German composer (c. 17 December 1770 26 March 1827) of Classical Music, generally considered one of the most talented and influential of all time.
Born in Bonn to a family of Flemish origin (that's why it's van Beethoven, not von, and he's not a nobleman; the Dutch "van" is no indication of nobility, although Beethoven was known to use the confusion to his social advantage), he moved to Vienna in the 1790s, at first attracting attention for his virtuoso piano performances. His earlier compositions were accomplished but derivative pieces (on the surface, at least) in the Classical Era style of Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
Then he started to go deaf, and everything changed. He began to compose dramatic, emotional works on a scale far larger than anything most musicians had worked on before. They eventually laid the foundation for the Romantic Era of music.
Beethoven wrote music in a wide variety of genres, including a single opera, Fidelio. He is most famous, however, for his symphonies. Symphony No. 5 in C minor is filled with spectacular moments. His epic and inspirational Symphony No. 9 in D minor, first performed in 1824 when Beethoven was almost completely deaf, has become one of the world's most famous musical works, eventually becoming the anthem of The European Union. Thanks to Pop-Cultural Osmosis, you probably know the "Ode to Joy" from the fourth movement, even if you've never heard the rest of the symphony.
Throughout the 19th century, Beethoven's works were upheld among even the greatest composers as the impossibly-high standard one should always try to strive to match, even if one could never succeed in doing so. Franz Schubert went into a kind of compositional paralysis after he heard a Beethoven symphony, believing much of his own work was no longer worth pursuing when something that great was out there. Richard Wagner, whose ego was as large as Germany itself and someone who never hesitated to tell everyone how great he was, could only bring himself to proclaim that he was the successor to Beethoven, not Beethoven's equal or better.
Tropes present in his work:
- Affectionate Parody: Symphony No. 8 in F major is like a high-octane version of an early classical symphony, with exaggerations of the common tropes employed during that period. The first movement has sweeping simple melodies with extreme amounts of tremolos throughout. The third movement is spiked with many sforzandos and complex counterpoint. The finale is so brisk it is almost unplayable in its proper tempo. The slow movement mimics the metronome and even has a sudden fortissimo during the first minute, like in Joseph Haydn's Symphony No. 94 in G major (Surprise).
- Bathos: Symphony No. 4 in B♭ major is famous for its grim introduction, suggesting a dark, brooding work. Instead, the first movement proper erupts in a jubilant tone with a quirky melody. The rest of the symphony remains mostly jovial throughout. Beethoven reveals a sense of humor and dramatic subversion similar to Haydn's practical jokes.
- Beta Test: Various unpublished Beethoven pieces were first attempts at writing a musical genre or rendering a musical subject, some being retooled as later published works, giving precious insights into the composer's creative process and development. The most famous example is the Choral Fantasy, which has a prototype of "Ode to Joy" as the main subject. It also heralds the Symphony No. 9 in spirit by uniting all musical forces under a theme of universal brotherhood.
- The Choral Fantasy itself has a prototype, the song arrangement "Gegenliebe" (Returned Love).
- Beethoven first attempted a symphony with a stormy C minor first movement, which is based on the Mannheim rocket and has the Sturm und Drang theme that was popular in the 18th century. A "Jena Symphony" in C major was once attributed to Beethoven, but now it is known Friedrich Witt composed it instead.
- An early attempt at a Violin Concerto also exists. It somewhat resembles the Violin Concerto in D major, but overall it is a more traditional work.
- A Concerto No. 0 in E♭ major was reconstructed based on orchestral cues from the piano score.
- Beethoven wrote a Macbeth overture, but he later transplanted the introduction into the "Ghost" Piano Trio.
- Leonard Bernstein goes over Beethoven's drafts of the Symphony No. 5 in C minor in this lecture.
- Broken Pedestal: The third symphony which he dedicated to Napoleon, because he thought that he represented all the good ideals of the French Revolution. When he got the news that Napoleon declared himself emperor, he destroyed the first page of his work.
- Deaf Composer: Trope Namer and at least an honorary Trope Codifier.
- Everything Is an Instrument: The overture "Wellington's Victory" calls for groups of muskets and cannons to exchange fire, depicting the battle rather literally.
- Everyone Knows Morse: The opening theme of the fifth symphony ("da da da DUM") coincidentally matches the Morse Code for the letter "V", so it was popularly played by the Allies during World War II to signify "Victory."
- For Happiness: The recitative of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, set to snippets of Schiller's Ode to Joy is about happiness being the right and desire of every human being.
- Genius Slob: Left half-eaten trays of food piled in the corner of his apartment, to the point when his landlords complained about the stench, and was more than once arrested for being a vagrant.
- Hero-Worshipper: The story behind Beethoven's Symphony No. 3 in E♭ major was that he created it with the life of Napoléon Bonaparte in mind. The main reason was Beethoven viewed Napoleon as a rebel hero during The French Revolution. When the Frenchman went all A God Am I and declared himself emperor, Beethoven lost it - he seized the title page of his work and crossed out Napoleon's name so violently that the paper tore - and renamed the symphony "Eroica" instead of "Bonaparte". He re-dedicated it as "[A] Heroic Symphony, written to celebrate the memory of a great man", which might be read as Beethoven declaring that Bonaparte was Dead to him, but when Bonaparte actually died, Beethoven remarked "I wrote the music for this sad event seventeen years ago", referring to the second movement of the symphony - the Funeral March.
- La Résistance: The Symphony No. 5 in C minor first movement was likely inspired by "nous jurons tous" from Cherubini's Hymn of the Pantheon, a choral work glorifying the martyrs of the French Revolution. "Nous jurons tous" even has the same "da da da DUM" rhythm.
- Lets See YOU Do Better: Wellington's Victory is typically seen as absolutely horrible, especially by Beethoven's standards. His response to all the criticism was, "What I shit is better than anything you could think up!" He was probably right.
- Mundane Made Awesome: The Diabelli Variations are based on a waltz tune by Anton Diabelli that's generally agreed to be a pretty dull, conventional melody. Beethoven's variations, however, are astonishingly complex pieces of piano showmanship in a vast array of styles from serious to comical to elaborate counterpoint that rivals Johann Sebastian Bach.
- Music of Note: Ask any person on the street to name a great composer; odds are very good that the first name they think of (assuming it's not Mozart) will be "Beethoven". And they'll probably also know that he wrote "Da da da DUM" and the "Ode to Joy" and....
- One-Woman Song: "Für Elise" is an instrumental piano piece well known by the name of the woman it's dedicated to. note
- Orchestral Bombing:
- Much of his music, especially the symphonies, has a grand and heroic sound that works very well for this trope.
- Wellington's Victory plays it quite literally with a battery of percussion instruments and other effects meant to simulate the sound of a battlefield. The score actually calls for live cannon and musket fire not unlike Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture.
- Out-of-Genre Experience: A large set of arrangements of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh folk songs leave some critics scratching their heads, but he took a lot of time and care over them (of course the generous commission didn't hurt, either). In fact, the trope might even be inverted considering that by the numbers, he wrote more folk song arrangements than any other genre.
- The Perfectionist: Beethoven's scores and sketches are famously filled with violently scrawled crossings-out and corrections in search of the exact right notes. Naturally, it paid off.
- Revised Ending: The String Quartet No. 13 in B♭ major originally ended with the Große Fugue, which was forward-looking centuries ahead but poorly received by a bewildered early 19th century audience. Mathias Artaria, Beethoven's publisher, thought it best to publish the Fugue separately and give the Quartet an Alternate Ending. Beethoven surprisingly agreed for all sorts of speculated reasons; maybe he needed the money, or he wanted to satisfy the critics, or thought the Fugue best worked as its own piece. Either way, the new finale resembles the style of Joseph Haydn in its rustic, relatively cheerful character.
- The Piano Concerto No. 2 in B♭ major went through many revisions before it was finally published in 1795. One revision was changing the finale of the Concerto. The original finale has all the seamless grace of a Mozart Rondo, and it was indeed inspired by Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 22 in E♭ major, but Beethoven thought another finale worked better.
- Beethoven may have had other reasons for changing the Große Fugue finale. This trope almost became a fact with the Symphony No. 9 itself. Beethoven considered replacing the "Ode to Joy" with a more conventional finale while making the Ode a separate work. Beethoven tried different finales throughout his career, exploring how best to balance and conclude a work. Perhaps Beethoven still had mixed feelings when the Große Fugue premiered, thinking the Fugue was too large and overshadowed the rest of the Quartet, and therefore he felt another finale was more appropriate.
- Quality over Quantity: Unlike his sometime teacher, Haydn, who wrote more than a hundred symphonies, and the person who he wanted to study under, Mozart, who wrote a few dozen, Beethoven only wrote nine (nobody ever counts Wellington's Victory among the canonical ones). Then again, a typical Beethoven symphony is of much greater size and complexity than anything Mozart or Haydn did.
- Romanticism: Regarded as a Trope Codifier.
- Sense Loss Sadness: Described in poignant detail in his "Heiligenstadt Testament." He reveals that as he progressively lost his hearing, he was nearly Driven to Suicide, but fortunately for everyone, he finally resolved to keep composing anyway.
- Small Reference Pools: If a famous classical composer needs to make an appearance in some work, odds are pretty good it will be Beethoven, with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a close second.
- Standard Snippet:
- There is recent recognition that the introduction to Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" falls under this category.
- Symphony No. 5 (Da da da DUMMM!). During World War II, the first measure was an Allied Leitmotif, its four notes matching the Morse Code for "V" (for Victory). And the irony of using Germany's greatest composer against the Germans.
- Piano Sonata No. 14 in C♯ minor (Moonlight). The first movement is probably best known to 8-bit-era gamers as "the Jet Set Willy theme". Resident Evil also featured the first movement of this piece.
- The "Ode to Joy" from Symphony No. 9 is the official anthem of the European Union. Die Hard and A Clockwork Orange too.
- "Für Elise", a short piece for solo piano (which wasn't published until after Beethoven died).
- Stock Unsolved Mysteries: The identity of the "Immortal Beloved", the subject of a passionate love letter written in Beethoven's hand, remains the subject of ferocious debate among music historians. It has also inspired several works of fiction, perhaps most notably the 1994 Bio Pic Immortal Beloved, in which the recipient is Beethoven's sister-in-law, the mother of his nephew.
- Urban Legend: The story of Beethoven defacing the title page of the "Eroica" in a rage over Napoleon often gets exaggerated in the retelling. Contrary to some accounts, Beethoven did not rip the score in half, stomp on it, or throw it in the fire; he did, however, cross out Bonaparte's name so violently that the pen ripped through the page. (It can be seen here◊.)
- What Could Have Been: Beethoven did some work on a Symphony No. 10 in E♭ major, sketching some main themes and even drafting a first movement, but he never completed it. Several amateur composers stepped up to the challenge, completing a 10th symphony based on Beethoven's drafts, each version unique as the different characters of their creators.
- Barry Cooper composed a movement based on Beethoven's first movement draft.
- Hideaki Shichida built an entire symphony from core motifs found in Beethoven's sketches.
- Gerd Prengal completed a symphony in a similar manner, though he took more liberties by adding more of his own voice into the work.
- Szabolcs Millye wrote what seems like two versions of a 10th Symphony, integrating the ideas of every composer before him.
- Work Info Title: Many of his compositions have simple, straight-forward titles like "Symphony No. 9". Here's a complete list.