionic.
- Further complicating development of the technology in-story was that there had been a prototype before Barney, a lovable German Shepherd dog. Audience reaction to dwelling on the fact the dog was implanted after being horribly injured in a lab fire wouldn't have helped.
- A possible real-life contributing factor is the economic downturn that was underway through much of the 1970s might have made the notion of spending another $6 million (or more) politically undesirable. Of note is the fact the opening credits to The Bionic Woman point out explicitly that her cost is classified, whereas Austin's cost seems to be widely known in government circles.
- However, these rationalizations aside, there is an episode of The Bionic Woman titled "Doomsday is Tomorrow" in which a Russian character confirms that the USSR is attempting to create its own bionic men; although he states they have thus far been unsuccessful, this puts into question the wisdom of having only three (two active, one not) bionic people, particularly towards the end of the series. Even by the time of the first reunion TV movie, set nearly a decade after both Austin and Sommers have ceased to be active field agents no indication is given of any more American bionic operatives being created until Michael Austin has his accident.
- Novelization: Several episodes were adapted into novels, including one book, International Incidents by Mike Jahn, that combined several storylines into one narrative. The books are notable for having the writers attempt to follow Martin Caidin's original Cyborg continuity with regards to Austin's bionic abilities and his demeanor. Several novelizations, for example, have Austin killing people who remain alive in the episodes and using bionic capabilities not shown on TV.
- Older Than Dirt: Well, maybe not that old, but creator Martin Caidin was writing about bionics as early as the 1960s; it wasn't a concept created for his novel or the show (see, for example, The God Machine). And the concept of "cyborgs" or machine-augmented humans dates back even further, possibly all the way to the original Frankenstein tale.
- Or older. In Irish mythology, the pre-Christian Celtic god/king Nuada received a working silver arm fashioned by the physician Dian Cecht and the wright Creidhne, after losing his arm in battle.
- One-Eyed Shot: Steve's bionic left eye is given a closeup whenever he sees something that is far away.
- Poorly Disguised Pilot: the episode "The Ultimate Imposter" barely featured Steve at all. The hero was an OSI agent who had skills directly uploaded to his brain; this was an example of a Backdoor Pilot.
- "The Return of the Bionic Woman" turns into this towards the end; it was not widely known at the time of broadcast that a Bionic Woman series was coming.
- Required Secondary Powers: As noted in Headscratchers, the non-bionic parts of his body would have trouble handling the forces created by his bionic limbs (the pilot film is one of the only places where something related to this is addressed, where it's mentioned that Austin's heart and lungs are only responsible for taking care of his natural arm, allowing in increased stamina). He's also subject to the Super Strength issues of this trope. When later adapted as a comic book in the early 2010s, this was lampshaded by having virtually all of Austin's body replaced by bionics, except his brain, essentially making him a variant of Robocop.
- Signature Sound Effect:
- All together now... WRRRRCH-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH!
- When he used his bionic eye: Doot-doot-doot-doot-doot-doot-doot-doot-doot...
- When he threw something: Feweweweweweweweweweeeeeewooo
- When he jumped: Booooooooooooooooooooing!
- When he landed after a high jump, or punched somebody, we hear a sound reminiscent of the flapping of a high-dive springboard.
- When he bent something made of metal, there was a sound like an enormous plumbing valve being turned.
- Spin-Off: The Bionic Woman.
- Stock Footage: Most notably the footage of a real-life test flight crash that opens every episode (though the pilot in that crash wasn't nearly as badly hurt... he did lose vision in his right eye) and numerous episodes using NASA spaceflight and moon walk footage.
- Combines with Special Effects Failure whenever Steve takes off in one model of plane... and lands in a completely different plane.
- Stock Sound Effects: The Venus probe sounds suspiciously like your Kenmore washing machine....
- Sudden Name Change: Barney Miller, "The Seven Million Dollar Man" suddenly becomes Barney Hiller for his second appearance, with no reason given. Behind the scenes, the producers were forced to change the name because in the interim between the two episodes the popular Barney Miller sitcom had debuted. Lampshaded (and poked fun at) in the 2014 Six Million Dollar Man Season Six comic book.
- Super Hero
- Super Soldier: Although downplayed as the series went on, and almost non-existent in the Bionic Woman spin-off, the original pilot film has the concept of a rebuilt bionic man described in all but name as a super soldier, and it is made clear that this is what Oliver Spencer has in mind for Austin.
- Tap on the Head: Steve may be the most powerful man alive, but his head is made of eggshells as he's knocked unconscious from behind on many, many occasions. (Martin Caidin actually lampshaded this in his original novel by giving Steve a steel-reinforced skull as part of his bionic replacements, but the writers chose not to incorporate this into the TV character.) Not that the steel skull would really help. Unconsciousness results from the shock wave disrupting the function of a structure called the Reticular Formation. Hit too hard, and the shock wave is still strong enough to disrupt function when it reaches the brainstem and the person dies instantly.
- Theme Tune: Recognizable even today, as well as its SFX sounds.
- However the second and third pilot films did not have the recognizable music. Instead, they featured a theme song performed by Dusty Springfield.
- There Is Another: For the first season, Steve Austin thought he was the only Bionic man ever made. Then he came across OSI's little skeleton in the closet, Barney Miller/Hiller, whom it turned out had been given Bionic limbs before Steve.
- We Can Rebuild Him: The Trope Namer.
- Wheel Program: The original intent for the series, until the network decided it would work better as a weekly series. Only two "wheel" installments were produced.
- Wrote the Book: In "The Return of Bigfoot":Steve: I don't know. It's... it's like there's something there. I can almost remember, but not quite... it's frustrating.
Jaime: Tell me about it. I'm the one who wrote the book on partial memory, remember?
- You Remind Me of X: Austin keeps running into different women who look like Farrah Fawcett (to whom Majors was married at the time). Lampshaded in one episode where Steve and Oscar are shown looking at photographs of the real Farrah.