The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika), also known as Czechia (Czech: Česko) and formerly as Bohemia, is a country in Central / Eastern Europe, with a population of 10.5 million people. Czech Republic was established in 1993 after the Velvet Divorce of Czechoslovakia; it comprises the historical countries of Bohemia, Moravia, and parts of Silesia. Even though it was formerly part of the Soviet Bloc (not the Union), popular ideas about Eastern European countries largely don't apply. While the history of the 20th century landed Czechia in the Eastern Bloc, for many centuries before that it had far more cultural and political ties with Germany, Austria and other Western or Southern European countries than it did with countries further East like Romania, Ukraine or Russia; and of course many centuries leave a more lasting mark on the country and culture than a couple of decades. For this reason, Czechs emphatically prefer the Central Europe designation.
With a history of Reformation predating Martin Luther and John Calvin (utraquists and Unity of Brethren) and subsequent recatholisation under the Habsburgs followed by state atheism under the Communists, most of the population today is atheist (or agnostic) with a Catholic minority (and even smaller Protestant and other minorities).
The official language is Czech, a Western Slavic language. It is mutually intelligible with Slovak, and, as with all Slavic languages, quite easy to learn if you know another Slavic language. (In the case of Czech, this is particularly true of the third major West Slavic language, Polish, which is almost but not quite mutually intelligible. Beware false friends between Slavic languages.note ) Beware also of AcCENT upon the Wrong SylLABle - Czech word accent is always on the first syllable, so accents on any other syllables are symptomatic of foreigners. Czech is one of the few phonetically written languages, which means that words are written pretty much exactly how they sound. Including the fact that words comprised entirely of consonants are, indeed, comprised entirely of consonants: The Czech sentence "Strč prst skrz krk" (meaning "shove your finger through your neck") is considered one of the most difficult tongue-twisters on Earth. Although that traditional primacy may have in fact more recently been beaten by the longest recorded-to-date sentence comprised entirely of consonants that does more or less make sense in Czech: it consists of sixteen words and fifty-two consonants. (Czechs are also, possibly, the nation that invented those weird tea-leaves above letters, called diacritics, which definitely help Czech in being a phonetically written language.)
Just like the Central African Republic and the Dominican Republic, it is one the few countries that has "Republic" in its colloquial English name. CzechiaCzech is now the official short form name in English and is slowly becoming more widely used - Google Maps now uses it.
One of the reasons for this name is because Czech Republic refers to the country formed in 1993, but Czechia refers to all the countries the Czech nation resided in, dating back to the 7th century. (I.e. similar to the difference between Italy and 1946-onward's Italian Republic).
Very famous for its beer, the Czech Republic has the highest beer consuption per capita. The first monastic breweries in the area started operating in the 12th century. The most well known international brands are Pilsner Urquell (Plzeňský Prazdroj) and Budweiser Budvar (Budějovický Budvar), but there is also a number of small local breweries. However, wine is also grown, particularly in Southern Moravia. The Czech Republic is one of the northernmost wine-growing countries, with the first vines introduced in the 14th century by Charles IV. But foreigners rarely learn this, because Czechs tend to drink all the produce themselves.
When Czechs are mentioned in anglophone fiction, expect an inevitable Czech/Check/Cheque pun.note
It is also notable for being one of the most libertarian nations in Europe with very loose gun laws, even looser drug laws (all recreational drugs are decriminalized in personal-use quantities, and possession of smaller commercial quantities is equivalent to a parking ticket), and major movements towards privatization and deregulation (except where that conflicts with EU directives). However, it also still suffers from high levels of bureaucracy.
The Czech Republic has one of the densest railway networks in use in the world. Trainspotting is a fairly popular hobby, usually involving photography; the other is complaining about the company České dráhy (Czech Railways). The quality of the tracks is, indeed, somewhat lacking behind Western Europe, but compared to e.g. the USA, like most of Europe the Czech Republic is a public transport paradise. A modern Czech train got a role in Casino Royale (2006). Trains appear quite often in Czech films as well, e.g. in Closely Watched Trains.
Czechs are also very fond of "nature", hiking, mushroom picking, cycling, canoeing down rivers and so on. About a third of the country's area is covered in forests, although only a very small part of that is primeval. There is a large number of nature programs on TV (and some of the most popular radio programmes had to do with following the lives of animals and birds), various scientific pursuits are fairly popular, and there is a Czech research station in Antarctica.
The landscape is quite varied, with most of the country being hilly. Most of the country's borders are "natural" borders of mountain ranges (along the majority of the borders) or rivers (in South Moravia). There are also areas of fertile flatlands along the rivers Labe (Elbe) and Morava. The highest mountain is Sněka (which can be loosely translated as "Snow Mountain") in the Krkonoe mountains, at the border with Poland, 1603 m above the sea level. The lowest point above sea level is the surface of the Labe river in Hřensko, at the border with Germany, 115 m above the sea level.
A word of forewarning: Czech history (like most of history) is full of unrememberable dates. Many of the dates worth remembering involve the number 8. Some Czechs therefore feel superstitious about years that end in 8.
Before there were Slavs, there were Germanic tribes, and before there were Germanic tribes, there were Celtic tribes, which is where the name Bohemia for the Western part of the country originally comes from. And before the Celts, there was the closely related Knovíz Culture, which archeological forensics reveals to have been a Cannibal Tribe. The first Slavic consolidated state in the approximate area was Great Moravia, which is where the name for Moravia comes from, more or less.note It was the Slavs of Great Moravia that Cyril and Methodius created the not-yet-Cyrillic alphabet for. (And it hasn't been in use in the area for centuries.)
After the fall of Great Moravia at the beginning of the 10th century, the centre of power in the region shifted to Prague and the Přemyslid dynasty. There was the usual early medieval period of frequent infighting and dynastic disputes, interrupted by power wrangling with the neighbouring countries (especially Germany). The most famous ruler from this early period is St Wenceslas (Václav in Czech), who was immortalised in the anglophone world by the song Good King Wenceslas, but actually wasn't a king.
It was only Premysl Otakar I who gained a hereditary royal title in 1198. This, obviously, gave the country and the dynasty some added weight in international dealings. Chivalric lifestyle (the original) flourished. The Přemyslid kings also invited German settlers to help tame the wilder areas of the country, which lay foundations to the large German minority in the following centuries. Lots of castles were built, providing future filmmakers with a wide choice of shooting locations.
With Václav III's murder in 1306, there were only female Přemyslid heirs left, and with medieval politics being what they were, there was some fighting between their husbands before the reign settled with the Luxembourg dynasty. Charles IV, Czech king and Holy Roman Emperor, widely considered the greatest ruler of the Czech lands, was the second of that dynasty on the Czech throne. He founded the university in Prague and many other medieval monuments present in the country today, and made Prague into the cultural centre of the Holy Roman Empire.
It was also during his reign that the first religious dissenters started working in the country; during the reign of Charles' son Václav, the most famous of them, Jan Hus, gained prominency to such an extent that the Catholic church first excommunicated him and later (in 1415) burned him at the stake for heresy. His Czech followers were not pleased with that turn of events. That displeasure eventually grew into full on armed rebellion against the Prague city council; Václav apparently had a stroke when he heard, his brother the Roman Emperor Sigismund was not welcome in the Czech lands anymore and the Hussite Wars followed.
There was, eventually, a settlement that allowed Czechs to follow some of their beliefs with the rest of the Catholic church ignoring them. note Later in the 15th century, the Czech nobility elected one of their own, Jiří z Poděbrad, as Czech king; he's notable for being the only one to be elected so, being the only non-Catholic on the Czech throne, and trying to start a peaceful union of (Christian) European nations against the Turkish threat.note
After yet another king died prematurely in 1526, the Austrian branch of the Habsburg dynasty succeeded on the Czech throne, and stayed there until 1918 note . The last time Prague was a cultural centre was during the reign of Rudolf II (which is also the time when the famous legend of Golem takes place). After more political (and religious) tensions, Czech people once again resorted to defenestration against officials in Prague in 1618, starting the Thirty Years' War (which, unlike the Hundred Years War between England and France, did indeed last thirty years). After another Czech Famous Defeat in the Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs consollidated their power by proclaiming Catholicism as the only religion allowed in the country and all the Protestants who could afford to do so emigrated (often to Poland). This left the country without whole generations of intellectual elites and open to recatholisation and influx of foreign nobility. The following centuries were the period when chateaus and palaces were built, providing a different kind of wide choice of filming backdrops for future filmmakers.
Another side effect of these events was the fact that at the end of the 18th century, Czech language was largely the language of peasants. Attempts to revitalise it and start a new Czech culture eventually, throughout the 19th century, led to attempts at greater political authonomy as well, which however did not materialise until independent Czechoslovakia was formed after WW1. During the war, many Czechs were forced to fight for Austria against their will, so when Czechoslovak legions were formed on the Allied side, naturally many Czech soldiers surrendered so they could join their national cause.note
A collection of a number of different ethnicitiesnote , Czechoslovakia was formed after the Treaty of Versailles, but its diversity made it unstable. While it was economically (and culturally!) successful and notably retained a democratic system when many European nation states formed after WW1 fell into various totalitarian practices, the Germans and Hungarians wanted the self-determination doctrines paraded by America but not delivered at Versailles. After the First World War, people in other countries like Britain started to feel sorry for the Germans, who weren't maltreated in Czechoslovakia but didn't have any political autonomy. This sentiment was hijacked by Those Wacky Nazis and used as an excuse to take control of Germany, then the German-populated Sudetenland in autumn of 1938 which was given to Germany on the basis of the Munich Agreement, a pact signed by Germany, Italy and United Kingdom, France - two of Czechoslovakia's closest allies at the time. This allowed Hitler to step over the large border fortification system unscathed. He proceeded to take the rest of the Czech lands in March 1939, blatantly defying his previous assertion that Sudetenland was the only claim Germany would make on Europe. Slovakia split into a fascist state. War did not break out until Hitler moved on Poland later in 1939.
Prague was comparatively untouched by the war. The Czech people were not. Hundreds of thousands went to the death camps, and the Lidice massacre, one of the most notorious war crimes of the war, took place as revenge for the assassination of Reichsprotektor Reinhard Heydrich. As Slavs, Czechs were considered sub-human and useful only for labour by the Nazis. note The country's flourishing industry was put to work for the war machine, and as a result, later in the war, several industrial cities (like Plzeň and Brno) and their surroundings suffered from bombing raids by the Allies. Like in the rest of Nazi-controlled Europe, the previously numerous Jewish population was nearly exterminated. However, other Czechs were actively fighting on the Allied side outside of the country. For example, Czechoslovak pilots fought with the RAF in WW2, and there was a number of Real Life Ace Pilots among them.
After World War II the Germans and Hungarians were expelled en-masse and Subcarpatian Ruthenia was annexed by the Soviet Union. In 1948, the Communists seized power through a coup d'etatnote , and dissident elements, including the Church(es), were quickly purged and subdued. Czechoslovakia was a founding member of Comecon (Soviet bloc economic organization) and the Warsaw Pact.
Readers who do not wish to come across as ignorant are strongly advised to remember that Czechoslovakia was never, ever part of the Soviet Union proper, only the so-called "Soviet bloc". Never using the adjective "Soviet" in reference to things Czech(oslovak) is a vital part of remembering.
In the 1960s, the atmosphere slowly thawed, leading to a surge in culture. In 1968, a Slovak reformist, Alexander Dubček, came to power and started a short period of liberalization, the Prague Spring, which lasted a few months until other Warsaw Pact countries (except Romania) invaded the country. When the Czech army was told they were being invaded, they ran to fortify the Western border, because invasion from their allies was inconceivable. Popular protest, at first almost universal, slowly died down; Jan Palach's 1969 attempt to rouse people did not have the desired effect.
In 1989, as part of Hole in Flag, the Velvet Revolution took place, the Communists were overthrown, and Czechoslovakia became a democracy. note Three years later, the Czech and Slovakian halves separated in the "Velvet Divorce", with much of the national property note being split 2:1 for the Czechs because of their larger population.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999, The European Union in 2004 and the Schengen Area (open borders inside Europe) in 2007. As of 2020, the currency is still koruna česká (the Czech Koruna, CZK). note
Prague and other cities
Prague is the capital of the country and a global city. Despite the global status, it's far less expensive than most European cities of its stature (even notoriously cheap Berlin is more expensive). Being—as mentioned above—relatively untouched by the bombs of World War II, Prague is a popular place to film, particularly when an "old Europe" feeling is required. The Barrandov Studios are a particularly popular filming location for Hollywood movies such as xXx, Blade II, Mission: Impossible and The Bourne Identity. The cheapness also attracts tourists; Prague is a popular destination for Americans (and Canadians and Australians...) looking for a good time on a budget while still being able to say they went to Europe, as well as other Europeans (including, to the annoyance of many Praguers, British stag parties) looking for a short trip without expending too much on transportation or things when you get there. It is also a major European cultural centre. And the only city in the country with a metro.
Prague has a population of approximately 1.2 million people, which, of course, means there's a good 9.3 million Czechs who live somewhere else, for example in Brno (pronounced with two syllables, as in "Brur-no"), the second largest city and the capital of Moravia. Brno maintains a rivalry with Prague. It tends to be the more industrial of the two, usually holds the largest trade fairs in the country and has a major racetrack. It is, however, also another cultural centre, with its own National Theatre (formed three years after the one in Prague, back in the 19th century when Moravia was still nominally a separate political entity). It is also quickly becoming a more cosmopolitan city, possibly faster than Prague. Its historical centre is smaller than in Prague, but there are some notable examples of Modernist architecture, such as the Villa Tugendhat, to be found in Brno. Thanks to the closeness to the border with Slovakia and a number of Slovak students, you are much more likely to hear the Slovak language in Brno than in other Czech cities like Ostrava (originally noted for being the "black" - coal-mining - city, but becoming greener in recent years), Plzeň (noted for its beer and industry), Liberec (originally a very German city, these days noted for the transmitting tower and hotel on Jetěd), etc.
- 2K Czech (previously known as Illusion Softworks), a video game development studio (Hidden & Dangerous, the Mafia series, Vietcong...)
- Madeleine Albright, U.S. Secretary of State (1997-2001) was born 'Marie Jana Korbelová' in Prague
- Anne of Bohemia, daughter of Charles IV and wife of Richard II of England, "Good Queen Anne"
- Karel Čapek, probably the most influential Czech author of the 20th century (e.g. R.U.R.)
- Věra Čáslavská, gymnast and seven-times Olympic gold winner
- Petr Čech, legendary football goalkeeper, key player in Chelsea's rise as a top team in the 2000s. Currently plays for Arsenal.
- Jára Cimrman. Despite being virtually unknown abroad, Cimrman's spirit looms large over Czech culture and popular consciousness. Born in Vienna,note he was the quintessential entrepreneurial, creative and hopelessly unsuccessful Czech underdog of the late Habsburg period. He was an inventor, a writer, a playwright, a composer, a criminologist, and many other things. He also would have won the "Greatest Czech" poll held by the Czech TV in 2005 (following a template from the BBC), were it not for the perfectly negligible technicality that he is completely and utterly fictional.
- Charles IV, Czech king and Holy Roman Emperor, who founded the first university in the country in 1348
- Ema Destinnová (Emmy Destinn), opera singer
- Druhá Tráva, an accoustic-sound band with its roots in bluegrass, popular even in the genre's birthplace
- Antonín Dvořák, world-famous composer (e.g. "New World Symphony") and Rail Enthusiast Extraordinaire
- Milo Forman, film director
- Karel Gott, singer
- Dominik Haek, legendary ice hockey goaltender; regarded by most as the greatest European goalie in NHL history
- Václav Havel, playwright and the first president of the country after the fall of Communism
- Eva "Hello Boys" Herzigová, model
- Václav Hollar, baroque artist, famous for his depictions of London pre-Great Fire and other European landmarks
- Antonín Holý, chemist and co-inventor of a successful anti-HIV drug
- Markéta Irglová, musician, co-winner of the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 2007 (with Glen Hansard) and the youngest person ever to win that particular award.
- Jaromír Jágr, ice hockey player; second only to Wayne Gretzky (by a wide margin) in career NHL scoringnote
- Leo Janáček, composer
- Elika Junková, early car-racer and the first woman to win a Grand Prix event
- Franz Kafka, author (Prague Jewish, wrote mostly in German)
- Jan Ámos Komenský (Comenius), 17th century author, philosopher, theologian and "father of modern education." Famous for the notion that school should be fun.
- Milan Kundera, contemporary author, who effectively renounced his Czech status, not that anyone cares
- Tomá Garrigue Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslovakia, philosopher and sociologist
- Gregor Johann Mendel (German-speaking), "father of modern genetics"
- Alphonse Mucha, prominent Art Nouveau artist, patronized by college students everywhere
- Martina Navratilova, tennis player
- Boena Němcová, 19th century writer and folklore collector, whose versions of fairy tales are probably the most popular in the country
- Jan Neruda, 19th century poet, writer and journalist
- Olympic, a pop band with origins in The '60s, with members like Peter Janda, Jiří Korn, Frantiek Ringo Čech, Pavel Bobek, and many others.
- Pavel Nedvěd, football player
- The Plastic People of the Universe, famous dissident rock band from The '70s
- Field Marshal Josef Radetzky, who distinguished himself in Austrian service and is known for the famous march composed by Strauss to most people
- Magdaléna Dobromila Rettigová, author of a popular old Czech cookbook and early National Revival writer
- Libue afránková, actress, well-loved in a number of countries for her 1973 portrayal of Cinderella
- Bedřich Smetana, composer (e.g. "Moldau")
- Jan vankmajer, animator and film director
- Josef vejk (fictional), from the famous novel The Good Soldier vejk (pronounced roughly as "shveyk")
- Toyen, surrealist painter
- Jiří Trnka, artist, animator and film director
- Otto Wichterle, chemist and inventor of modern soft contact lenses
- Emil Zátopek, long-distance runner who won three gold medals at the 1952 Helsinki Olympic Games (famously including gold in marathon, which he had never run before in his life)
- Dr. Radek Zelenka (fictional), from Stargate Atlantis. His actor, David Nykl, was born in Prague, but moved to Canada with his family when he was one year old after the Soviet invasion in 1968. Nykl nevertheless grew up speaking Czech as well as English, and it was his fluency in the language that convinced the production team to change his character from an unnamed Russian to a Czech.
- Karel Zeman, film director and animator
- Jan ika, one eyed Hussite leader, undefeated military general, inventor of modern field artillery, and Czech folk hero.
The Czech Republic and its predecessors in fiction
- All (or nearly all) Czech films and literature. Duh.
- For Czech animation, see Eastern European Animation.
- In the MacGyver (1985) episode "For Love and Money'', Mac must rescue someone from a Czech "mental hospital" (yep, they did what the KGB did).
- Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy, the most famous John le Carré novel, is partly set in Brno.
- Blade II
- Mission: Impossible
- Casino Royale (2006) was filmed there, where it stood in for Montenegro.
- The best-known version of the Golem legend is linked to Prague, as portrayed in the movie The Golem and countless other works.
- Two of Contract J.A.C.K.'s missions take place in Czechoslovakia.
- The first mission of Soldier of Fortune II takes place in Prague.
- Forza Motorsport 5 has a racetrack in Prague. (Which would seem to be a typical case of Britain is Only London, as the major racetracks in the Czech Republic are actually somewhere else.)
- Roughly the first half of The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Clay takes place in early-WWII Prague. The Czech version of the Golem legend is featured as a plot point and symbol.
- Several films about the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in Prague and its horrific aftermath for the locals during World War II, including Hangmen Also Die!, Hitler's Madman, Attentat, Operation Daybreak, Anthropoid, Lidice and The Man with the Iron Heart.
- Costa-Gavras's The Confession, depicting the Slánský trial of 1952.
- Hetalia: Axis Powers has the Czech Republic herself as a character, along with her close friend Slovakia. She's depicted as a Tiny Tyrannical Girl with a stubborn streak and rather... energetic behaviour.
- The majority of Deus Ex: Mankind Divided takes place in Prague.
- The second half of Tomb Raider: The Angel of Darkness takes place in Prague.
- The "Eastern Europe" section of Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots is based on Prague; Snake rides across the Charles Bridge in a motorcycle chase, and the climax takes place on the Vltava river (known as the "Volta" in-game).
- The Contessa chapters in Sly 2: Band of Thieves take place in Prague.
Czech Popular CultureThe Czechoslovak New Wave is considered the golden age of Czech cinema. Films such as The Shop on Main Street and Closely Watched Trains are associated with this era.
As already mentioned, Jára Cimrman is a looming presence over Czech culture. Czechs love to quote idiosyncratic lines and everything Cimrman serves very well for that purpose, as well as other works by Zdeněk Svěrák and Ladislav Smoljak. Other favourites are e.g. Bohumil Hrabal, Saturnin or The Good Soldier vejk.
The vast majority of foreign TV Shows and films are dubbed, and all that are shown on television are subbed. Most movie theatres have both subtitled and dubbed screenings. The channel ČT2 sometimes shows subbed shows and movies meant for a narrow audience.
Regular & musical theatre is also widely popular, and even smaller cities often have their own theatre companies, thanks in part to state subsidies of the arts. This is, of course, always somewhat precarious with political changes, but it means that actors can find relatively stable work outside film, and like in the rest of Europe, most Czech actors therefore have some theatre experience.
Some video games have been developed in the Czech Republic, such as Mafia, Hidden & Dangerous, Vietcong, Operation Flashpoint, Original War, ARMA, Euro Truck Simulator, Hero of Many, Kingdom Come: Deliverance (which actually draws on some of the medieval history described above), and Attentat 1942 (about the German occupation and the assassination of Heydrich).'
Music in the Czech Republic is infinite. The saying "Every Czech is a musician" appears to be true. This is in part thanks to a unique system of local art schools that offer far more substantial education in the arts than after-school leisure activities in other countries do; the majority of students in those schools pursue music. There are many classically trained Czech musicians, and even those who go on to produce popular music often have at least some basic classical training.
The Czech flag
Coat of arms of the Czech Republic
The Czech national anthem
- Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
- President: Milo Zeman
- Prime Minister: Andrej Babi
- Capital and largest city: Prague
- Population: 10,707,839
- Area: 78,866 km² (30,450 sq mi) (115th)
- Currency: Czech koruna (Kč) (CZK)
- ISO-3166-1 Code: CZ