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"Those who did not deserve to rule, who would not sacrifice themselves...as they asked others to do on their behalf, would escape the fire. The sacrifice of the one who remained...who believed so much in his caste that he would lay down his life for them...that would determine which caste would be dominant among us."
Delenn, Babylon 5
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When a character sets themselves on fire to kill themselves in a blaze of glory. Truth in Television, as this has been a preferred method of suicide for centuries. Especially in Middle Eastern or Asian culture, it may be done as an act of political protest.

Compare Man on Fire, Murder by Cremation and Wreathed in Flames.


Examples:

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     Anime and Manga 
  • A really cruel variation comes from Death Note, where Light Yagami uses the titular DN to force his ex-girlfriend Kiyomi Takada to burn herself to death.

     Comic Books  
  • Superman does this at the end of Superman: At Earth's End.
  • The insane Watcher does this in the Buffy the Vampire Slayer spinoff comic Fray.
  • Played for Laughs in Knights of the Dinner Table when Brian is repeatedly suiciding his own characters in an attempt to get to a good one.
    Brian: Then Kreed the Second had an –ahem- unfortunate mishap after entering that fire walking contest down at Blind Man's Pavilion…
    Sara: I'm not sure dousing yourself with lamp oil beforehand is really considered a 'mishap.'
    Brian: Hey, they were giving points for 'Most Entertaining'.
  • Used in the André Franquin album Idées Noires (Dark Thoughts) where a man sets himself on fire despite the urging of the crowd not to... and then it turns out they were horrified at seeing perfectly good gasoline being wasted in such a way.
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    Film 
  • Parodied (of course) in Airplane!, where Ted's boring stories cause people to want to kill themselves. A turbaned man douses himself with some flammable liquid, and lights a match, but just then Ted finishes the story as he was being called to the cockpit and leaves. The man puts out the match, sighs in relief... and Whooomph!.
  • In the movie Angels & Demons, Carlo Ventresca, after it's discovered that he murdered the Pope, planted the bomb and murdered the three Cardinals, runs St. Peter's basillica, pours candle oil on himself and lights it.
  • From the Vietnamese film Cyclo, the poet commits suicide by setting himself on fire.
  • The main character in the film Dagon attempts to kill himself by this method after learning that his family hailed from to the town of Imboca. It doesn't take, however, as he is pushed into a nearby pool to douse the flames.
  • The Dry: After being confronted by Aaron and Raco, Scott Whitlam douses himself in petrol and threatens to set himself, the school, and probably the surrounding town alight. He does ignite himself, but is beaten out by Aaron and Raco.
  • In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Elizabeth does this after seeing how Victor had brought her back from the dead as a hideous mangled monster sewn together with pieces of her best friend's corpse.
  • Jerome Eugene Morrow's suicide in Gattaca.
  • Nostalghia: At the end of his rant about how sane people and insane people have to mix together in order to save the world, the deranged Dominico sets himself on fire in the public square.
  • In Hans's revision of the script for Seven Psychopaths, as revealed near the end of Seven Psychopaths, the Buddhist Psychopath is revealed to be Thich Quang Duc, as discussed in Real Life below, and all of the events in his story are him purging himself of his self-doubt and hatred before he sets himself aflame.
  • Daft Punk's Electroma has the Guy-man robot pull this after his best friend's death. Keep in mind that this is after they've been run out of town and been trekking the desert for an indefinite period of time. The death just merely brought him over the edge.
  • Caroline uses this method to commit suicide in The Sacrament.
  • This is why the Burning Man in Waking Life is called the Burning Man.

    Literature 
  • By the end of Frankenstein, this is how the Creature plans to kill himself.
  • Denethor in The Lord of the Rings. "Bring wood and oil." In the original book he burns in the tomb where he's built his pyre, but in Peter Jackson's film version he runs out of the tomb and across the courtyard while still burning so that he can throw himself off the front of the rock prow overlooking the battlefield. Director's commentary made note of the distance but admitted he really wanted the shot of Denethor falling from the pinnacle.
  • In Orson Scott Card's Xenocide, Han Fei-tzu builds a pyre for himself and his wife when she dies.
  • The tutor in A City in Winter sets himself on fire and throws himself off a tower to signal the start of the revolution.
  • Plays a big part in David Marusek's novel Counting Heads. One subplot includes a woman who becomes the unofficial patron saint of self-immolation after burning herself alive as a protest.
  • In The Black Company monks do this to protest The Protector of Taglios while also using the slogan Rajadharma meaning The Duty of Kings.
  • The Kantri of Tales of Kolmar can kill themselves by using the same internal trigger that starts their Breath Weapon and exploding into flames. It happens repeatedly in Redeeming The Lost.
  • In The Saga of the Volsungs, Brynhild stabs herself with a sword, then, still alive, climbs on Sigurd's funeral pyre to burn to death.
  • In the "Death Note" spin-off light novel "Another Note", the serial killer Beyond Birthday a.k.a Ryuzaki attempts this to make himself appear to be one of his murder victims (to hide that there was no posthumous mutilation on his corpse, as there were on the other victims), hoping to make the case unsolvable for L by forcing him to chase a killer who no longer exists. It may also have been a sort of protest, as he was angry with L for ignoring him (and for putting his friend through such a rigorous program that said friend committed suicide.) Thanks to Naomi's fire extinguisher, however, it doesn't end the way he intended.
  • The One Who Started Fires has an inversion: although the title character undergoes self-immolation, it's not intended.
  • In Christian Nation, a gay Buddhist monk who comes to America at the time when it is slowly turning into The Theocracy immolates himself during a public protest.
  • In one of Gustavo Adolfo Bècquer's Leyendas, Siannah loses it after her Star Crossed Lover Pulo commits suicide to finally be able to atone for having killed his older brother and Siannah's original husband... so she willingly throws herself into Pulo's funerary pyre to join him in the other world. She's said to have been the first woman who went through Sati/Satee (mentioned below)
  • Parodied in Bored of the Rings. According to Goodgulf, Benelux's burning to death confirmed his alleged suicidal tendencies brought on by Sorhed. How he managed to throw himself on the pyre after having tied himself up is anyone's guess.
  • In Lawrence Block's Two for Tanner Evan needs to get into command headquarters to rescue Dhang and Tuppence. His only ally, an elderly Laotian peasant with dreams of French rule being reinstated, hides a boat by the river and promises to provide a distraction. He does this by denouncing the Communist government and then setting himself and the bullock he's driving on fire while singing the Marsellaise.
  • In Lightning, by Dean Koontz, this is twelve-year-old Tammy's approach to ending a miserable life that has included repeated sexual abuse by different men. Even sadder, she (presumably unintentionally) takes one of her roommates with her.

     Live-Action TV  
  • Once on M*A*S*H, Klinger threatened to do this to himself unless he was given a Section 8, going so far as to douse himself with gas (aka petrol). Potter called Klinger into his office, at which time he and Radar noticed that the "gasoline" was really water. After Potter didn't give in to Klinger's demands, Klinger went back out and doused himself some more, this time (unbeknownst to him) with real gas.
    "Who put gasoline in my gasoline?!"
  • John Safran tried his hand at this in his failed TV Pilot Media Tycoon to protest an Australian Football player being reported for striking another player.
  • The Minbari Starfire Wheel in Babylon 5, as described in the trope quote.
  • In Stargate SG-1, Gerak is convinced to do a Heel–Face Turn after being turned into an Ori prior. Knowing full well that he will die if he defies the Ori by curing the plague sent to eradicate Earth's population, he does it anyway...and then gets incinerated in a matter of seconds.
  • A CSI case had a woman who did this to herself, but ironically, she lived while a stargazer who'd been nearby in the woods went up in flames and died.
  • CSI: NY: "My Name Is Mac Taylor" had a guy who threatened this because he was despondent over the hit and run death of his girlfriend. He'd been hunting for the driver, causing trouble because he only knew the person's name was Mac Taylor, and had killed two other Macs in the process. Fortunately, he was prevented from succeeding.
    • At least temporarily. His fate is actually ambiguous due to the ep ending with him having just been taken to the hospital in critical condition.
  • Burning Bush is based on a real-life case of this; namely, that of Jan Palach (see the "Real Life" folder below).
  • In the second episode of Y Gwyll, Eric Roberts, the former owner of an abandoned farming estate called Talygroes, burned his own barn after discovering that three escaped German POWs had taken shelter there (during the second World War). The neighboring landowner, who longed to buy up Talygroes, learned about this and used that information to blackmail Roberts into giving his land away piece by piece over the next twenty odd years for free. In the present time, Roberts' grandson murders the elderly son of that neighboring landowner under the false promise of regaining Talygroes, and when cornered by the police, burns himself alive along with the Talygroes farmhouse.
  • Titus: Papa Titus dismisses a woman that Erin introduced to him because he was too sober to be his usual womanizing self. When he asks how she took the rejection, a cutaway gag shows that she set herself on fire in a parking lot.
  • In the Supernatural episode "Simon Said" (Sp2, Ep05), Holly Becker sets herself on fire at the gas station.
  • Major Crimes: In "Penalty Phase," the killer of week douses himself in petrol and plans to go out in a blaze of glory when Major Crimes catch up to him. Sanchez manages to tackle him into a swimming pool just after he ignites himself.
  • The Outer Limits (1995): In "Alien Radio," Eldon DeVries covers himself in gasoline and sets himself on fire in front of Stan Harbinger after he realizes that there is an alien living inside of him.
  • The second season of Trapped begins with a financially-troubled farmer and far-right-wing activist attempting to assassinate the Minister for Industry (who is also his sister) by burning both of them alive in the street outside her office. He dies and she survives.

     Professional Wrestling 

    Theatre 
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    Tabletop Games 
  • The Trial of Kings in Warhammer Fantasy, where would-be kings of the High Elves emulate the first Phoenix King, Aenarion, by ritually sacrificing themselves through walking into the sacred fire of Asuryan. Those who are judged worthy by Asuryan are allowed to pass through the flames unharmed and are proclaimed Phoenix Kings. Those who are not worthy (say, by trying to become king by Klingon Promotion)... Aren't left unharmed.
    • In addition, the Phoenix King Morvael the Impetuous is noted to have committed suicide by willingly walking into the sacred fire a second time, intending to be judged unworthy (which he was).

     Video Games  
  • The Death Gate Adventure Game has you learn a spell called "Self-Immolation". Casting it yourself proves nothing but you being Too Dumb to Live. It does prove useful, however, in tricking a doppelganger of yourself into casting it; if you cast the spell backwards, which does nothing to you, the doppelganger will perform your actions in reverse and set himself on fire.
  • A qunari mage performs this in Dragon Age II, after being freed by the player.
  • World of Warcraft has Warlocks. Just to prove how much some warlocks like fire, there's the Hellfire spell. It not only does it do Area-of-Effect damage centered directly on you, but it also deals damage to you. Young warlocks generally kill themselves with it at least once.
  • During Bioshock Infinite a member of the Founders initiates a fire in a zeppelin Booker is currently on after a speech by Zachary Comstock; she could simply set the fire and run, but instead she lights herself and her surroundings on fire - and keeps standing up amid the inferno for as long as she can before collapsing - apparently for the sole reason of demonstrating the fanatical devotion of Comstock's followers and freaking the shit out of the main character.
  • Five years before Hatoful Boyfriend, Nageki burned himself to death in the hopes that no one else could weaponize his body. In Holiday Star he does it again to save his friends.
  • In Fire Emblem Fates, during the Birthright path, Flora, one of your maids, does this out of guilt for betraying you and your army to the Ice Tribe, right in front of her own sister (as well as you, the Avatar).
  • Dragon's Dogma has a class - the Magick Archer - who gets a nifty little ability appropriately called "Immolation." While it does drain your health while you use it, it's actually a very powerful spell against most enemies; it does decent damage on its own, has a high chance of setting enemies on fire, and when combined with the grappling mechanics, it can even make short work of most bosses and minibosses.
  • While fire is just another suicide on Space Station 13, there is a gene that allows you to set yourself on fire at will. While this has no practical use on it's own (ya know, other than the obvious), combining with genes that prevent heat damage can make you a lethal thing for any poor bastard dumb enough to come at you in melee combat.

     Western Animation  
  • Subverted on South Park by Chef, protesting the town flag:
    Chef: In the 1960's there was a monk who set himself on fire to protest! You have left me no choice! To protest your lack of humanity, I will now do the same thing!
    raises a portable gas tank and a lighter, then pours the gasoline on a Japanese monk and sets him on fire
    Monk: in flames Huh! Haaaaaaaaaaaah!
  • Any poor sap who looks at Family Guy's Butt-Monkey Meg Griffin will do this.

     Real Life  
  • As noted above, this is (or was) a standard practice in many places in Asia. The purpose varies, ranging from the logical end of religious devotion or an extreme act of political protest. this occurs even in areas whose religion views suicide as a sin, like the Muslim world.note 
  • Happens terrifyingly often in post-1979 Revolution Iran, apparently cheap gasoline + horror stories surrounding the consequences of all non-suicidal protest methods = many public displays of people burning to death. Most cases are young men protesting the mandatory military service laws, but there are also women who did this to protest for their rights.
    • Doctor Homa Darabi[1] was a particularly tragic case. She burned herself in the middle of Tajrish Square to protest the law of compulsory hijab enacted by the new Islamic government, which previously forced her to shut her pediatric practice.
    • Sahar Khodayari[2] aka the "Blue Girl" chose this as an alternative to going back to prison. Her crime? Sneaking into football games. Yes, seriously. She had to disguise herself as a boy to get into the stadium, she was thrown in prison for it and it was so awful it would come to this.
  • Thich Quang Duc, a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, set himself alight to protest against the persecution of Buddhists by the South Vietnamese government of Ngô Đình Diệm, a devout Catholic who discriminated against anyone who wasn't (i.e. 90% of the country's population). A very famous photo was taken of the incident, winning the photographer and the journalist who wrote the accompanying article Pulitzer prizes. The photo has featured in a number of places, including the cover of a Rage Against the Machine album. Several other protesters followed his example (see Wikipedia list of political self-immolations). The man remained perfectly calm and in a state of deep concentration while he effectively killed himself. When his remains were collected, it was found out that, though his body turned to ashes, his heart stayed intact, which Buddhists saw as a miracle and a symbol of compassion. As noted by William Colby, the CIA's Far East Division chief at the time, the act basically spelled the beginning of the end of The Vietnam War.
    [Ngô Đình Diệm] handled the Buddhist crisis fairly badly and allowed it to grow. But I really don't think there was much they could have done about it once that bonze burned himself.
  • Norman Morrison set himself on fire in protest against American involvement in the Vietnam War, possibly motivated by Duc's suicide.
  • Jan Palach, a Czech student, who committed suicide by self-immolation in 1969 as a protest to Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, followed by Jan Zajíc and Evžen Plocek.
  • Inspired by Palach, Sándor Bauer, a 17-year old Hungarian car mechanic apprentice set himself on fire in 1969 to protest the Soviet occuptation of Hungary.
  • The Arab Spring—which lead to dictators falling in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, as well as to massive protests and widespread attempts at reform across the Arab World, and even to civil wars in Libya, Syria, and Yemen—all originally began with one Tunisian man, Mohamed Bouazizi lighting himself on fire in response to the police confiscating his fruit cart too many times.
  • The practice of Sati/Suttee in India was sometimes a voluntary act on the part of a sincerely heartbroken widow hoping to join her husband in death... though it was often more like forced immolation imposed by her in-laws, generally to snatch the poor woman's share of the inheritance. The act was documented to have been practiced up to the late 20th century and it took several governments to pass laws banning it outright.
    • According to one tale, some Rajputs were besieged by Marathas. One Rajput warrior, deciding victory was hopeless, left his post to see to the safety of his wife. When he arrived he saw his wife had set herself on fire to drive him back to his post, by making it clear he had nothing left to lose.
    • An extreme version of sati was jauhar, in which women on the losing side of a war committed mass suicide by immolation to prevent themselves from seeing the horrors of Rape, Pillage, and Burn. Basically, Better to Die than Be Killed.
  • Since Tibet was invaded by China, many young monks and nuns have been committing self-immolation to protest the occupation. Most of them have been under 35.
  • Was once widespread in Russia among the Old Believers. The Old Believers appeared as a result of the Great Schism of Russian Orthodox Church (The Russian Reformation).
  • Some Too Dumb to Live teenagers set themselves on fire and videotape it as a "stunt," underestimating how flammable the accelerants they've used are, and/or how quickly that level of heat compromises breathing. They also may not be aware that real stunt performers generally use special protective clothing under their costumes, and a flammable jelly rather than liquid gasoline. Many of them are no longer with us, and many more have been left permanently disabling or disfiguring injuries. Setting yourself on fire for the fun of it can end badly; who knew?
  • Some accounts about the death of Oda Nobunaga's rival Matsunaga Hisahide say that he committed seppuku when cornered in his Shigisan castle. Others said that he killed himself like this.
  • Richard Pryor's daughter Rain speculated that her dad setting himself alight and running down the street while on fire was a deliberate suicide attempt — though the official police report attributed it to cocaine freebasing gone wrong, and Pryor himself chalked it up to an accident involving burning rum.

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