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"I wanted the ideal animal to hunt," explained the general. "So I said, 'What are the attributes of an ideal quarry?' And the answer was, of course, 'It must have courage, cunning, and, above all, it must be able to reason.'"
"But no animal can reason," objected Rainsford.
"My dear fellow," said the general, "there is one that can."
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"The Most Dangerous Game" (also known as "The Hounds of Zaroff") is a 1924 short story by Richard Connell.

Sanger Rainsford, a hunter of big game from New York, finds himself shipwrecked on an island. He finds a big mansion occupied by Zaroff, a bored old Russian general, who describes his one true passion: hunting. The general tells Rainsford that he only hunts the most dangerous game of all... humans. (The title has a double meaning, referring both to a "game" or contest between the general and his quarry, as well as "game" in the sense of an animal that is hunted.)

The story has been directly adapted for film at least eight times, though only twice under its original title: in 1932, with Joel McCrea as Rainsford and Leslie Banks as Zaroff, and in 2008, with Brian Spangler-Campbell and Mark Motyl, respectively. However, it has been imitated by a vastly greater number of works, and is the source and Trope Namer of the Hunting the Most Dangerous Game plot.

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The full original story can be found here.


The Most Dangerous Tropes:

  • Action Survivor: Rainsford is a big game hunter, but has never been in anything like the danger in which he finds himself after getting marooned on Ship-Trap Island. He has to use everything he knows about tracking and trapping to keep Zaroff from getting too close and, if possible, ensnare him instead.
  • Affably Evil: More so in the movie than in the book, Zaroff is quite ruthless, but he can be very charming and polite when he's not hunting human beings. In both cases he quickly slides to Faux Affably Evil.
  • Big Bad: General Zaroff, master of Hunting the Most Dangerous Game.
  • Blood Knight: Zaroff wants more dangerous hunts so he chooses to hunt humans to sate his bloodlust.
  • Closed Circle: Stuck on an island that's deliberately cut off from the outside world? Check!
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  • Curtain Camouflage: Rainsford hides himself this way at the very end.
  • Dead Guy on Display: Zaroff keeps the heads of his victims as hunting trophies.
  • Derelict Graveyard: Ship-Trap Island is set up to be hazardous to passing ships so Zaroff has more game to kill.
  • Double Entendre: The title. One meaning is that the actual sport of hunting is the most dangerous game to play, but the other meaning is that humans are the most dangerous game to hunt. (And therefore the most challenging according to the hunter's logic.)
  • The Dragon: Ivan is a mute brute that sticks to Zaroff's side until his falls into one of Rainsford's traps.
  • Duel to the Death: Rainsford and Zaroff square off at the end of the story; the winner gets to sleep in Zaroff's opulent bed, while the loser's body will be fed to the hounds. It's pretty clear that Rainsford wins.
    "He had never slept in a better bed, Rainsford decided."
  • Earn Your Happy Ending: Considering everything that happened to him, Rainsford greatly deserves his victory.
  • Egomaniac Hunter: General Zaroff takes great pride that he has hunted everything and has even set up his base on an island that would attract more shipwreck survivors to hunt.
  • Evil Counterpart: Zaroff is what Rainsford would be if he had a lot more money and a lot less scruples.
  • Face–Heel Turn: One interpretation of the ending is that Rainsford, having killed Zaroff, has gained a taste for hunting the most dangerous game himself.
  • Faux Affably Evil: Zaroff casually converses with Rainsford about hunting and killing others.
  • Gilligan Cut: As noted under Duel to the Death, the last line of the story skips the duel entirely and cuts straight to its aftermath. Rainsford has won.
  • A Glass of Chianti: Zaroff sips from a glass of wine while explaining his passion for hunting human prey to Rainsford over dinner.
  • Great White Hunter: Rainsford is a big game hunter and those skills are put to the test when he becomes the hunted.
  • Hates Everyone Equally: Zaroff mentions he doesn't care what race somebody is; to him, they're all prey.
  • Hunting the Most Dangerous Game: Trope Namer, General Zaroff has spent his life hunting every kind of animal imaginable and has grown bored of his hobby. To keep his interest in hunting, Zaroff resorts to hunting the most dangerous game of all: humans.
  • Husky Russkie: Ivan; also, Zaroff.
    "Ivan is an incredibly strong fellow... A simple fellow, but, I'm afraid, like all his race, a bit of a savage."
    "Is he Russian?"
    "He is a Cossack," said the general, and his smile showed red lips and pointed teeth. "So am I."
  • I Don't Like the Sound of That Place: Ship-Trap Island. As the story opens, Whitney describes the name as "suggestive", and says sailors have a morbid fear of the place.
  • In Harm's Way: Zaroff tells Rainsford that ever since early childhood, he has only felt truly alive while hunting, pitting his wits against those of his prey. Increasingly bored with animals, he has turned to hunting humans, the most dangerous prey of all.
  • Irony: A big game hunter who dismisses his friend for empathizing with those they hunt (as he figures "who cares how the animal feels?" and "hunters have the right to do whatever they want to the hunted") gets trapped on an island with another big game hunter who has decided to hunt him. Rainsford manages to win his life, though whether he learned from his experience is left open.
  • It Amused Me: General Zaroff doesn't hunt people that he hates; he does it for fun.
  • The Killer Becomes the Killed: The fate of General Zaroff. Overlaps with Hoist by His Own Petard and Laser-Guided Karma.
  • Man of Wealth and Taste: General Zaroff wears suits from one of London's finest tailors, and dines on borsch, filet mignon, and red wine at a table set with the finest linen, crystal, silver, and china.
  • Mother Russia Makes You Strong: The reason Zaroff got bored with regular game, and why he finds Ivan so useful.
  • No Challenge Equals No Satisfaction: The whole purpose of both the story as well as the trope in general. The villain is a big-game hunter who got bored with dumb animals and started hunting humans who could present more of a challenge. Then he finds another almost equally-bored big-game hunter who would be even more of a challenge than random sailors who don't know how to really fight back.
  • Not So Different: As Zaroff himself notes when they first meet, Zaroff and Rainsford are both Egomaniac Great White Hunters from refined backgrounds (at least more than common sailors) who are so skilled they find it difficult to find a challenge. The main difference is Rainsford draws the line at hunting and killing people, while Zaroff does not.
  • One Name Only: Whitney and Zaroff have no first names, Ivan has no last name.
  • Offscreen Moment of Awesome: The climactic battle between Rainsford and Zaroff. Considering the general badassery of both characters, it can be assumed that it was quite a fight.
  • Proud Warrior Race Guy: Zaroff tells Rainsford that he joined the Army, as was the custom for aristocrats' sons, and rose to the rank of general, but he would have joined it even had he come from a modest background, as he has always had a zeal for fighting and killing. He's a Cossack, so Truth in Television.
  • Psychopathic Manchild: Zaroff, essentially with his whole "I always get what I want" mentality.
  • Rule of Three: Rainsford makes three traps for Zaroff. The first time Rainsford makes a Malaccan man-catcher, which almost kills Zaroff, but the man dodges just in time. The second trap is a tiger pit with sharpened stakes, which succeeds in killing Zaroff's best hunting dog. The third trap is a Ugandan knife trap, which takes out Ivan.
  • Scarily Competent Tracker: As soon as the game begins Rainsford sets out on making the most confounding false trail he can, then covering up his real path. Zaroff finds him anyway.
  • Sensitive Guy and Manly Man: Rainsford's friend Whitney and himself. While a fellow big game hunter, Whitney at least acknowledges how much it would suck to be the hunted. Rainsford admonishes Whitney for being "soft."
  • The Social Darwinist: General Zaroff.
    "I refuse to believe that so modern and civilized a young man as you seem to be harbors romantic ideas about the value of human life... Life is for the strong, to be lived by the strong, and, if needs be, taken by the strong. The weak of the world were put here to give the strong pleasure. I am strong. Why should I not use my gift? If I wish to hunt, why should I not? I hunt the scum of the earth: sailors from tramp ships—lascars, blacks, Chinese, whites, mongrels—a thoroughbred horse or hound is worth more than a score of them."
  • The Sociopath: Zaroff insists that what he does is not murder, it's just hunting... and seems to genuinely believe this.
  • The Speechless: Ivan doesn't say anything but considering his position as Zaroff's brute he may just not have anything that needs saying.
  • The Straight and Arrow Path: Zaroff uses a bow when the hunt begins and in the climax.
  • Summon Bigger Fish: If the hunt has gone for three days with the hunted still outsmarting Zaroff, the general will release his hunting dogs.
  • Tastes Like Friendship: When Rainsford washes ashore on Ship-Trap Island, Zaroff insists on serving him a drink, then dinner, during which they talk about their shared passion for hunting.
  • Teach Him Anger: Rainsford is far from helpless; but when he gets pushed to the limit, he gets mad.
  • There Are Two Kinds of People in the World: Or rather "classes," regardless of species: the hunter and the hunted. Both Rainsford and Zaroff start off with this philosophy, but while Rainsford means humans are the hunters and animals are the hunted, Zaroff includes humans in the latter category.
  • War Is Glorious: According to General Zaroff, a veteran of the Czar's army who commanded a division of Cossacks and felt a rush of exhilaration whenever he was on the battlefield with a gun in his hand directing his troops.
  • We Can Rule Together: Zaroff wants Rainsford to hunt with him, and only decides to make him the game after Rainsford refuses.
  • What Measure Is a Non-Human?: Rainsford begins the story thinking the animals he hunts have no feelings, and if they do, who cares how they feel? They're just animals. Then he meets a Social Darwinist Egomaniac Hunter who measures humans and animals equally...
  • Wicked Cultured: General Zaroff wears tailored suits, appreciates fine food and wine, and hums Madame Butterfly to himself after Rainsford appears to have got the better of him. Emphasized in the film.
  • You're Insane!: This is Rainsford's reaction to Zaroff's scheme. Zaroff is unaffected by this accusation.


Tropes particular to the 1932 film:

  • Blackface: A very rare inversion, as the actor playing Ivan the Cossack (Noble Johnson) was actually a black man who wore "whiteface" to play a Cossack. This was easier to do in black-and-white.
  • Canon Foreigner: Eve and Martin, characters that weren't in the novel.
  • Character Tics: Count Zaroff has a tendency to rub his head scar whenever he's excited or thrilled.
  • The Chick: Eve, who pretty much does nothing but look pretty.
  • Clothing Damage: Rainsford and Eve have a little bit of this while being hunted.
  • Disney Villain Death: Zaroff succumbs to his wounds by falling out the window, where his hunting dogs are waiting.
  • Fanservice: Provided by Fay Wray.


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