The time of simplicity, sly rebellion, and Napoléon Bonaparte.
Home of Jane Austen and Charlotte Brontë heroines who assert their inner strength and independence by marrying dark, obscenely rich mercurial men. Said rich men usually wear long frock coats, tight pants, wispy hair with sideburns and live in big stone mansions which take up nearly half the planet. Women wear Groman inspired muslin gowns, which are popular from France, with high waistlines which they can actually breathe in (but which tend to look like nightgowns or maternity gear in the hands of a poor costume designer).
In a strict historical sense, the "Regency era" only encompassed the years 1811 through 1820, during which time the future King George IV held the title of Prince Regent due to his father, George III's, growing mental instability. In its broader literary sense, the term can be used to describe any period in British history ranging roughly from the end of the Seven Years War (known to the Americans as the French and Indian War) to the coronation of Queen Victoria (approx. 1760-1840).
The later years of The French Revolution (particularly the Directoire period of 1795-1799) and Napoleon's reign overlap the period, as neoclassicism stirs ideas, culture and Mediterranean revivals in full swing. Also overlapping in this period is the Federal years of the budding United States, as its territory doubled following the Louisiana purchase in 1803, the expeditions of Merriwether Lewis, William Clark, and their guide Sacagawea through the Pacific Northwest, and the socioeconomic growth and national awareness following the War of 1812 dubbed as the "Era of Good Feelings", drove the new nation westward, for good or for ill; and, following Napoleon's conquest of Spain, the Latin American Wars of Independence, which was kickstarted by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico and led by Simón Bolívar in much of South America.
During the time of George III, the regency and the reign of George IV, public morals were a lot looser than in the Victorian age. Fortunes were won and lost at cards, dice and the races, duels were fought (that's how Alexander Hamilton died), and bare-knuckle boxing was at its height with champions like Belcher, Gull and Cribb. Many famous men openly had mistresses and/or visited brothels. For instance, George IV's mistresses—note the plural—were openly living in Whitehall Palace in adjacent rooms to his actual wife. And George III's third son William, later William IV, lived with an actress for twenty years and fathered 10 children with her, and from whom much of the British upper crust is descended (including a rather lowly fellow named David Cameron). It wasn't until twenty years after William IV's death that his liaison was considered shocking enough to be censored. When the Prince Regent's only daughter Charlotte died in childbirth, the Prince Regent's brothers promptly dumped their mistresses in search for wives to produce legitimate heirs; one such brother, Edward, Duke of Kent produced one in 1819.
The Regency is also the era in which the Industrial Revolution got into full swing (with inventions such as the cotton gin, gas street lamps, counting machines, batteries, food canning, corkscrews, and prototype bicycles coming from this era), so expect a fair number of industrial parvenus to show up. Also new is modern men's fashion—the idea that a man's clothes should be dark, sober, elegant, and tasteful rather than merely expensive comes from the Prince Regent's favourite dandy, Beau Brummell. Or to put it simply: this is where the granddaddy of the three-piece suit was born.
A quote whose origin has been lost describes a tomcat as being a Regency Gentleman on the grounds that he roisters all night, enjoys rollicking love-affairs and bare-knuckle fighting but always looks elegant.
Tropes associated in this period include:
- Dance Sensation: Regency ballrooms would've been dull without the quadrille, which was the ancestor of the American square dance, and the waltz, with its smooth, romantic, and, at the time, intimate moves, only arriving in Britain during this era after it had been popular at the continent a few decades before.
- The Dandy: The era invented the term. Notably, there was Beau Brummell, who was such a fashion icon that it was considered an unprecedented honour to be invited to watch him dress (which could take hours). Incidentally, he also inspired the modern business suit.
- Gothic Horror: Often a good setting to the period.
- Gorgeous Period Dress: Those popularly white, high-waisted muslin dresses and riding coats. They were often criticized as "undress" and their children tried to forget that their mothers have ever worn them during the early Victorian era, as satirized in this 1857 cartoon◊.
- Hot Blooded Sideburns: A must for men during the era. If you want to be historically accurate, they were called "whiskers", as they were only called "sideburns" starting in the 1860s (as a reference to the facial hair of American Civil War General Ambrose Burnside).
- High-Class Gloves: The Regency era was the beginning of the long stretch of history which ended as late as the 1960s in which gloves became a near-mandatory fashion item among upper-class women in the Western world. If you see a Jane Austen heroine depicted at a full-dress ball and she isn't wearing gloves, then quite frankly the costume designer is doing it wrong.
- Impossibly Tacky Clothes: Unlike the columnar dresses of Napoleon's court, the English royal court retained the panniers for women at presentation. What resulted is an effect resembling a high waisted Dolly Vaden cake. Those ridiculous court dresses persisted throughout the era until the Prince Regent became king.
- Nice Shoes: Buckled shoes and the high heeled mules of the previous century were replaced with riding boots, sandals, and flat slippers. This also was the era when shoes started to distinguish the left foot from the right.
- Nostalgia Filter: Obviously, with Neoclassicism in vogue, all things Ancient Grome was at full expense of the era, and later in the era with the rise of Romanticism, other eras such as The Middle Ages and The Renaissance, and even a splash of Orientalism, were touched upon.
- Painted-On Pants: This was is the era where tight pants first became popular for men, women, and eventually, period pieces.
- Real Women Have Curves: The only time between the 16th century and WWI when this wasn't in full swing, as the high-waisted costumes really toned down the curves.
- Romanticism Versus Enlightenment: This period clashed two idealistic views whether they would look onwards to a futuristic perspective or a revolutionary and simplistic life. Notably, Regency England was an age of rapid social and technological change that saw the height of the Industrial Revolution, but art was dominated by simple and idealised Roman and Greek classicism and the picturesque, a pre-impressionist art movement based on simplicity and rural and nature scenes.
- Simple, yet Opulent: From the white muslin dresses, to the dark suits, to the furniture, to the gardens and white marble architecture, everything was low-maintenance yet elegant compared to the fluffy, frilly, powdered, high-maintenance rococo stuff of a century earlier.
- The seaminess of the period is represented in the art of Thomas Rowlandson, whose watercolours and cartoons range from picturesque to quaint to ribald to pornographic.
- The works of the late 19th century Italian genre painter Vittorio Reggianini, whose subjects are scenes of genteel people dressed in pastel Neoclassical style clothing in front of Neoclassical era architecture.
- Other painters of the "Regency revival genre", where the themes include flirty Regency era scenes with a late Victorian/Edwardian flavor, include Adolf Hering, Edmund Blair Leighton, George Goodwin, Frederik Hendrik Kaemmerer, and Frédéric Soulacroix. Soulacroix in particular pushed the genre well into the 1920s, where he painted pieces◊ that include women wearing high waisted sleevess dress◊ and bobbed hair.
- The Luck of Dennis St. Michel, Viscount Stokington is set just before the historic Regency, in the 1790s. There's plenty of mentions of balls, fiery-spirited heroines, Byronic heroes, and frock coats. Lots of frock coats.
- The Man in Grey primarily takes place in this period, as a Whole Episode Flashback bookended by a World War II-era framing story.
- Becoming Jane has Jane Austen as its protagonist Historical Domain Character. The movie is set in 1795-96 when she met Tom Lefroy. They were both 20 years old.
- Jane Austen's 6 novels, as well as the numerous film and television adaptations (including the ones with zombies and sea monsters).
- George MacDonald Fraser's Black Ajax is a fictionalized account of the career of the first great black heavyweight, Tom Molineux, who fought in the bare-knuckle ring at this period and twice contested Cribb for the title. The Prince Regent himself makes two brief appearances.
- Caleb Williams by William Godwin, published in 1794, takes a look at the darker side of Regency England — including corrupt hierarchies, a broken justice system, and political oppression.
- The Comfortable Courtesan is a Regency Romance Web Serial Novel about a very high-class London courtesan and her associates, among other things seeking to depict sexual diversity in the era without Politically Correct History.
- The Gardella Vampire Chronicles. Yup, vampires plus Regency.
- In Honor Harrington, Manticore is this Recycled In Space.
- Horatio Hornblower and its adaptations Horatio Hornblower (film) and Horatio Hornblower (TV mini-series) are set in wars during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
- Daphne du Maurier's Jamaica Inn takes place in 1820 Cornwall.
- Jane Eyre is meant to be the fictional memoir of a woman looking back at her youth; the main action is set in about 1810. In addition to the mention of Walter Scott's 1808 novel Marmion as a recently published book and the frequent mentions of politics more appropriate to Georgian than Victorian times, Jane's travels lead her to a coach house in an Expy of Leeds where a portrait of the Prince Regent is displayed prominently. Not only had the Prince Regent (or King George IV) been dead for almost twenty years by 1847, the coach houses had been closed for over fifteen years. Had Jane Eyre been set any time after 1835 or so, Jane would have taken a train, and the station would have held a portrait of Queen Victoria.
- This of course doesn't stop writers and producers from assuming that the novel was set in Victorian times and dressing Jane in a governess's wardrobe more appropriate to the mid-Victorian era than the Regency.
- Susanna Clarke's Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell is a fantasy novel written as a Jane Austen pastiche and set in the same general time period.
- Several real life figures from the time period even provide cameos, most notably King George III and Lord Byron.
- The Julian Kestrel mysteries by Kate Ross feature the eponymous dandy and his valet solving murders. Sadly cut short by Author Existence Failure.
- Kat, Incorrigible takes place in an alternate Regency, with magic.
- Both the Master and Commander film and the books that inspired it tend to look like this, especially in the film, where Stephen Maturin has the sideburns distinctive to the period. This is likely partly due to the Frozen in Time nature of the installments following seven, where 1813 went on for the next ten books. Justified in that the Napoleonic War ended in 1815, which would have made him unable to write the later books.
- The Matthew Hawkwood novels are set squarely in this era. The ongoing war with Napoleon forms an important part of the backstory and drives several of the plots.
- The Mr. and Mrs. Darcy Mysteries follow Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy as they solve a series of crimes and meet the characters from other Austen novels.
- Two entire genres of Romance Novels. "Regency romances" (or "traditional Regencies") are cerebral comedies of manners, usually rather brief, with scarcely a hint of sex (see: Jane Austen, as listed above). "Regency historicals" are bodice rippers that just happen to be set during the period.note
- Shades of Milk and Honey, a gentle Regency fantasy by Mary Robinette Kowal offers a much less intrusive but perhaps more thoroughly integrated view of magic in early 19th century English society.
- The various Sharpe works fit broadly within this era.
- The last Sherlock Holmes short story features a character Holmes claims was Born Inthe Wrong Century — specifically, Holmes stories are set at the end of the 19th century, and this man would have been much more at home among the courting and duelling days of the Regency.
- Sorcery & Cecelia is a Historical Fantasy that tells the story of two cousins of the gentleman class as they navigate the social scene of the Ton and the politics of the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
- By one of the same authors, Mairelon the Magician is set in a similar Regency England with magic, telling the story of a street urchin who is adopted by a wizard.
- The Temeraire novels by Naomi Novik are set in the early 19th century, though the main characters are British and travel all over the place. What if the Napoleonic Wars were fought with dragons?
- Also in the broad literary sense, Anne Brontë's novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall takes place in the 1820s.
- Speaking of Regency England in the broad literary sense, this also encompasses Wuthering Heights, which spans from the 1770s to 1801.
- Blackadder the Third. It's actually about the Prince Regent (specifically his butler), but it's not exactly a costume drama. It also includes many events that happened before the Regency era.
- Well, the first episode only referred to George as the Prince of Wales, implying that the regency hadn't happened yet. By the final episode, for sure, though, the Regency has begun, as a mad George III betrothed his son to a potted plant and did not realize he switched places with his butler.
- The Netflix show Bridgerton is set in 1817 London, although an alternate version where racism is no longer a problem.
- Doctor Who: "Thin Ice" is set in London, 1814, at the last of the great frost fairs of the Little Ice Age.
- Gentleman Jack is set in the 1830s and features real-world Regency-era lesbian Anne Lister.
- In the Legends of Tomorrow episode "Séance and Sensibility", the Legends travel to this time period to try to keep Jane Austen from quitting writing before she publishes her famous novels. Mona turns out to be a huge Jane Austen Fangirl. The problem? A Hindu deity is removing people's impulse control, wreaking havoc in the small town. The climax of the episode has the entire town break out in a Bollywood song and dance number.
- Poldark is (mostly) set in (broadly) Regency-period Cornwall.
- On a Clear Day You Can See Forever has many flashback sequences set in England in the 1790s.