9, following a Robot War. Seemingly all life on Earth has been wiped out by the machines' chemical weapons; the purpose of the main characters is to find a way to restore that life.
Battle for Terra takes place after Earth, Venus, and Mars have wiped each other out, and the survivors are traveling on a Generation Ship that's breaking down, looking for a new planet to settle. They find a habitable world and call it Terra. Of course, there are two problems: the air is poisonous to humans, and there are natives to consider. Another example is the Terrans themselves, who used to have advanced technology but nuked themselves back to the Stone Age.
The Disney film Dinosaur is about the extinction of the dinosaurs, explicitly showing the meteors falling.
In Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within, humanity is forced to live in shelters that protect them from the Phantoms, creatures that kill living beings by stealing their souls by touching them.
After Earth: Humanity's disregard for the environment rendered the planet nearly uninhabitable, forcing them to leave.
The docu-drama The Age of Stupid portrays Earth in the year 2055 after runaway climate change ravages the planet. The film is shown from the viewpoint of an unnamed Archivist - the last surviving human on Earth - who laments "why didn't we save ourselves when we had the chance?", and plays back real documentary footage from 2008, when the film was made.
Battle Beyond the Sun, an American Cut-and-Paste Translation of the Soviet sci-fi film Nebo Zovyot uses this trope to hide the Soviet origins and propaganda element of the original: the race to Mars is no longer between the Soviet Union and Americanote with the Soviets naturally being the favoured party, but between two superstates (North Hemisnote US, Canada, Britain, most of Central and Eastern Europe plus Russia and South Hemisnote basically everywhere else, representing the North and South Hemispheres) into which the Earth has coalesced following a nuclear war. Just to make it obvious, the obligatory mushroom cloud Stock Footage is inserted into the introduction along with a map of the film's supposed world.
The Book of Eli has Denzel Washington in a world decimated for an unknown reason (heavily implied to be nuclear warfare) and literature, most notably the Bible was blamed.
In Buck Rogers in the 25th Century, much of the Earth has been reduced to a desolate wasteland by a nuclear holocaust, inhabited by mutants. The surviving humans (or rather, their descendants) live in isolated, hi-tech cities. In the TV series that followed, however, the Earth was depicted as being much more hospitable.
Cloud Atlas—The last portion of the film, at least chronologically, is entitled "Sloosha's Crossin' an' Ev'rythin' After." This section takes place in Hawaii years after an unspecified apocalyptic event, and the remnants of human kind has been divided between peaceful valley men (including Tom Hanks' character Zachary) and murderous cannibals called Konas (including the chief, played by Hugh Grant).
The Dark Crystal opens 1,000 years after the urSkeks accidentally caused a near-apocalyptic event with a single poor choice.
Ambiguous in the book (but stated in the sequels), the film confirms the fact that "The Giver" takes place after a tragedy known as "The Ruin."
The Matrix is set in the aftermath of a Robot War that the humans lost. The free remnants of humanity are holed up in the last human city, Zion, while everyone else is grown and plugged into a machine-made world called the Matrix. The films are about the human resistance against the machines, and the effort to free the rest of humanity from the Matrix.
Oblivion (2013): Held after an Alien Invasion and war which the humans won at the cost of most of Earth being destroyed. Except this is a lie. Humanity lost and the so-called "Scavs" are actually what's left of it.
Reign of Fire: Human civilisation is destroyed when they inadvertently awaken the dragons who had been buried. It's implied that they had previously wiped out the dinosaurs too.
The story of Snowpiercer picks up 17 years after mankind's attempt to fight global warming through geoengineering went a little too well and the chemical compound they emitted into the atmosphere turned Earth into an ice globe.
Stake Land: Unique to the genre, its after a Vampire epidemic wiped out most of the human race (which had a lot of help from a Naziesque Cult called the Brotherhood).
Total Recall (2012): After a series of wars over resources, the only parts of the world left that aren't biohazard wastelands are the United Federation of Britain (a chunk of Europe controlled by Britain) and the Colony (Australia).
20 Years After is about a post-apocalyptic world that was caused by a nuclear war and plague. A woman who is about to have the first baby in 15 years has to live in this world
Warrior of the Lost World, an Italian rip-off of Mad Max with none of that franchise's charm. Or much of an apocalypse for that matter, given how lush and green the 'lost world' is. To look at it, you'd think that all the likable people in the world simply went on vacation and told the cast of characters that we see that they'd all died.
Waterworld takes place after the polar ice caps have completely melted due to a magnetic pole reversal, causing the all remaining human civilization to become seafaring.
Taken to an extreme in The Time Machine (2002) where Alexander travels to the year 802701, where humanity has started over and split into the normal-looking Eloi and the savage Morloks, and then again to the year 635,427,810, where the latter has taken over the planet.
A Quiet Place takes place some time after sound-hunting nigh-invincible alien creatures wipe out all civilization. The focus is on a family that manages to survive in the wilderness by staying as quiet as possible and communicating via sign language.
In Ravenous (2017), after a brief opening scene at an auto rally, the rest of the film happens at a much later time. That is, after the zombie outbreak is more widespread. The old women tell the rest of the group that they saw fewer and fewer zombies for weeks after about a month, but also that the zombies have returned in larger numbers — presumably because "they're looking for food," as Céline put it.