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Comic Book / The Dark Phoenix Saga

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A 1980 X-Men story by Chris Claremont and John Byrne, taking place from X-Men #129 to #137, and one of Marvel Comics' most iconic storylines.

Fresh off a battle with Proteus, the X-Men are plunged into a battle with the mysterious Hellfire Club, while Phoenix, just back from a vacation in Greece and Scotland, finds herself psychically shifting in time to a Revolutionary War-era ancestor, who's engaged to a mysterious, roguishly handsome man named Jason Wyngarde.

In between Jean's "timeslips," she helps the X-Men rescue new mutants Kitty Pryde and Dazzler from the Hellfire Club: White Queen Emma Frost, Black King Sebastian Shaw, White Bishop Donald Pierce, Black Rook Harry Leland, and probationary member Wyngarde. However, when the time comes for the final showdown with them, she mysteriously switches sides, fighting alongside Wyngarde and Hellfire against the team. As a result, the X-Men are soundly trounced, and Phoenix is named Hellfire's Black Queen.


Thanks to a psychic rapport he forged with her before the attack, Cyclops manages to get through to Jean and reveal the truth to her: that Jason Wyngarde is really the X-Men's old enemy Mastermind operating under his real name, and that he's just making her believe she's time-shifting, the better to gain control of her through her Dark Side.

Once Wyngarde's treachery is exposed, the X-Men get their second wind, defeating Hellfire and escaping into the night. But the damage to Jean's mind is done... even though she's free of Wyngarde's mind control, there's something inside her that's been broken.

The corruption takes her over swiftly, and she transforms from Phoenix to Dark Phoenix a thousand feet over Central Park, destroying the X-Men's aircraft for about the dozenth time. note  After a fight with those she loved, which can only be described as a Curb-Stomp Battle, Dark Phoenix leaves Earth altogether, triggering the Significance Sense of everyone from Doctor Strange to Spider-Man to the Silver Surfer. Zipping through the universe on a cosmic joyride, she finds herself getting hungry... and the nearest source of food is a star in the Shi'Ar Galaxy.


At that, even as the X-Men desperately attempts to stop her, Empress Lilandra of the Shi'Ar Empire, seeing the Phoenix has an interstellar menace greater than even The Dreaded Galactus, the consumer of worlds, leads a coalition to do the same, whatever the cost.

The Dark Phoenix Saga is one of the most controversial X-Men stories of all time, though more due to the subsequent Retcons and rewrites than the story itself; originally it was actually one of the most beloved tales in the franchise's history. It catapulted the already-well-liked Claremont/Byrne creative team to superstardom, even as it also sowed the seeds for what would eventually be their breakup.

(It should be noted however that killing off Jean Grey wasn't their idea; editor Jim Shooter forced them to do it, feeling that allowing her to live after killing billions of people would not be fair. Claremont later admitted that it made for a better ending, and most fans agreed.note )

Since its original publication, this story has been adapted in two films of the X-Men film series: 2006's The Last Stand, and 2019's Dark Phoenix. While the former only incorporated part of the Saga into its plot, the latter used a bit more elements from it while being more grounded than the comics' epic scale. To mark the release of the 2019 movie, the story was also adapted as a full-length novel by writer Stuart Moore in May 2019.

The Dark Phoenix Saga contain examples of:

  • Adult Fear: The Prydes are understandably shaken when their daughter goes out for a malt with some strangers, then learn that the malt shop has been attacked and blown up.
  • A God Am I: "I am fire! And LIFE INCARNATE! Now and forever — I am PHOENIX!"
  • And You Were There: As Jean's "timeslips" progress, she gradually begins imagining all of her teammates as 18th-century versions of themselves—imagining Ororo as a rebellious slave called "Beauty", Piotr as a farmhand on her plantation, and Scott as a dashing Colonial Minuteman.
  • Apocalypse How: Dark Phoenix eating the D'bari sun causes a Class X-2. It's suggested in issues of What If? that if she hadn't died, she would eventually have reached anything from a Class X-4 to a Class Z in time.
  • Apocalypse Maiden: Phoenix / Dark Phoenix.
  • Ascended Extra: You notice the black-haired serving girl? The one taking the robe off Shaw while he gloats over the Hellfire Club's victory? She turns out to be a quite important aide to him, Sage. (And even later, a spy for Professor Xavier.)
  • Author Appeal: Several tropes in this storyline (the brainwashing, the ladies in skimpy underthings, the "enjoys feeling evil" moments) are all personal favourites of Chris Claremont, and this is their big introduction to the world of X-Men.
  • Bad Boss: Emma Frost's introductory issue has her blowing up some goons for failing to beat the X-Men. Hey, the Hellfire Club pays good money on their goons, they expect results.
  • Beware the Nice Ones: Even before her final Freak Out, Jean shows Emma Frost why it's not a good idea to make a mutant with cosmic powers mad at you. Mastermind learns a similar lesson, though by then Jean isn't so 'nice' anymore. See also Start of Darkness.
  • Bittersweet Ending: Jean sacrifices herself and a saddened Cyclops leaves the team as a result, but Storm becomes the new leader of the X-Men and Kitty officially joins the team after Jean's funeral.
  • Brainwashing for the Greater Good: The Prydes are initially furious at the thought of Kitty going to the Xavier Institute after the Hellfire Club's attack. Then Phoenix gives them a "little nudge" and they become a lot more agreeable. It serves as a sign of Jean's encroaching corruption (though in fairness, Kitty going to the X-Institute is far safer than going with Emma Frost). Also, this is not really any different from the way Xavier has been mucking about with the minds of ordinary people since the very first issues of the series, so it makes sense (in the context of his previous unquestioning acceptance of that) that Cyclops is not all that alarmed by Jean taking after him.
  • Brought Down to Normal: The original, planned ending for the story had this happen to Phoenix. However, the higher-ups felt that committing genocide wasn't the kind of thing a character should be forgiven for.
    • Years later, Claremont admitted that this made the story truly unique (for its time).
  • Bullying a Dragon: The Imperial Guard fight the X-Men in a trial by combat, leaving Jean the last X-Man standing. When Cyclops is knocked out before her eyes, she snaps and becomes Phoenix again, taking them all out in the space of seconds.
  • The Bus Came Back: Beast and Angel, who had been serving on other teams, returned for the latter half of the story.
  • Call-Back:
    • The quote Jean gives in A God Am I upon her transformation into Dark Phoenix is the same quote she gave upon first transforming into the Phoenix.
    • For the final fight on the Moon, Jean dons her old Marvel Girl outfit, symbolizing her rejection of everything relating to the Phoenix.
  • The Cameo: Mr. Fantastic, the Thing, Spider-Man, Doctor Strange and Silver Surfer pop up in Uncanny #135 as the Dark Phoenix awakens
  • Chess Motifs: Hellfire ranks its members like this, with White Queen Emma Frost replaced by Black Queen Jean Grey after the former's apparent demise. Sebastian Shaw is the Black King, but the other members' ranks aren't revealed until later.
  • Cliffhanger Copout:
    Nightcrawler (in the last panel of #133): Cyclops is dead!
    Nightcrawler (in the first panel of #134): Cyclops is alive!
  • Comic-Book Fantasy Casting: John Byrne based the original designs for all the Hellfire Club characters on famous actors (most of whom they're partly named after), and Kitty Pryde on an adolescent Sigourney Weaver.
    • Fittingly, a story four issues later featured Kitty alone in the X-mansion battling a demon that looked suspiciously like a Xenomorph.
  • Curb-Stomp Battle: Loads of them:
    • Phoenix's psychic duel against Emma Frost. Emma's able to hold out for a while, but it's quickly made clear that she has no chance of winning against Phoenix, who was only testing her to learn her strengths and weaknesses - it's over almost immediately once she really begins to attack.
    • The Hellfire Club's ambush of the X-Men, and in turn, the X-Men's retaliatory strike against Hellfire.
    • Dark Phoenix's first fight against the X-Men.
    • And finally, the X-Men's beatdown at the hands of the Imperial Guard. In fairness, the X-Men were badly outnumbered, but watching Colossus go down hard in a one-on-one fight with Gladiator is when it becomes clear they have no hope of victory.
  • Deadly Decadent Court: The Hellfire Club's Inner Circle, again.
    • The club itself was based on a Real Life 18th century secret club for decadent rich people.
  • Death Is Cheap: Originally meant to be explicitly averted by all involved — Jean Grey was to stay dead. Madelyne Pryor was intended to be just what she presented herself as — a normal human who just happened to have an uncanny resemblance to Jean. Unfortunately, it was decided about six years later that the original five X-Men should have their own book, and there had to be a way to bring Jean back. This led to the continuity trainwreck that was Inferno, and opened the door for the "Jean Grey Memorial Revolving Pearly Gates" jokes.
  • Dirty Mind-Reading: One of the early signs of Jean's corruption occurs when she reads the repulsive thoughts of the attendees at Dazzler's concert…and finds that part of herself finds these thoughts attractive. Though it's a fairly subtle one, since bits like this are one of the recurring elements in Claremont's writing.
  • Dying as Yourself: Jean chooses to commit suicide rather than become Dark Phoenix again.
  • Establishing Character Moment: #132, after everyone's gotten their asses kicked by the Hellfire Club, and Wolverine's been launched straight into their basement sewer.
  • Evil Costume Switch: Jean Grey's Black Queen and Dark Phoenix outfits represent this.
  • Expy: In the 1990s cartoon, Rogue is this for Colossus.
  • Face–Heel Turn: One of the most famous in comics history.
  • Fad Super: Dazzler is introduced in this arc, in all her disco-riffic glory.
  • Fanservice: Jean briefly winds up naked in issue #136 after her clothes are destroyed during Professor Xavier's battle with the Dark Phoenix.
  • Fastball Special: Reversed from the norm — in the lighter gravity of the Moon, Wolverine does this with Colossus.
  • Fate Worse than Death / Go Mad from the Revelation: Jason Wyngarde is left mindless and catatonic after Jean breaks free from his control. "Enjoy your trip, Jason... you won't be coming back."
  • Foreshadowing: Senator Robert Kelly makes his first appearance in this arc as a Club guest who witnesses the X-Men's escape from the Hellfire Club, which cements his fear of mutants. Sebastian Shaw gets him to fund a new Sentinels program, setting up both the Days of Future Past storyline several issues later and the creation of Nimrod.
  • Gone Horribly Right: Mastermind wanted Jean to turn to the dark side...and boy, did she.
  • Heroic Sacrifice: Alas, poor Jean.
  • Hero with Bad Publicity: Mastermind's powers and the general respectability of the Hellfire Club make the X-Men look like menaces during their battle there.
  • Hope Spot: Charles Xavier uses his powers to seal the Phoenix away inside Jean's mind, and Scott proposes marriage to her. They share a relieved kiss...and then get beamed onto a Shi'Ar Imperial cruiser.
  • Homage: Not many people know this, but the Logo Joke seen in the page image was based on the cover to the first issue of the Roy Thomas / Neal Adams run. It might be something of a metafictional The Worf Effect, given that the Living Monolith doesn't crack the logo or send the X-Men sprawling.
  • How Do I Shot Web?: Kitty Pryde's powers are just emerging when she first appears, and she's no idea how they work. The first time she tries using them, it leaves her exhausted — although that quickly fades as she uses them more and more.
  • Interrupted Cooldown Hug: Near the climax, Scott is talking Dark Phoenix down, trying to appeal to Jean's better nature with The Power of Love, with her face getting noticeably less inhuman and softer...until Professor Xavier mind-blasts her from behind, and she returns to full-fledged psychosis.
  • Jerkass: Kitty's parents don't make a necessarily great showing of themselves in their first appearance, with Mrs. Pryde snapping at Kitty for lying on the floor, a few minutes after she's said she had a nasty headache.
  • Jerkass Ball: The Professor grabs the ball hard in the first issue of the storyline. He puts the X-Men through training, which is fair enough, but treats them like children, even though by this point the X-Men have more than proven themselves as a team. Scott tries pointing out to the Professor that what he's doing just won't work. The Professor then somehow comes to the conclusion that this is Scott's fault, and he'll need to "correct" it. Scott doesn't manage to get through to him before Cerebro goes off.
    • It's later justified when Charles admits that he's fully aware the X-Men have grown without him, and Scott's become the leader the professor always wanted him to be, but has left the older man unsure of where his place in the team is anymore, and his lashing out is just from Xaver's frustration and uncertainty.
  • Light Is Not Good: The Phoenix Force is the embodiment of life, light, and fire, but also a rampaging, chaotic force with the potential to destroy entire planets if its power gets out of control.
  • Logo Joke: As seen in the page image: the cover of issue #135 memorably features the Dark Phoenix grabbing the X-Men logo and crushing it in her hands. More subtly: in the cover of the very next issue, the letters in the logo are still cracked and broken.
  • Lost Aesop: The X-Men's usual "protect a world that fears and hates them" schtick was pretty much forgotten about for this story, as their antagonists were either mutants, former teammates, or aliens. However, the Aesop of the story itself, that power corrupts, was firmly held onto. Also, see Fridge Brilliance on the YMMV page.
  • Manipulative Bastard: Emma Frost, Sebastian Shaw, and especially Mastermind.
  • Mass "Oh, Crap!": The X-Men stare horrified when Jean Grey becomes Dark Phoenix for the first time.
  • Mindlink Mates: This is the story that establishes Cyclops and Jean Grey's psychic rapport.
  • More Than Mind Control: Mastermind again. On her way down the slippery slope, Jean even calls him on it.
    "You made me trust you...perhaps even love you...and all the while, you were using me!"
  • Mind Rape: The White Queen does this to Storm while she's holding her hostage.
  • Mundane Utility: Phoenix uses her Reality-Warping powers for simple things like changing her costume into civvies or creating a picnic spread. Briefly, Cyclops wonders why this bothers him. "Why shouldn't Jean use her powers to make her life easier?"
  • Myth Arc: Part of what makes this story so remarkable. It was the climax of a massive Myth Arc that Claremont had been building up to since issue #97 in 1975, when Professor X got his first look at the Shi'ar. Over the course of 41 issues (almost five years), Jean Grey died, was resurrected, took on an alien empire, saved the galaxy from imploding, turned to the dark side, took on an alien empire (again), and died.
  • My God, What Have I Done?: Scott comes to realize Jean's Heroic Sacrifice/Suicide was done out of her unable to live with the fact that as the Phoenix she was responsible for genocide on a galactic scale, killing billions of sentient aliens when she feasted on its sun.
  • Naïve Newcomer: This storyline introduces Intangible Girl Kitty Pryde this way, and still lets her help save the day.
  • Of Corsets Sexy: Every female member of Hellfire, natch.
    • Justified, given the club's origins.
    • According to writer Chris Claremont, Marvel's Hellfire Club and The Black Queen's outfit and hairstyle are an homage to The Avengers episode "A Touch of Brimstone" (which also dealt with the Hellfire Club's evil machinations and Mrs. Peel's transformation into their "Queen of Sin").
  • Oh, Crap!: The Dark Phoenix's awakening triggers a lot of warnings within the other heroes of the Marvel Universe - Reed Richards' devices detect her appearance and notes it can rival Galactus, it sets off Spider-Man's Spider-Sense, frightens Dr. Strange and forces the Silver Surfer to try to race to the Phoenix's aid, hoping that he can curb her power.
  • Parents as People: When Jean/Phoenix makes a visit to her parents' house, she is able to sense that while they do love her completely, they also are afraid of her and her destructive powers.
  • Put on a Bus: Banshee elects to stay in Scotland when the team returns home at the beginning of the story, due to injuries he received several issues prior from overexerting his mutant scream, leaving him powerless.
  • Restraining Bolt: Xavier creates a series of mental "circuit breakers" to permanently suppress the power of Phoenix, returning Jean to her "Marvel Girl" stats. But when she sees Cyclops wounded in battle, the Bolt breaks.
  • The Reveal: Throughout the preceding Proteus storyline, Jean had been suffering flashes where she thought she was living in the 18th century, which was put down to Proteus's reality warping powers... except Proteus is killed, and the flashes keep coming. As it turns out, it's because of Jason Wynguarde messing with her mind.
  • Say My Name: As Jean dies, she and Scott call each other's names.
  • Series Continuity Error: In the final issue, when performing their reverse Fastball Special mentioned above, Wolverine basically tells Colossus to kill Phoenix, which Colossus thinks is "something I have never done." This despite the climax of the arc immediately preceding this one having Piotr being forced to be the one to put down Moira MacTaggert's son Proteusnote .
  • Sexy Discretion Shot: Phoenix and Scott get hot and heavy atop a mesa just as the scene cuts away to the other X-Men.
  • Spared by the Adaptation: In the 1992 cartoon, Jean survives the ordeal with no catch and the Phoenix Force flies of into space peacefully.
  • Start of Darkness: To stop a carload of Hellfire Club goons from running down Kitty Pryde, Phoenix erects a psychic brick wall in front of it, killing or at least badly hurting the occupants. When Cyclops goes What the Hell, Hero?, she basically slaps him down.
    Phoenix: You didn't sense the girl's terror, nor the thoughts of the men chasing her. These... animals got no more than they deserved!
    Cyclops: Wow. I thought I'd seen Jean in every conceivable mood, but this is new.
  • Superman Stays Out of Gotham: Subtly lampshaded, as Marvel heroes from all over the universe pick up on Dark Phoenix's manifestation, but the whole story happens too quickly for anyone to respond to it.
  • Super-Powered Evil Side: The original intent of this story was that Dark Phoenix was Jean Grey, corrupted by her power and Wyngarde's machinations. The Phoenix was retconned as a Cosmic Being of its own who had replaced Jean (and forgot about it) so the real Jean could turn up alive later.
  • There Is No Kill Like Overkill: When the Dark Phoenix suddenly reemerges at the climax of the saga, Empress Lilandra desperately invokes Plan Omega: destroy the entire solar system and pray they can kill Dark Phoenix in the process. At that point, Xavier has no choice but to order his X-Men to kill Jean themselves to preempt this measure.
  • Took a Level in Badass: Sure, the Imperial Guard was pretty tough when they first appeared. In that fight the X-Men were gradually losing, least until Corsair and his team dived in. But the second battle....OW! Cyclops was off on his strategy. And more importantly Mastermind goes from being a guy who goes 'boo' with fake monsters to almost destroying the X-Men all by himself.
  • Villain with Good Publicity: All the members of the Hellfire Club save the Black Queen, a band of evil mutants (and one cyborg) who "pass" as influential, wealthy humans.
  • What Happened to the Mouse?: During the X-Men's battle against the Imperial Guard, Wolverine indirectly instigates a battle between a Skrull named Raksor and a Kree warrior named Bel-Dann. In the original ending, the narrator would say they killed themselves off-panel, but in the released issue, their fate is unaddressed. The 1984 Fantastic Four annual would later pick up their story where it left off.
  • What Have I Done: When Jean is restored to herself for the final chapter, she's consumed with guilt at the atrocities Dark Phoenix has committed.
  • With Great Power Comes Great Insanity: Dark Phoenix is the poster child for this trope.


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