You're either the ruler of the land, or someone else whose job is to arbitrate between people. Either way, you have a problem. There is an object whose true ownership is under dispute. Alice says it is hers, and Bob says it is his. This is usually a living thing, such as a baby. How do you figure out the true owner? Threaten to destroy the object (traditionally by cutting it in half and giving one half to each claimant, in the knowledge that half of it is no good to either of them).
In the end, Alice would rather see it given up to Bob than have it destroyed, and Bob is all too happy to receive it (or, alternatively, Alice is the first to object). Alice is the real owner, revealed by her compassion.
In straight examples, only one party will object, because there is no middle ground between the rightful mother and a sociopath who would rather have half a dead baby than let someone else raise a live one. In a common subversion, both claimants object, leaving the would-be Solomon stumped.
A common variation in logic puzzles is to have both parties already agreeing to split something that is inherently difficult to split fairly, but not being able to agree on the exact method. The most common solution is to have one party decide how to divide the lot and the other party choose which half to take — this gives the splitter every incentive to divide it as fairly as they can manage.
Often subverted nowadays. Compare Disney Dog Fight and Spot the Imposter. Super Trope of Solomon Divorce, where divorcing parents split their children up so there's at least one for each. See also No MacGuffin, No Winner.
- The Judgment of Solomon is a story from the The Bible. The story recounts that two mothers living in the same house, each the mother of an infant son, came to King Solomon. One of the babies had died, and each claimed the remaining boy as her own. Calling for a sword, Solomon declared his judgment: the baby would be cut in two, each woman to receive half. One mother thought the ruling fair, but the other begged Solomon, "Give the baby to her, just don't kill him!" The king declared the second woman the true mother, as a mother would even give up her baby if that was necessary to save its life. This judgment became known throughout all of Israel and was considered an example of profound wisdom. Note as well that the original tale can actually be seen as a parable, as Solomon was at war with one of his brothers at the time; the baby was Israel, the sword was war, Solomon was the false mother and his brother was represented by the real mother. The message was "If you don't want me to split the kingdom, give it up." It worked.
- Larry Gonick explained the symbolism of the story in The Cartoon History of the Universe, revealing it to be a political parable; Solomon (the false mother) was the illegitimate king, and Adonijah's family (the true mother) were the rightful rulers. Solomon was willing to divide Israel (the baby) with civil war unless Adonijah's family ceded their claim to the throne.
- Billy Batson as Captain Marvel references this after his first encounter with his Evil Counterpart Black Adam in Shazam!: The New Beginning when he is forced to let the villain get away with a plane full of international delegates.
- In the My Little Pony Micro Series, this is how Princess Luna resolves to settle property deputes between the Flim-Flam brothers and literally everyone else in the room.
- In Batman: No Man's Land, Batman finds himself in this situation between two mothers and a baby. The classic solution doesn't work at all, making Bats go figure out a new solution.
- Done in Lawrence of Arabia though the possession in dispute was Tribal Honor rather then a material one. An Arab warrior from one tribe murders one from another. For the murderer not to be executed would shame the wronged tribe; For the wronged tribe to execute the murderer would simply escalate the Cycle of Revenge. To fend off the dispute, Lawrence, to his distaste, personally carries out the execution because he has no local connections and therefore no one can take offense.
- Among the legendary stories of the wise Japanese judge Ooka Tadasuke is one where he must figure out the true mother of a baby. He asks each woman to grab an arm of the baby and tells them he is sure the real mother would find the strength to win a tug of war. Actually, much like Solomon, he figured the real mother would refuse to harm the child. Both women are too smart to fall for it, so he tries a variation: putting on a big show of looking into the future, he announces that the child will one day be handicapped and his aged mother will have to work to support him. This time the trick works — the false claimant objects that children are supposed to serve their parents, but the real mother doesn't care what she'll have to sacrifice for her son.
- A similar story exists concerning Bao Zheng, an ancient Chinese government official held in high esteem for his Incorruptible Pure Pureness due to his unflinching uprightness and honesty. In ''Justice Bao Investigates The Chalk Circle," a girl is sold into prostitution by her penniless family and comes to the attention of a rich but childless tax collector. He takes her as a second wife and she bears him a son, which makes the tax collector's first wife jealous. She poisons the husband, blames the new mother for the murder, and claims that the child is hers so that she will inherit the dead man's fortune, having had the innocent woman beaten until she falsely confessed. Justice Bao suspects wrongdoing, so he draws a chalk circle and places the infant child in the middle, telling each woman to take one of the baby's arms and pull until they have the baby—naturally, the child's true mother cannot bear to hurt her son in such a way and the Wicked Stepmother's lie is exposed.
- Used in Leo Frankowski's Cross-Time Engineer series. Conrad Stargard, the titular engineer, becomes a feudal lord, and is asked to arbitrate a dispute. A man and his neighbor each owned a pig, and one day, they only found one pig. They both claim it is theirs. Conrad agrees with both of them, and tells them the court cost from each of them is half a pig. They divide the pig between them, and later give Conrad the other pig when it is found.
- Played straight in Book V of The Faerie Queene, when Arthegall, Knight of Justice, arbitrates a dispute between a squire and a knight over a woman (who is apparently incapable of telling them herself). It turns out the knight kidnapped the woman (and killed his own girlfriend when she objected to his running off with her) and is subsequently sentenced to carry her severed head around for a year as punishment.
- In Queen Zixi of Ix, two women come to King Bud, both claiming to own a single cow. At the suggestion of his sister, Bud lets each of them try milking the cow, and the one who successfully milks the cow is declared the owner. Subverted, however, when it is then revealed that it was the other woman's cow all along, who was simply bad at understanding cows.
- In N or M?, one of Agatha Christie's Tommy and Tuppence novels, a strange foreign woman has kidnapped an Englishwoman's daughter, and is pursued to the edge of a cliff. The foreigner is holding the kid tightly, but the Englishwoman takes the shot, killing her. Later it's discovered the Englishwoman was a traitor spying for the Nazis, and the other woman was the girl's real mother. Tuppence realizes this as no mother would willingly endanger her own child like that. Tuppence explicitly refers to Solomon in this one.
- Done in an episode of Dinosaurs, in which the baby is cut in half and then put back together in a weird cross between this trope and Vegas-style stage magic.
- Used in an episode of Seinfeld, when Kramer is decided to be the true owner of a bicycle (as he didn't want to see it ruined) when Newman uses this logic to decide whether the true owner is Kramer or Elaine (who was fed up with the entire argument and willing to take half of the bike).
- Salute Your Shorts: ZZ and Dina each claim ownership of a frog, Wartbreath. Budnick, acting as counselor, follows the Ooka Tadasuke example and gives the frog to ZZ when she lets Dina take Wartbreath because he could see "ZZ couldn't bear to harm the little croaker." However, he confesses the handbook he took the idea from "would have given the frog to Dina. This was my answer."
- Not strictly a cut-in-half situation, but done to some extent in an episode of Season Three of Angel, when vampire hunter Holtz takes Angel's child hostage and threatens to kill him unless Angel agrees to let him take the baby away. Angel, the boy's true father, agrees, preferring to have him raised by someone else than to have him die. This distinction becomes important later in the season, when the boy comes to see Holtz, the man who was willing to kill him rather than see him raised by someone else, as his father.
- Discussed in Law & Order: Special Victims Unit. In a case concerning the custody of a child, Stabler mentions King Solomon, and the DA counters that she can't literally split the child. Stabler points out Solomon didn't have to.
- To elaborate: A child was found to be the biological daughter of one woman, who claimed in the beginning that the child was actually her deceased daughter. The child was raised by her surrogate mother, who gave birth to her. The DA uses this trope to make the child cry and be very upset, prompting the biological mother to relinquish custody to the surrogate parents.
- An episode of ER had a doctor resolving a dispute between two cheese-rollers by presenting the prize, a wheel of cheese, to the competitor who would rather forfeit his chance at victory than let the cheese be damaged. As he prepares to present the cheese wheel to the winner, he sees that one of his colleagues has already cut a slice from the cheese and made himself a sandwich.
- Done in a Doctor Who episode ("Daleks in Manhattan") over a stolen loaf of bread... by a guy named Solomon.
- Shows up in LazyTown, of all places. The episode "Who's Who?" features Robbie Rotten making a perfect robotic clone of Stephanie from a toy lookalike, and the citizens of the town can't tell which is the real one. A dance-off is suggested, with Robbie, Mayor Meanswell, and Bessie Busybody as judges. The clone goes first and ends her routine with a stylish jump move; Stephanie then takes her turn with a similar routine, but doesn't do a jump. The judges think that the true Stephanie must be the first one, because her dancing was better, but Trixie realizes that only the real Stephanie would have enough self-confidence and faith in her friends' ability to know the truth to deliberately leave out a move she could easily do. This convinces Ms. Busybody and the Mayor, but not Robbie—thankfully, though, the clone turns back into its original toy form at that moment, so the question is settled. Stephanie still thanks Trixie for speaking up and figuring out her plan.
- Played with in M*A*S*H when the camp looks after a Doorstop Baby. At one point Colonel Potter tells Hawkeye, BJ and Winchester, "I'm going to make a Solomon-like pronouncement. I'm going to cut Winchester in half, ignore you two and look after the baby myself."
- Parodied in a Sunday edition of Doonesbury: Duke, the Governor of American Samoa with his addled mind misses the point of the original, but things still work out in the same way, with one woman (the fake mother) uttering a "meh" response, while the other woman's emotional outrage reveals the child's true mother:
Duke: I believe there is a biblical precedent... and a solution... I've got it! Cut the kid in half!
Mother #1: Hmm... That sounds fair.
Mother #2: Are you crazy?!?
- Bertolt Brecht also does this with a child at the end of his play The Caucasian Chalk Circle. In his version, the woman who is willing to give up the child rather than see him harmed is not the biological mother.
- The Bible: The Complete Word of God (abridged) gives this familiar Biblical scenario an anachronistic satirical twist:
Matt (carrying a baby doll): King Solomon, King Solomon, I have a question about yesterday! Are you suggesting that since we can't agree on whose baby it is, we should split it in half and let the mothers decide?
Solomon: No, I've reconsidered. I personally find splitting babies in half morally repugnant; on the other hand, I'm not sure the government should interfere with a woman's right to choose.
- One of the quests in Dungeon Siege III has you settle a land dispute between a Goblin baron and a human landowner. You can tell them to just split the land and deal with it and they'll agree, though neither are terribly happy about it (and the Goblin notes that this is a coward's choice).
- In Zap Dramatic's Sir Basil Pike Public School, if you pick the boy's path, the player character feuds with Dave over a bike: you believe he took it from you while you were inside a store, but he says it's his own bike and you stole it. Taking the problem to Mr. Hartrup results in him offering to do this to the bike. It doesn't exactly work out, though, because if you tell Ted not to cut the bike up, then Dave will also tell him not to cut it up, which does not solve the dispute at all, and he's forced to take the bike away until you and Dave can come to an agreement. If you do tell him to cut it up, then he will give it to Dave. For those who are curious, if you do this path correctly, you later learn the bike is Dave's, the confusion arose because you both happened to get the same model bike and both were placed next to each other outside the store.
- One episode of American Dragon: Jake Long shows Jake attempting to negotiate between two tribes of fairies over custody of a magic apple (the tree that the apple grew on is in one tribe's territory, but the apple itself hangs over the other tribe's territory). When he suggests splitting it, both sides protest because doing so would destroy its magical properties. Jake's grandpa then steps in and quells the discussion by eating the apple.
- One episode of Ben 10 (2016) has Ben fighting with Villain of the Week Billy Billions over a rare Sumo Slammers card, with the latter going ballistic and attempting to steal the RV in retaliation over Ben getting the card first. When Grandpa returns, he is furious over Ben playing hooky when he should have been watching over the RV in his absence. He tears the card in half, giving one half to Ben and Billy.
- Susie Carmichael from Rugrats used this method in a Rugrats comic story where Tommy was arguing with Angelica over custody of his star ball.
- In The Simpsons this trope inspired Reverend Lovejoy to come up with a solution when he and his wife were fighting with Homer and Marge over a mattress that somehow seems to invigorate the sex life of any couple that sleeps in it. Marge's only complaint was that Lovejoy cut the mattress diagonally, making it look like a grilled cheese sandwich.
- Subverted in the All There in the Manual portions of Martian Successor Nadesico. In a competition to see who would get custody of Ruri, Prospector asks Yurika and Minato to each grab an arm and pull. When Minato lets go first (after Ruri cries in pain), Prospector awards custody to Yurika, because she would never let Ruri go.
- An odd variation in the final episode of Steel Angel Kurumi Encore. A contest is held between the Steel Angels as to who will have Nakahito as their master and it's down to Kurumi and a mysterious masked Angel. At the end of the race, the two snag Nakahito and begin a tug of war as they race towards a finish line. Nakahito cries out in pain and Kurumi, frightened for her master's safety, lets go. Because of this, Kurumi is declared the winner. Then, we find out that the mysterious Angel wasn't an Angel at all but one of the two spies working for the government who had a somewhat unhealthy fixation on him, so she would have lost any way!
- Subverted in Ranma ½. Akane and Shampoo try to drag Ranma in different directions, and Mousse says it reminds him of a story about an old ruler who, when presented with two mothers fighting over a baby, told the mothers to have a tug of war, with the winner getting the child. But the mother's love was strong in both of them... so the child was ripped apart and nobody lived happily ever after.
- Subverted in a story from the Batman: No Man's Land bat-crossover with an actual baby that two women lay claim to, but neither of whom is the child's real mother, who entrusted the child to the first woman when she (the mother) was near death and when she set the baby down to get something, the second woman found the baby and assumed the first woman had abandoned it. The "real" and "false" mother both react with horror at Batman's suggestion. Batman's second proposal is that if they care about the child they can learn to look after it together, since in No Man's Land, everyone needs to stick together to survive. This gets through to them and they learn to become friends.
- Subverted in a later She-Hulk comic - Shulkie, at the time, was being some form of cosmic judge, and was brought a case in which the two (alien) parents were contesting custody of the child. She thinks to herself "oh, it's the Judgment of Solomon", and orders that the child be cut in half, expecting the trope to play out as it did originally. The alien father takes her literally, and cuts the child in two. She's horrified, until someone points out her brilliance, since the species concerned can regenerate from this, and the parents end up with a child each.
- Subverted horrifyingly by the Emperor in Fables. Two brothers disagree on how to administrate the land they inherited, and can't divide on their own. Instead of granting the division, the Emperor says that, because strong families are the foundation of the Empire, he will remove the material things that separate the brothers—by commanding that the land and property be forfeited to the Empire and the servants and tenants of the land killed.
- Subverted in FoxTrot. Jason and Paige are arguing over an object, until their mother has finally had enough, and suggests they remember what Solomon said. "Something about cutting children in half." The two immediately try to foist the object on each other.
- Subverted in La Biblia Contada a los Pasotas, a Spanish comic-book adaptation of The Bible. King Solomon uses this trick but only to walk near both candidates and watch them closely. He identifies the biological mother because she has the same eye color as the baby.
- There is a joke about two women bringing a young man to King Solomon and arguing over whose daughter he promised to marry. Solomon orders to bring his sword with the usual line... and then gives the man to the one who told him to go ahead with the cutting - obviously, she's the true mother-in-law.
- Played With in Lottie and Lisa, from which The Parent Trap was adapted. Lotte-as-Luise had a dream where the two sisters' father threatened to saw them in half, while mother begged him to allow her to keep both of them. In the end, they settled for metaphorical Solomon Divorce (which is what had really happened).
- Subverted in the Myth Adventures novel Hit And Myth, where Skeeve (disguised as King Roderick) makes the ruling during a dispute over a cat.
This was supposed to inspire them to settle their difference with a quick compromise. Instead, they thanked me for my wisdom, shook hands, and left smiling, presumably to carve up the cat.
- Happens in a theater performance in one of the Judge Dee novels: Two brothers are complaining that their brother's half of the inheritance is too large. The judge looks at both lists of bequests, and dramatically... hands each brother the other list.
- In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huckleberry Finn tries to explain the story of King Solomon to Jim. Jim fails to get the point of the story, and comments that Solomon doesn't seem very wise, since half a child isn't very useful (he compares it to cutting a dollar in half, with the point that it's worthless). Huck keeps repeating that Jim doesn't get it (though the fact that he doesn't explain the point himself may indicate that he didn't get it himself).
- In Pyramids, Pteppic, elevated to Pharoah of Djelibeybi, is confronted with the need to make a Solomonic judgement over ownership of a bull which has fattened on two farmers' pastures. Thinking that his decision will be remembered for ages, he makes his judgement known, which confuses the claimants. The High Priest Dios gets in first and makes the ruling clearer. Apparently the Pharoah is merely the figurehead who legitimizes decisions made by others, i.e. by Dios. Dios's decision is that the bull should go to the more pious man, and he should immediately sacrifice it to the gods.
- Subverted in The Cosby Show of all things. Rudy and Olivia are arguing over who gets to play with a toy. Vanessa suggests cutting it in half, so Rudy and Olivia then argue over who gets which half!
- Double-subverted in What It's Like Being Alone, when Sammy tries to settle an argument between Brian's robot parents. First, they argue over who gets which half. And then it turns out that Sammy wasn't trying for this trope anyway, and just wanted to see Brian get cut in half.
- The Israeli skit show Makom liDeaga re-enacts the judgement given, but the women say nothing... and the baby is cut. After a short pause of horror, one woman starts calling Solomon a murderer, slowly saying it louder and louder until she screams at him repeatedly in hysteria and has to be taken out. Solomon says in embarrassment, "Well, I guess the one screaming was the mother... Wasn't she?"
- Happens in an episode of The Drew Carey Show where Drew is studying the Bible. Two of his coworkers get into an argument over who owns a cat and Drew proposes to cut the cat in half, even taking out a pocket knife in the process. Both women are immediately horrified at his suggestion and leave.
- In one episode of Sesame Street, two kids argue over who gets to keep a drawing they made together. Oscar suggests tearing it in half so they each get a piece, but they kids don't like that idea since they love the drawing, so they decide to just make another drawing so they both have one.
- John Finnemore's Souvenir Programme: Both women object to cutting up the baby, leaving Solomon to scramble for a different solution. He asks them each what the baby's name is, but of course doesn't know which name is correct. Then he tries asking what color the baby's eyes are, which both answer correctly. He works it out in the end—one of the women forgets what she said the baby's name was, exposing herself as the liar.
- In The History Of Grob part 4, it's mentioned that King Magnificent the First would always settle disputes by cutting a baby in half, whether or not it was relevant to the dispute. He just really, really enjoyed murdering babies.
- Irritability subverts this by having both characters agree to have the cat cut in half.
- In Latchkey Kingdom, a king subjected to this dilemma passes the buck on a "usurper" and goes into exile rather than bother with figuring out a solution. The usurper decides to marry the mothers together... even though each already has a husband.
- Nick Daniel also played with this trope in a side story to his earlier comic 70-Seas, the "God Dog" Sparky is asked to make one of these judgements when he's in an especially hellish mood and tells them to twist the baby's head off and throw it in a river. When they object he barks them off. Later, after getting laid he tells them to share the baby, which they think is pretty stupid.
- C-Section Comics demonstrates that some baby judgments don't require the wisdom of Solomon to settle.
- In Kill Six Billion Demons, Word of God tells a variation on the story about the Demiurge Solomon David, who is possible an alternate universe version of the actual Solomon; when informed of the dispute between the two women, he delegated the case to a high ranking clerk, who quickly investigated the lives of both of them to determine the true mother (as well as how the baby was conceived by an illicit relationship with an imperial officer). The lying woman is executed, the real mother is sentenced to six months of hard labour, the father is dishonourably discharged, and the baby is made a ward of the state.
- Memorably subverted in The Simpsons episode "Simpsons Bible Stories":
Solomon/Homer: The pie shall be cut in two, then each man shall receive... death. I'll eat the pie.
- Another subversion later when Ned Flanders adapts the same story into a movie (financed by Mr. Burns) in "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass". In this version, Solomon (portrayed by Judge Roy Snyder) actually goes through with cutting the baby in half, panics, and kills himself buy cutting himself in half.
- A Rugrats episode with a subversion: Angelica's jurisdiction over Tommy, Chuckie, Phil and Lil is usurped by a rival baby at the park, leading to a lengthy power struggle until he eventually suggests that they "split" the four of them. Angelica considers this and asks, "Who gets the heads?" The rival explains that he meant they would each take two of them, prompting a fit of outraged pride from Angelica, who says they're all hers and she's not settling for half.
- Subverted on Recess with a doll. In a prelude to a very terrible rule, Gus, sitting in for King Bob, gives the doll to the wrong girl, since the real owner insisted she'd rather see the doll with the other girl than have it cut in two. His advisers point this out, but cheer him up with the very shallow assurance that he made the second-best possible decision.
- Parodied in an episode of Histeria! King Solomon gets presented with the two women claiming to be the mother, and he suggests (like in the original) cutting the baby in half. Both women react with disgust, declare they're not the mother, and leave, forcing Solomon to take ownership of the baby. To make it worse, neither of the two women claimed to be the mother in the first place; Solomon's guards just picked up two random women off the street.
- Also done in an episode of Captain N: The Game Master where Princess Lana had to make a judgement over ownership of a cow. The challenger claimed that he should have ownership of the cow over its original owner since the animal grazed on his land. When she proposed to dividing the cow, neither claimant wanted to give up their half. The matter was settled peacefully in the end, (and without Lana's mediation,) however, when the two disputants agreed to divide the cow's dairy products.
- On the Israeli satire show M.K. 22, when the resident undercover terrorist steals a time machine in an attempt to prevent the Jewish settlement of Palestine, only to create the circumstances that led to them doing that. One of his attempts involves trying to assassinate King Solomon, who is dozing off in front of the two women, by throwing an axe at him and accidentally slicing the baby in half instead. The women are entirely unfazed and praise Solomon's wisdom instead.
- My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic: In "A Flurry of Emotions", Flurry Heart is left to play with the Cakes' babies while Twilight Sparkle buys some treats from Pinkie Pie. Pound and Pumpkin start fighting over a toy balloon, and Flurry Heart gets the bright idea to break it in half so they can share. This just ends up in Pound and Pumpkin getting mad at her and chasing her around Sugar Cube Corner.
- Averted in X-Men: Jubilee in battle, faces Wolverine and his evil imposter standing right next to each other. When one of them throws the old line "Blast both of us; It's the only way to be sure!", Jubilee blasts the other one. The problem being that this was the real Logan that she stunned. Logan forgives her, knowing that she acted in good faith not realizing that he was far too cynical to pull that tactic, especially when it's prone to abuse.
- All Hail King Julien has Julien fond of referencing this, but he does it in reference to a pineapple (and thus, giving each person half is actually an ideal solution) and a ball (destroying it and making both of the children cry as a result).
- In the first episode of season 6 of The Adventures of Puss in Boots, "Save the Town", the new ruler of the thieves Esme, passes this judgement over two thieves arguing over a doll. One of them asks if he can have the legs, and they both seem quite happy with this.