This is when all of Europe becomes united under a single powerful government that either supersedes or in extreme cases supplants the traditional national governments of Europe. Usually, the government in question takes the form of an expanded version of The European Union, or is a clear Expy thereof. This trope is often found in stories that take place 20 Minutes into the Future.
The dream of a United Europe was very real in the 1950s after World War II — the idea of the mainland throwing off prejudice and becoming one massive super-country. There is also presumably a connection being drawn by some people with the rise of the USSR and USA — to them, it 'makes sense' that there should be a United States of Europe to join it. Today, that 1950s dream is more widespread than it has ever been, but, naturally, blocks still remain - like the fact that Europeans have been kicking the hell out of each other for 2500 years and have only really considered stopping since 1945. Looking back through history, it's hard to find a period of more than a couple of years in a row in the last millennium when there wasn't a war in Europe, with the likes of England vs Scotland, England vs Ireland, England vs France, England vs Spain, Spain vs the Netherlands, Spain vs France, Denmark vs Sweden, Poland vs Germany, Poland vs Russia, Russia vs Germany, Germany vs Germany, and the usual internecine Balkan strife, rolling around with such regularity that they practically qualify as annual derbies. More recent editions include Everyone vs Germany and Everyone vs Russia.
As a result, a lot of previous attempts to unify Europe have been through force: See Charlemagne, Louis XIV, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Adolf Hitler as attempts to violently unify Europe, or at least, large parts of it. Oh yeah, there's also Ancient Rome, which actually succeeded in unifying much of what is now southern and western Europe and was the example many of the aforementioned leaders sought to emulate. As a result, there are a lot of grudges that are centuries, even millennia, old, and a lot of fearsomely independent-minded states that are exceptionally jealous of their sovereignty.
In Real Life, the European Union is a free-trade area that has gradually evolved to include 'common policy' in areas such as agriculture, standards, border controls, etc etc etc, and has many characteristics of a federation, like a common currency throughout most member states,note an elected parliament, a motto note , an anthem and a court of justice (while technically, it remains at best a confederation due to states remaining independent). While some have called it a de facto federation, it is still a long way off being one country, and there is still a great amount of debate about the subject between people who are opposed to expanding the European Union's power - or even want to see it rolled back in certain areas (called Eurosceptics) and those who are in favour of further political integration (called Eurofederalists). Likewise, there is debate on exactly how the EU is supposed to be run, considering how its structure is unlike that of the USA.
A recurring phenomenon in this trope, especially if the creator is British or American, is that Britain will somehow not be part of a United Europe.note Oddly enough, the very independent and politically neutral Switzerland, as well as Norway (neither of which are even in the EU) rarely get the same treatment. It should come as no surprise therefore that this trope varies depending on who's making the work in question. Another recurring phenomenon is that the capital of the United Europe rarely stays as Brussels, usually moving to Paris or Berlin, probably because audiences can easily recognize these landmark-heavy locations over the less-visited Brussels.
Whether this is destined to be Truth in Television or not, as well as whether it ought to be, depends on who you ask. It remains a very contentious issue on both sides. Let's just say that the EU isn't especially popular in the UK (especially considering that the country has experienced an economic boom since the Brexit votenote ) or present-day Greece, and everywhere else the mention of it being a good/bad thing can spark a rather fierce argument down at the pub if you aren't careful. Rule of Cautious Editing Judgement may well apply.
- Code Geass has an European Union which was founded after its version of the French Revolution was able to successfully sweep across the entire continent, including even Great Britain. In this alternate timeline, Napoleon was a victorious general but there are conflicting versions about his fate. One story says the British royal family had him assassinated as they fled to the still-loyal American colonies, while the Europeans themselves claim that he was executed by his own people in order to prevent him from establishing a dictatorship. The E.U. was also the only one out of the three original superpowers that was democratic.
- While the E.U. is mostly in the background in the original show, Code Geass: Akito the Exiled is set entirely in Europe, and shows us the continent isn't as united as it sounds. The major conflict in the OVA series is between the United Republic of Europia (which is most of Western and Central Europe with its capital in Paris) vs. Euro Britannia, which remains loyal to the Holy Britannian Empire (consisting mainly of Eastern Europe and Russia, with its capital in St. Petersburg). The major battles in the series take place in Poland and Belarus, which is the front line of the European theater of war.
- Gundam has several examples.
- Mobile Suit Gundam SEED and Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Destiny has the Eurasian Federation, a member of the Earth Alliance which (unusually for this trope) includes all of Russia and the Middle East as well as Europe proper.
- Mobile Suit Gundam 00 gives us the Advanced European Union as one of the world's three superpowers, which is (as the name suggests) basically the European Union 20 Minutes into the Future.
- In Naoki Urasawa's Pluto the EU has evolved into the European Federation and expanded to include Turkey.
- While it's not the EU, Mobile Suit Gundam Wing: Endless Waltz reveals that the Earth Sphere Unified Nation's capital is Brussels, Belgium. Though that said, the ESUN does have a decidedly European flavor.
- Judge Dredd: Europe is usually said to have two different Mega Cities: Brit Cit and Euro Cit.note So, the Britons are still independent, but the rest of the continent (or whatever's left of it after the Great Atomic War) is implied to be unified in one polity.
- The European Confederation is mentioned as the place where all the action happens in The Sky Crawlers, but this isn't elaborated further. Maps still seem to have national borders drawn on them, but they are crossed by private military forces without incident or even mention.
- A.J. Butcher's Spy High has a united Europe called "Europa".
- Eric Flint's 1632 series features a 'United States of Europe' though it is actually more of a United States of Germany, plus bits of OTL France, Denmark, Poland, and Austria.
- Incompetence by Red Dwarf creator Rob Grant, where stupidity is a constitutionally protected right.
- The Late, Great Planet Earth by Hal Lindsey was a work of fundamentalist Christian eschatology predicting a united Europe ruled over by The Antichrist. This became a fairly common expectation among the US Christian Right for much of the eighties and nineties, until Islam became the new bogey.
- In George Orwell's 1984, all of continental Europe and part of (mostly northern) Asia were united in one nation, called appropriately enough "Eurasia", while Great Britain was a part of "Oceania", which consisted of the territories of the Americas and the former British Empire. (Orwell borrowed the vision of a British-American fusion and a Eurasian USSR from the writings of James Burnham, but his own preferred plan was uniting Britain with the other Western European states, minus their colonies, into a democratic Socialist federation.)
- In Andrew Roberts' The Aachen Memorandum, the United Kingdom regains its independence after being under the thumb of a corrupt and dictatorial European Union.
- In the Hex series of novels set 20 Minutes into the Future, the main characters are fighting against/fleeing from the forces of the corrupt European Federation.
- In Orson Scott Card's Alternate History series Alvin Maker, Napoleon suceeds in this by not engaging in his disastrous invasion of Russia and declaring a unilateral cease-fire with Britain.
- In John Barnes' Mother of Storms the European Union has both become more cohesive and taken a racist turn, expelling everyone of non-European descent. By the end of the book it's started to come apart at the seams due to the eponymous crisis.
- In Tom Kratman's Caliphate, Western Europe becomes mostly Islamic, under the control of the eponymous Caliphate. The British Isles and Switzerland, however, are not under Islamic control.
- Peter F. Hamilton's Great North Road has Grande Europe.
- Played with in the Star Carrier series. The Paneuropean Federation appears to be this, except the various nationalities are still bickering constantly. Very few think of themselves as "European" (or "Paneuropean") but still as British, French, Polish, German, etc.
- In Samantha Shannon's The Bone Season SCION controls nine European nations, not all of them named (Britain, Ireland, France, Greece, Serbia and Sweden are). How much autonomy the various countries' governments have isn't really gotten into although Britain and Ireland are completely under its control.
- In the Left Behind series, most of continental Europe becomes the United European States during the time of the Tribulation, with Greece and Romania becoming part of the United Carpathian States.
- Alternate History classic For Want of a Nail depicts this as a minor detail to its main focus (North America following a failed American Revolution) when the German Empire conquers continental Europe and the Middle East during the Global War.
- Europe is, for all intents and purposes, one political entity in Vladimir Vasilyev's Wolfish Nature. This is in contrast to the US (Alaska split off), Canada (split in two), and Russia (Siberia split off). Additionally, there's a Middle Eastern Coalition of sorts, and a barely-mentioned nation called Sinojapan.
- Gareth L. Powell's AcK Ack Macaque series takes place in an Alternate History with a European Commonwealth dominated by the United Kingdom of Britain, France, Northern Ireland and Norway.
- Zigzagged in Wolfgang Jeshke's The Cusanus Game. In the main timeline the EU is falling apart in 2052. However Austria-Hungary exists once more and has annexed Slovenia and parts of northern Italy. In the alternate timeline there is a United Europe consisting of everything west of Russia and the Dardenelles which is highly isolationist.
- Implied to be the case in the first Arrivals from the Dark novel, where the three power blocs that finance the United Space Forces are the United States and Canada (USC), the Eurasian Union (Russia), and the EU. China, the Middle East, and the rest of the world are kept out of space. This trope then flows into One World Order between the first and second novels (a 37-year gap), where the UN is turned into the more powerful World Parliament. Later, this lays the foundation for the Earth Federation, as humanity expands to other star systems and establishes colonies.
- Star Trek: The Next Generation has mentioned both a United States of Europe and a European Alliance.
- White Wolf's Scion RPG, though set in the present day, actually has EU Armed Forces, which the EU does not have although whether it should remains a matter of discussion. In all fairness, said EU Armed Forces were in a story in which the end of the world was in full swing and it is entirely possible that such a situation might cause a united response from Europe.
- The main superpower of the world in Cyberpunk 2020 (by virtue of both economics and a huge lunar-based railgun of mass destruction) is an expy of the EU.
- Transhuman Space has an expanded EU (including Montreal), but only slightly increased powers (the main one being the Genetic Regulation Agency, which polices the Europe-wide ban on bioroid slavery). Several sourcebooks note that Europe has very few federal powers.
- In Steve Jackson Games' wargame OGRE, the Paneuropean Federation is this. In the Expanded Universe, its conquest of Britain is a major turning point, because this gives it the designs to create the eponymous supertank.
- Partially averted in Ground Zero Games' 'verse (used for the miniatures games Full Thrust, Dirtside II and Stargrunt II: Europe has actually split into the New Swabian League (Germany and Austria), the Federal States of Europe (France, Spain, Italy), and the Scandanavian Federation (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and a reluctant Finland). Britain, meanwhile, is part of the New Anglian Confederation (which also includes the US and Canada).
- Neo Tech has a European superstate (and a separate Scandinavian Union, and Madagasque superpower, but that's a different story entirely).
- The cyberpunk setting Neurospasta has a politically united EU, along with a coalition of Middle-Eastern states and an economic alliance of eastern Pacific nations, as the new world superpowers, having backed the correct form of sustainable energy in the wake of a global ecological catastrophe. The USA, which supported the technology that didn't become standard, has become isolationist and largely irrelevant to the world stage.
- Hearts of Iron II mod modern day scenario has an event where the EU unites to one country as well... it also becomes a hyperpower the moment that happens since you get way more production/resources/manpower/research than anyone else...
- The EU from Battlefield 2142.
- The Battlefield 2 expansion Euro Force features an EU Army, which implies a somewhat more unified Europe than today.
- In Front Mission, the "European Commonwealth" is the oldest superstate (the others being the OCU which includes most nations of the Pacific Ocean, and the USN, which is the US except that now all of the Americas are part of it) in Front Mission 4, its leaders are presented as fairly incompetent, and in Front Mission 3, which happens after FM4, Europe is presented as an economical superpower, but do not act directly in the story.
- In Tom Clancy's EndWar, the European Federation is one of three playable factions, being thrown into World War III because of the Russians tampering with a European satellite.
- Interestingly enough, the only major countries left outside the EF are the New Commonwealth (the result of Ireland and the UK leaving the Union) and Switzerland.
- A mod for Civilization IV included in the Beyond the Sword expansion has one of the four global factions of the far future be "Europa". Doesn't include Britain, which is part of America, Inc, but does include northern Algeria for some reason.
- It basically is Nineteen Eighty-Four, but with another State; Algeria is there because of the France connection, no doubt.
- Mass Effect 2 gives this a nod - Earth is still run by various nations, but the only powers ever talked about are China, an expanded and reorganized United States of America (now including Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands), and the European Union. By 2186, the United Kingdom is implied to still be a seperate entity from the European Union however.
- A mod for Europa Universalis 3 allows you to create the European Union by taking control of the capitals of the EU as it is right now (that is, Lisbon, Madrid, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin...). Uniting Europe is also a common goal for veteran players.
- The United States of Europe in Endgame. However, the characters obviously have American accents.
- In Fallout, the European Commonwealth is clearly an analogue to the real world European Union, except it seems to be a much stronger military alliance rather than the Union's focus on economic cooperation.
- One of the main factions in Command & Conquer (2013), with their appearance and game-play style making them a Captain Ersatz of the first game's USA faction, after fan hatred saw the U.S. getting terrorized and retreating from Europe to secure the home-front in the first game's expansion pack.
- In the (official) backstory of the Tiberium universe, the Allied Nations basically became this, and eventually, the GDI, after Stalin's assault forced them to band together.
- In the Earth 2150 series, the Eurasian Dynasty is a united Europe and Asia.
- It's not stated in Shattered Union, but the forces sent to the Divided States of America to stop the civil war are made up of units from various European countries under a single command structure.
- In Girl Genius the Wulfenbach Empire controls a large piece of Europe. How much is vague but apparently most or all of central and eastern Europe. In the novelization Agatha H and the Clockwork princess a footnote mantions that it stretches "from the Atlantic to Istanbul".
- In Orion's Arm not only does the US divide but the EU eventually develops into the European Federation, but that isn't mentioned much as most of the interesting stuff happens thousands of years after humanity is driven off earth.
- The German-dominated Greater European Economic Union or GEEU for short in Decades of Darkness unites most of Europe outside the Russian Federation.
- The German-controlled Northern European Alliance in Weimar World from AlternateHistory.com is pretty much this.
- One newspaper opinion comic titled "Neue Weltordnung?* " showed a pair of maps labeled 'before' and 'after', depicting the end of the Cold War. The first showed the patchwork of European countries abutting the Soviet Union, while the second showed a patchwork of ex-Soviet countries abutting the new European Union.
- Music critic and analyst Simon Reynolds said this of trance music in the early 2000s.
...there is a European soulfulness to trance... Listen to today's trance, and you think of the pristine beauty of a modern unified Europe — the high-speed trains, the pedestrian-only boulevards of city-center shopping districts.