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Flyover Country

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"A couple of guys in first class on a flight
From New York to Los Angeles
...30, 000 feet above, could be Oklahoma
Just a bunch of square cornfields and wheat farms
Man, it all looks the same
Miles and miles of back roads and highways
Connecting little towns with funny names
Who'd want to live down there in the middle of nowhere?"
Jason Aldean, "Fly Over States"

Where do you live? New York? Awesome. L.A.? Awesome. Kansas City? Uh... where is that, like, in Idaho or something?note 

That's Flyover Country, also known as "the Heartland" or "Middle America" note —American slang for the states which trendy liberal coast-dwellers see only from the window of an airplane. Containing roughly half the country's population (if you're using a narrower definition) but much more of its landmass, this region includes everything between Las Vegas note  and Chicago at a minimum—and is often extended to everything east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the Alleghenies (if not the Hudson River). This famous (and oft-parodied) Saul Steinberg cover for The New Yorker magazine's March 29, 1976 issue, known as "View of the World from 9th Avenue", parodies the stereotypical attitude of parochial New Yorkers to the rest of the country.


Sparsely populated, largely rural, and lacking in photogenic glamour, it rarely shows up in works which attempt to appear trendy or up-to-date. It gets much more play in political circles, however, as the quirks of the American electoral system make appeals to smaller states essential. When one talks about the "red state/blue state" divide in American politics, this is what is meant by "red state" — conservative-leaning rural/suburban areas where Walmart, chain restaurants, church, high school football, and the Republican Party are pillars of local communities. The phrase "flyover country" was, in fact, coined by right-wing talk radio hosts, to ridicule their imagined concept of what coastal liberal elites thought of the American interior.

Setting a show or a novel here can be shorthand for '50s-style social conservatism (and the common portrayal of this region by Hollywood in the actual Fifties did nothing to help), small-town insularity, or a crushingly unhip, even dorky ambiance — think Pleasantville or Napoleon Dynamite. However, it gets used at least as often to inspire nostalgia for Eagleland Flavor #1, a friendly, down-home environment full of old-time family values where all the women are strong, all the men are good-lookin' and all the children are above average.note  (Think Smallville, Friday Night Lights, or an '80s Spielberg/Amblin movie.)


Needless to say, the truth is a little more complicated than that. While the states of the central U.S. do skew more rural than urban, the cities therein are as cosmopolitan as any coastal town. There's plenty of culture, style, and nightlife to be found in cities like Minneapolis, Kansas City, or Omaha (a full list of oft-featured cities is included at the end), and they have a much lower cost of living than the coasts—even Chicago, the great metropolis of the Midwest, is cheaper than NYC or LA (although not by much). And even some of the smaller towns, like Boulder, Coloradonote  and Ann Arbor, Michigan,note  have their own quirks. There are very few states in the US that don't have at least one significant metropolitan area (likewise, New York State and California both have conservative rural areas of their own as well).

Politically, these cities tend to be much more liberal—socially and economically—than the surrounding region. Many of them are (or were) industrial towns with a strong presence of labor unions and minorities, plus college students who stuck around after graduating. In fact, people in the surrounding, rural areas who don't fit in with the arch-conservative lifestyle will tend to relocate to the nearest decent-sized city. These factors frequently produce Democratic islands within states that are otherwise Republican strongholds. Many don't realize that Milwaukee was one of the hotbeds of the Socialist Party up until the second Red Scare, and while North Dakota does lean to the right, it has a publicly-owned banking system unique in the nation.

Culturally, the flyover region is a lot more diverse in religion and ethnicity than popular folklore tends to credit it. Most people are aware of the large African-American and Latino populations within the cities, but there's more to it than that. For example, the Detroit suburb of Dearborn has had a healthy Arab population for over a century and is home to the largest mosque in North America, the Minneapolis-Saint Paul area contains the largest Hmong and Somali communities in the country, and several Native American reservations are located in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Dakotas.

These nuances and many more tend to be lost on Hollywood. Shows based in one of the coasts will lovingly show details of the landmarks and locales, while Midwestern locations are either fictionalized or used as a generic backdrop. For example, Sex and the City used real-life bars and restaurants in NYC as the girls' hangouts. Meanwhile, Garry Marshall, the producer of Happy Days and its Spin-Off Laverne & Shirley, never set foot in Milwaukee until long after both shows ended, leading to a horrifically inaccurate portrayal of the city that may have hurt its actual economic and cultural growth.

That all said, the depiction of the geographic landscape outside the cities can be quite accurate. The Midwest produces substantial portions of the global supply of corn, wheat, and soybeans (among other crops) so fields in every direction as far as the eye can see is an absolute truth for much of the area. Furthermore, large parts of it are very flat with no more than some low hills (there's a reason the center of the country is called the Great Plains), but flatness is not universal.

As mentioned above, if a show is actually based in one of the cities here, whether or not it's a subversion of this trope depends on how much research the writer has done. However, the following tropes and locales of Middle America feature highly in the media:

  • Down on the Farm: Covers the majority of the region.
  • Everytown, America: When you need a generic suburb, you need only slap it in the middle of Indiana and call it a day.
  • Denver, Colorado
  • Illinois
    • Chicago, though this depends on who you're asking. It's big enough that many people consider it a separate entity, and nationally, it's spoken of by conservatives (especially those from southern Illinois) in the same derisive terms as the East and West Coasts, with The Mafia and bomb throwing anarchists thrown in for good measure. However, it's still looked down upon by more provincial New Yorkers as a wannabe Big Applesauce but with worse weather. Plus, the city is relatively isolated compared to New York and LA; outside the Chicagoland metro area are cornfields and Milwaukee. In other words, Chicago is stuck in a twilight zone on the edge of Flyover Country — too urban for Middle America, too Midwestern for the coasts. A sharp contrast to...
    • Peoria: Seen, for some reason, as the quintessential dull, banal Middle American city. The phrase "will it play in Peoria?" emerged in the vaudeville era to describe an act that would have mass appeal nationwide, especially in the heartland (Peoria was a major stop for many vaudeville performers), and later became popular among marketers, politicians, and pollsters. Starting in The '60s, it became a major test market, and to this day most American focus groups are based in the city (which is a rather outdated notion, as it's now Missouri, not Illinois, that marks the official U.S. population center).
  • Indiana
    • Indianapolis: Home of the Indy 500. And in recent times, home of Peyton Manning’s team (though he would finish his NFL career in Denver).
    • Muncie: A small Midwestern city that, not unlike Peoria, would be another obscure burg if not for its very "averageness" turning it into a hotbed of sociological research. The husband-and-wife team of Robert and Helen Lynd selected it for their "Middletown studies" in the 1920s and '30s, and since then it's become a popular subject for pollsters and follow-up studies.
  • Iowa: A sea of corn that people only ever care about every four years, when it plays a pivotal role as the first state in the Presidential primary cycle, leading journalists and pollsters to swarm the state and politicians to embarrass themselves trying to pander to its 3.1 million people. (If you're wondering why corn ethanol was ever taken seriously as an alternative energy source: this is why.) After that, it vanishes back into obscurity even before the actual election; despite being a swing state these days, its small population means that it's rarely a decisive factor in the election like Ohio is.
  • Missouri
    • St. Louis: Once one of America's premier cities, it's since become a poster child for urban decay. Home to the Cardinals, the Gateway Arch, Lambert International Airport, and its own unique forms of pizza and barbecue. Hosted the 1904 Summer Olympics for some reason. Residents hate those from Kansas City and/or Chicago.
    • Kansas City: Chicago's less-attractive little sister. Baseball, barbecue, jazz music, and organized crime galore. Known for its high incomes, large meatpacking industry, and endless mess of suburban sprawl.
  • Michigan
    • Detroit: Long famous for being the beating heart of America's automobile industry, and more recently infamous for suffering from decades of economic and demographic drought after said industry began to decline in the face of stiff competition from foreign imports.
  • Wisconsin:
    • Milwaukee: Beer, motorcycles, and Happy Days. The mayor got beaten with a pipe once. Non-residents of the state seem to think this is the only city in the state.
    • Madison: More beer, the Badgers, a metric ton of restaurants and bars, hippies and car thieves. The Boy Who Drank Too Much was largely filmed here. Some exterior shots in Back to School were as well. Former home of both Clyde Stubblefield and a Civil War POW camp. The Badgers' football stadium occupies most of the former grounds of the POW camp.
    • Green Bay: Even More Beer, snow, and the Packers. Oldest continuously inhabited French settlement in the US, founded 1634.
  • Minnesota: Often viewed as being a Flanderization of every Midwestern stereotype, home of people with thick, Scandinavian-descended accents who embody the American version of Japanese Politeness, known (of course) as Minnesota Nice.
    • Minneapolis and St. Paul: A strange blend of West Coast weirdness and Midwestern friendliness. The main business center between Chicago and Seattle and home to a massive theater scene and a thriving Somali community, as well as a major airline hub and the only 24-hour rapid transit system outside of New York, Chicago, or Philly. Do not get stuck there in the winter unless you like slowly freezing to death.
  • Nebraska: Farmland extraordinaire, populated with friendly, fat old white guys in denim overalls and straw hats, chewing on a stalk of wheat and talking slowly about whether it's rained enough this year. Completely ignorant of the outside world (probably because all offers are void there), and, if the writer's sympathetic, struggling with drought, debt, bad markets, or all three.note  Their biggest exports seem to be agriculture, Andrew Rannells, and Larry the Cable Guy. Well, and also Johnny Carson back in the day.
    • Omaha: A somewhat isolated city used as shorthand for "city in the middle of nowhere", i.e. that podunk town far, faaaaar away from everything you know and love that you're forced to move to because it was the only job you could find. (See also: Des Moines, Iowa.) Which isn't uncalled for. Firstly, Omaha has a strong job market, anchored by four Fortune 500 companies and a large high-tech sector; and secondly, it's a long way from anywhere: a three-hour drive to Kansas City, seven and a half to Denver, eight to Chicago, two whole days to New York City, and three days to Los Angeles. Omaha has featured in a few movies, mostly thanks to native son Alexander Payne. It's been the host for the NCAA College World Series since 1950 (and the current hosting contract runs through 2035), so ESPN shows up with their broadcast trucks once a year. Also home to the Strategic Air Command.
    • Lincoln: Nebraska's largely unremarkable capital. Pretty much a college town (it’s home to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, or UNL for short... though locals call it NU).
  • Ohio
    • Cleveland - The butt of many jokes due to being considered the original urban decay example in the country. That and the river caught fire once.
    • Toledo - It's where Jeeps get made. Other than that, it's just another sleepy Midwestern manufacturing town that's well past its prime.
    • Columbus: Rarely seen or mentioned in fiction, despite being both the state's capital and largest citynote , but it's another hotbed of sociological study and commercial test runs due to its racial and age demographics closely mirroring the United States as a whole. Furthermore, the city lacks a strong regional identity, even compared to other Ohio cities. Basically, it's Peoria or Muncie as a major metropolis.
    • Cincinnati: Named after Cincinnatus and by extension George Washington, this quaint city doesn’t conform to what a typical Ohio city is. Owing to its proximity to Kentucky and the ensuring cultural impact, Cincy is often called “the northernmost southern city”. It was America's first major inland city, and in bygone years, it was known as the hub city for the trade of pigs and pork, and was a major stopping point on the Underground Railroad that smuggled slaves out of the South. Consequently it has a very prominent museum dedicated to the Underground Railroad. In modern times, Cincinnati is known for its own special type of chili, the headquarters of GE Aircraft Engines and Procter & Gamble, and for one of NCAA basketball's few intra-city rivalries, between Xavier University and the University of Cincinnati. Oh, and a TV show about a radio station.
  • Pennsylvania (outside of Philadelphia)
    • Pittsburgh: Its industrial legacy paints it as a blue-collar paradise, which held true until the 80's or so when the factories started shutting down and its economy became more service-based like other cities in the region. Nowadays it has a more mixed culture.
    • Pennsylvania itself has a mini flyover country. The state is often described as "Philly in the east, Pittsburgh in the west, and Kentucky/Alabama/Deliverance in between", referring to the large rural zone in the middle of the state where coal mining, farming, and manufacturing make up the economic backbone. The nickname "Pennsyltucky" (or, more politely, "The T"note ) describes this region with either derision or Self-Deprecation.
  • Texas, though its size and resulting diversity mean that there's usually lots of overlap with tropes that apply more specifically to the Deep South and American Southwest.
    • On occasion you'll find reference to Dallas, Houston, or Austin, among the few major cities in the state and generally spots of blue in a sea of red. Basically, they are to Texas what Chicago is to Illinois.
  • Utah: Despite being located quite far from the Midwest, most stereotypes of the state, and of Mormons in general, are essentially Midwestern stereotypes cranked Up to Eleven. Mormonism did indeed spend many of its formative years in the Midwest,note  before heading to what's now Utah in search of a land without a pre-existing population to disapprove of their religion (at that point Utah was part of Mexico and home to a few scattered indigenous tribes). Like the Upper Midwest, many of the early Mormon converts who settled in Utah came from Scandinavia.
  • Upstate New York: Technically outside the region, but often given the same treatment, especially by people from New York City. It is in fact quite different from most media depictions of New York; descriptions of it as a virgin wilderness in the works of James Fenimore Cooper are, in many cases, only slightly exaggerated.

The rough Australian equivalent to Flyover Country is the Outback or, more broadly, the areas outside the "capital cities".

The American South (the former Confederate States of America), settled by Englishmen and Scots rather than Germans, Scandinavians, and Irishmen, is similar to Flyover Country but not exactly identical, and is sometimes treated as Flyover Country in media, sometimes not. For information on the Southern lowlands, settled by the West Country English (and by Africans they imported as slaves), see Deep South; for the Southern highlands, settled by the Scotch-Irish, see Appalachia.


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