Ah, Pennsylvania, one of the original 13 colonies and current sixth most populous state in the union. The "Keystone State"note ; or, "The Quaker State". Often referred to by residents as "PA," the state's postal code, expect just about any media taking place here to be focused on the state's largest city of Philadelphia, with the occasional appearance of Pittsburgh. (There is also that one show about office workers which made Scranton, the state's sixth most populous city, nationally known.)
The state was founded by William Penn, a famous Quaker, in 1682 and its name means "Penn's Woods." However, it is not named for William Penn; or rather, it is not named for that William Penn. The land was given to Penn by Charles II in satisfaction of a debt owed to Penn's father, the Royalist Admiral Sir William Penn, for services during the English Civil War; the Quaker son would have preferred to call the territory "Sylvania" (for the woods) or "New Wales" (as many of the Quakers who had signed up to settle there were Welsh), but His Majesty insisted on naming the land after the loyal admiral to whom the debt had been owed. (The Welsh ended up naming a bunch of towns west of Philadelphia, with the area becoming known as the Welsh Tract.note )
Benjamin Franklin is likely the most famous resident of Pennsylvania, moving there from Boston as a teenager. Pennsylvania is also well known for its many Amish folk, especially in the south-central parts of the state around Lancaster. (Pronounced "Lank-Ister." You'll immediately out yourself as an out-of-stater if you try to pronounce it "Lang-Caster")
Politically, as with most states, the urban areas of Pennsylvania tend to lean more liberal while the rural areas lean more conservative. Despite the state's long history dating back to the founding of the country, it has only produced one US president, James Buchanan, who is generally considered to be one of the worst in the country's history at that.
One area Pennsylvania stands out is the variety and high quality of its food. Philly cheese steaks and Primanti Bros. sandwiches in Pittsburgh simply must be tried if you are visiting. Philadelphia also has its less well-known but still excellent roast pork sandwiches. The entire state is known for pretzels (the first hard pretzel factory in the country opened in Lititz, a south-cent town, while "B" shaped soft pretzels can be found almost everywhere except for Philadelphia. Philly's pretzels are properly shaped like a French braid, and almost required to be served with brown mustard). Old Forge, a small community 3.5 miles from Scranton, is well regarded statewide for its specific style of pizza (with slices and pies being referred to as "cuts" and "trays" respectively). A wide variety of traditionally German foods (known as "Pennsylvania Dutch") are also popular throughout the state. And that is without even mentioning the chocolate from Hershey (or Just Born, or Whitman's, or Gertrude Hawk...).
Most of Pennsylvania, save for its northwestern and southeastern corners, is part of Appalachia. Indeed, Pittsburgh is the largest city in the region. See that page for more details on its geographic and cultural peculiarities.
Regions of Pennsylvania (by order of largest city):
- Greater Philadelphia: Aka Southeastern Pennsylvania. The largest city in the state, and (to boot) the fifth-largest in the United States and second-largest on the East Coast, Philadelphia was actually the nation's capital for a decade at the end of the 18th century. Situated where the Schuylkill River meets the Delaware. In addition to Southeastern Pennsylvania, its influence spills over into South Jersey and northern Delaware. Has an eternal rivalry with New York City in everything.
- Greater Pittsburgh: AKA Southwest Pennsylvania. The second-largest city in the state, situated where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet to form the Ohio River, making for a very pretty triangular park. Formerly famous for steel mills; now famous for healthcare, education, and being a bit of a mecca for hipsters tired of the coasts. Definitely more Midwestern than Eastern; its influence spills over into Ohio, northern West Virginia, and the mountainous western tip of Maryland. The same way Philly has a rivalry with NYC, Pittsburgh's eternal nemesis is Cleveland.
- "Pennsyltucky": If you ask a Philadelphian or Pittsburgher to describe the area of Pennsylvania between its two largest cities, this will be your most common answer. To them, this area is filled with nothing but cornfields, Amish, and racist hillbillies doing moonshine and/or crystal meth out of dilapidated farmhouses. While this perception isn't entirely unfounded, it doesn't tell the whole story either. Even describing it as "the large rural zone between the two big cities" does no justice to cities such as Allentown, Erie, Scranton, and state capital Harrisburg. The term "Pennsyltucky" exists, but the regions of PA outside Philly and Pittsburgh have plenty of their own distinctions as you'll see below. The only exception to this is State College, the bubble in the middle which is home to Penn State. In political circles, "Pennsyltucky" is typically avoided in favor of the less stereotype-ridden term "The T".note
- The Lehigh Valley: Centered on Allentown, and including Bethlehem, and Easton and environs and extending to roughly as far as Lehighton, Quakertown, Tamaqua, Kutztown and about 15 miles into Warren County, New Jersey. Historically a mining (anthracite coal and slate), agricultural, and manufacturing area (Mack Trucks were based there until 2008, and Air Products & Chemicals, one of the world's largest manufacturers of compressed gasses, still has its HQ in Allentown; also, the "Bethlehem" of "Bethlehem Steel" straddles the line between Lehigh and Northampton Counties), today sort of a mini-Pittsburgh (despite being much closer to Philadelphia), with healthcare and services being major industries. The area is perhaps best known to outsiders for Dorney Park and Wildwater Kingdom, located in Allentown, and for having several notable regional colleges (Muhlenberg, Lehigh, and Lafayette being the most notable of the bunch). The eastern part is pretty much directly on the border with New Jersey (Easton, PA, is right across the Delaware from Phillipsburg, New Jersey) and the Warren County towns of Phillipsburg, Alpha, and Bloomsbury are culturally, familiarly, and historically linked to their Pennsylvania counterparts. Although it mostly looks to Philadelphia for cues, New York's influence is creeping in (with occasional talk of New Jersey Transit extending its Raritan Valley Line to Easton or Allentown to serve commuters, daytrippers, and others going to New York Penn Station, and maybe even getting some business/talent pool for NJ workers along the line, particularly as Newark's fortunes improve), as Allentown is more or less 80 miles due west of Manhattan as the crow flies (actual travel distance is closer to 100 miles). It's a region of great contrasts, where modern suburban areas meet colonial-era settlements and farms, and where large trucks headed for the regions many large warehouses clog idyllic, narrow country lanes that look as if they were copy-pasted straight from Europe.
- Northwest Pennsylvania: Centered on Erie. Much of this region would have been part of New York State, but it was decided early on that Pennsylvania should have some access to the Great Lakes and the lucrative shipping traffic New York's Erie Canal had creatednote .
- Greater Reading/Schuylkill County: Centered on Reading in Berks County and Pottsville in Schuylkill County, upstream on the Schuylkill from Philadelphia. The region is a southern, northern, western, and eastern, extension of Northeastern Pennsylvania, Greater Philadelphia, the Lehigh Valley, and South Central Pennsylvania, respectively, and is where those four regions meet. Gateway to the Northeastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal country (with towns like Pottsville—incidentally also home of Philadelphia's favorite brew, Yuengling—famous for their coal mines).
- The main center, Reading, is (like its namesake in England) pronounced "redding". It has been described (also like its namesake) as a large town desperate to become a real city (in a different sense—unlike the English town, Reading in PA has the formal status of a city, but it's smaller and gets less respect from its neighbors.)
- Famously home to the Reading Railroad (yes, like in Monopoly)
- Northeast Pennsylvania: Centered on Scranton, home of the Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. Also includes Wilkes-Barre (the second part of the word is either pronounced "berry" or "bear" if you value your ears), Hazleton, and Stroudsburg, as well as Pottsville, Bloomsburg, and the more northern reaches of Lehigh Valley, all debatably. Another former manufacturing and anthracite mining region; there are parallels to be drawn between here and Northern England in terms of attitudes, weather, and even accent, to a degree. The Pocono Mountains to the southeast (where Philadelphians and Long Islanders go skiing), roughly an area boxed in by the towns of Stroudsburg, Honesdale, Freeland, and Jim Thorpe and the Delaware River, is perhaps best known as the heart of the northeast's summer camp industry. The influence of New York City is slowly creeping in; New Jersey Transit has somewhat serious plans to extend its Montclair/Boonton Line into PA, potentially as far as Scranton, to serve commuters and others going to New York Penn Station.note Like their southern neighbors in the Lehigh Valley, this area is a land of great contrasts: many towns here consist of small-to-medium sized houses packed cheek-by-jowl next to each other, even while they sit near extensive tracts of undeveloped land; this imparts a flavor of town planning that can sometimes appear more European than American. (The town of Jim Thorpe, back in the 19th century, used this circumstance to market itself as a tourist destination, the Switzerland of America. Locals are still fond of the expression today, although it's not used nearly as heavily.)
- South-Central Pennsylvania: Centered on Lancaster, Harrisburg, and York, and largely defined by the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers (which meet just upstream of Harrisburg). The "Lancaster and York" thing is entirely intentional, with the cities quite proudly associating themselves with red and white roses, respectively. Lancaster is associated with the Amish/Pennsylvania Dutch, with an Amish market, etc. Harrisburg, as the state capital, is associated with incompetent and/or corrupt state officials and boredom, although the 2010s gave its downtown enough amenities (particularly breweries and restaurants) to qualify as "kind of cute, in a dinky-state-capital kind of way." York is mostly rural except for the titular city. The part the Pennsylvania Turnpike runs through as people rush between Pittsburgh (and points west) and Philly (and points east—and south: it's the best way to get to Washington, D.C. by car from much of the Midwest). Also of note: Hershey (home to the chocolate factory and the amusement park) is just outside Harrisburg. Gettysburg, the town anchoring the western end of this region, was the site of one of the most famous battles, and subsequent speeches, of The American Civil War.
- The Northern Tier: The north-central part of Pennsylvania, a sort of mirror-image of New York State's Southern Tier and sharing much in common with it. The two areas together are referred to as the Twin Tiers, which locally is generally considered a single region (this also includes Mckean and Potter counties, which are not part of the Northern Tier). No major cities on the PA side, but the New York cities of Elmira and Binghamton are a stone's throw from the border. Characterized by gorgeous mountains that people in a rush to get to New York on I-80 completely ignore, and not much else. Locals to this area used to be referred to as Ridgerunners, but pretty much only historians even remember it now; outsiders, especially people from New Jersey, are still called flatlanders though.
Notable Pennsylvanians (Phillies and Yinzers excepted)Lists of notable Philadelphians (including suburbs)note and Pittsburghers (also including suburbs)note can be found on those cities' pages.
- Taylor Swift was born and grew up mostly in Wyomissing.
- The Regular Car Reviews guys are based somewhere around Reading. The Roman apparently lives in Reading itself (he says he lives "in the city"note ); Mr. Regular has never been so specific,note except that it's "rural." Of course, they make too many jokes about Lower Heidelberg Township and film too many videos on or around PA 61and specifically its interchange with I-78/US 22to be from anywhere other than the Reading area.
- Tim Heidecker is from Allentown, though his career started in Philly (after meeting MontConian Erick Wareheim at Temple University).
- Auto exec Lee Iacocca (who created the Mustang at Ford in the 1960s and saved Chrysler in the 1980s) was born in Allentown.
- Amanda Seyfried is from Allentown.
- XKCD creator Randall Munroe was born in Easton and has roots in PA, although he spent most of his childhood in Northern Virginia.
- Dean Koontz is from Everett (in Bedford County, between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh), and taught high school for several years in Mechanicsburg.
- Newt Gingrich was born in Harrisburg and spent his early years in Hummelstown, but as a Military Brat he left PA fairly early and ended up identifying more with Georgia (where he graduated high school).
- Kristen Wiig's family moved from Western New York State (not too far from Rochester) to Lancaster when she was 3, but moved back to Rochester about 10 years later.
- The only Pennsylvanian President (and one of the Keystone State's least-favorite sons) James Buchanan was from Lancaster.
- Joe Biden was born in Scranton and lived there until he was 11, when his father moved the family to Delaware.
- Dead-ball era Baseball legend Christy "the Christian Gentleman" Mathewson was from Factoryville in Wyoming County (near Scranton/Wilkes-Barre).
- Dwayne Johnson moved to Bethlehem as a teenager and graduated from Freedom High School.
- The Andretti racing family is from Nazareth in Northampton County.
- Larry Holmes, the former boxing world heavyweight champion, hails from Easton and was known as "The Easton Assassin."
- Colonel John Boyd, USAF (father of the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter aircraft, as well as the man who literally wrote the book on how to pilot a fighter) was born and raised in Erie.
- Daniel Boone, the famous frontiersman, was born and raised near Reading.
- Robert Fulton, father of the steamboat, was originally from Lancaster County. The state later named a county after him.
- Alison Bechdel, author of Dykes to Watch Out For grew up in Beech Creek and her memoirs of her childhood Fun Home and Are You My Mother? have it as one of the main settings.
- Jimmy Stewart was born and raised in Indiana, as in the one in this state (sometimes, but not usually, identified with the Pittsburgh area).
- Punxsutawney, home to a certain renowned groundhog and thus the setting for Groundhog Day, is also the hometown of: