Denethor, due to his use of the Palantir and exposure to Sauron's will, and not helped by the death of his elder son and near-fatal wounding of Faramir; these elements lead him to fall into despair and he chooses to die rather than live to see Sauron's final victory, which he believes is inevitable.
Inverted with Théoden, who is restored to his full self by Gandalf, healing him of Wormtongue and Saruman's influence.
Merry and Pippin hitch a ride on Treebeard, and also the eagles when they rescue Frodo and Sam from Mordor.
Presumably some of the mounted orcs' steeds in the battle scenes were sentient Wargs.
Bill the Pony is this, according to Sam.
The Savage South: The land south of Gondor, called Harad, is considered savage land. Sauron musters an army from there.
Screw the Rules, I'm Doing What's Right!: Hama the Doorward of Meduseld. He allows Gandalf to keep his staff and returns Eomer's sword to him when the latter is released from prison, both in defiance of Wormtongue's edicts.
Sealed Evil in a Can: The Balrog of Moria. Unusually for this trope, it sealed itself there, having survived the War of Wrath (when the Valar defeated its master Morgoth at the end of the First Age) and gone into hiding.
Sea Monster: The giant squid-like creature that inhabits a lake near the entrance to Moria known as the Watcher in the Water. It attacks the Fellowship as they try to enter the Mines of Moria.
Second-Hand Storytelling: Explained by Word of God that the story is mostly seen from a hobbit POV, since it was hobbits that wrote the tome professor Tolkien translated. Example events include Gandalf's imprisonment by and escape from Saruman, The Ents' attack on Isengard, Aragorn's adventures in southern Gondor. Also note that parts of the story with Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli traveling away from the rest of the Fellowship (the majority of The Two Towers and the Paths of the Dead) are known to the Hobbits because they shared their stories with them at Isengard and Minas Tirith respectively.
Secondary Character Title: The Lord of the Rings refers to Sauron not Frodo as some believe. The full title of Frodo's book about the war is The Downfall of the Lord of the Rings and the Return of the King. It is a particularly strange error to ascribe such a title to Frodo, as there is a scene where Pippin says, "Make way for Frodo, Lord of the Ring" and is quite strongly corrected about it by Gandalf.
One view of the whole book is that the Ring is a secret test of character for all of Middle-Earth. The Ring is almost irresistible Schmuck Bait, and Frodo's habit of waving it around in public doesn't help. It tempts Bilbo, and Gandalf; Aragorn and Boromir; Denethor and Saruman; Galadriel and Faramir; Gollum, Sam, and lastly Frodo himself. Some of these people fail miserably (Denethor doesn't even have to get near it), others pass with distinction - but it's an effort for all of them.
Gandalf's horrified renunciation:
Gandalf: With that power I should have power too great and terrible. And over me the Ring would gain a power still greater and more deadly....Do not tempt me! For I do not wish to become like the Dark Lord himself. Yet the way of the Ring to my heart is by pity, pity for weakness and the desire of strength to do good. Do not tempt me! I dare not take it, not even to keep it safe, unused. The wish to wield it would be too great for my strength. I shall have such need of it. Great perils lie before me.note In the Bakshi film, the frightened look on Gandalf's face is both hilarious and terrifying at the same time.
Galadriel slides closest to the edge without actually failing:
And now at last it comes. You will give me the Ring freely! In place of the Dark Lord you will set up a Queen. And I shall not be dark, but beautiful and terrible as the Morning and the Night! Fair as the Sea and the Sun and the Snow upon the Mountain! Dreadful as the Storm and the Lightning! Stronger than the foundations of the earth. All shall love me and despair!'
She lifted up her hand and from the ring that she wore there issued a great light that illuminated her alone and left all else dark. She stood before Frodo seeming now tall beyond measurement, and beautiful beyond enduring, terrible and worshipful. Then she let her hand fall, and the light faded, and suddenly she laughed again, and lo! she was shrunken: a slender elf-woman, clad in simple white, whose gentle voice was soft and sad.
'I pass the test,' she said. 'I will diminish, and go into the West, and remain Galadriel.' "
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Discussed by Galadriel when she shows her Mirror to Sam. "Some [visions] never come to be, unless those that behold the visions turn aside from their path to prevent them. The Mirror is dangerous as a guide of deeds."
Faramir and Boromir. Boromir is a mighty warrior and military leader, interested in warfare and little else, Faramir loves poetry and lore (although he's also a soldier). In this case, the difference is mostly one of attitude - Boromir loves fighting and being a soldier for its own sake (though he's guided by a strong sense of honor and duty) while Faramir views soldiering as a service he must render for the good of his people even though he's a scholar by inclination. Unlike most examples, both brothers truly love each other unconditionally and appreciate their differences.
To a lesser extent, Sam seems to be tougher and has a bigger inclination towards violence than Frodo, but this might be due to the ferocity with which he protects him.
Shout-Out: There are several to Macbeth, all taken from Act IV, Scene i, when the Witches tell Macbeth their prophecies of his death. First of all, the phrase "Crack of Doom" was coined by Shakespeare in this scene. The Ents' storm of Isengard and the Witch-King's defeat by Éowyn are references to two of the three propheciesnamely, that it will not happen until "Great Birnam Wood...shall come against him" and that "none of woman born shall harm" him. Of course, the trees do come to the castle when Macduff's army uses their branches as camouflage, just as the Ents come to Isengard, and Macbeth is killed by a man who was not born, but removed from his mother's womb, just as the Witch-King, who can be killed by "no living man," is killed by a woman.
In fact, Tolkien wrote the Ents and their destruction of Isengard specifically because of his memories of seeing a production of Macbeth as a boy and being disappointed that the trees of Birnam Wood did not actually get up to destroy Macbeth's castle themselves.
To "Arabian Nights", oddly enough. Compare this tale and the chapter "The Voice of Saruman" and try to find the differences.
Denethor's gradual and total self-destruction mirrors another Shakespearean work, King Lear.
The One Ring is a shout-out to the Ring of Gyges from Book 2 of Plato's Republic, a trinket that makes the wearer invisible and, free from observation by others, encourages them to commit evil acts.
Shown Their Work: Tolkien's understanding of Mythology, Linguistics, Geography, Geology and Climatology are masterful.
Signature Item Clue: Peregrin Took drops his elven brooch while being transported by his orcish captors, in hopes his friends will pick up his trail. The gambit pays off.
Simultaneous Arcs: The main continuity splits off into two branches when the Fellowship breaks up near Rauros - one arc following Frodo, Sam and Gollum in the journey to Mordor, the other one following everyone else and the wars in Rohan and Gondor. The second arc itself splits, rejoins (at Isengard), and then splits into three (with Pippin and Gandalf to Minas Tirith, with Merry and the Rohirrim, with Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli through the Paths of the Dead).
Sky Cell: Gandalf is confined on top of Orthanc until he is rescued by a giant eagle.
Sleep Cute: Gollum has a Pet the Dog moment when he catches Frodo and Sam doing this on the stairs of Cirith Ungol.
For a fleeting moment, could one of the sleepers have seen him, they would have thought that they beheld an old weary hobbit, shrunken by the years that had carried him far beyond his time, beyond friends and kin, and the fields and streams of youth, an old starved pitiable thing.
Sleeping Dummy: The hobbits pull this off at the Prancing Pony in Bree, with the help of Barliman the innkeeper.
Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Cynicism: Heavily on the idealistic side. Evil may triumph temporarily, but in the long run it's made very clear that evil is nothing but a hollow mockery of good and is destined to lose in the end. That does not, of course, mean that in the immediate term Sauron is any less of a threat.
The nature of Good and Evil in Middle-Earth is heavily influenced by Tolkien's Catholicism. Good and Evil are not equals, and while the latter may dominate for a time and seem unstoppable, when all is said and done the former is stronger.
Slippery MacGuffin: The Ring wants to return to Sauron, and will subtly influence events to make that happen. In the backstory, it abandoned first Isildur and then Gollum at a critical time. Downplayed with Frodo, who, while he is warned of the Ring's history of such behaviour, doesn't seem to have any trouble hanging on to it. Indeed, at the end he finds that he can't give it up.
Smack on the Back: Inverted when Bilbo gives Frodo the mithril shirt. He gives his nephew a hearty one of these and immediately exclaims "Ow! You are too hard to slap now."
Small Role, Big Impact: Saruman's actions have a major effect on the plot and his corruption is one of the major themes of the book. However, he only actually appears in four chapters (out of a total of 62): "The Council of Elrond" in The Fellowship of the Ring (in a flashback recounted by Gandalf), "The Voice of Saruman" in The Two Towers, and "Many Partings" and "The Scouring of the Shire" in Return of the King.
Smoking Is Cool: Pipe weed. Gandalf catches himself getting excessively tetchy with Pippin in the Mines of Moria, and eventually realizes what the problem is — he hasn't had a decent smoke in a week.
Sneaky Departure: Frodo embarking on a solitary trip to Mordor (though followed by Sam).
Gimli: That was the sound of a hammer, or I've never heard one.
Gandalf: Yes, and I do not like it. It may have nothing to do with Peregrin's foolish stone; but probably something has been disturbed that would have been better left quiet.
Beginning outside Moria's doors, where the frustrated Boromir alerts the Watcher in the Water by tossing a stone into the lake while waiting for Gandalf to find the opening-spell. Nice Job Breaking It, Hero!!
Gollum. Who could ever account for all that he does in this story?
Saruman made the great mistake of leaving the Ents out of his calculations, meaning he's totally blindsided when they attack and completely trash Isengard.
Merry and Pippin qualify as well, as their meeting Treebeard leads directly to the Ents getting fully roused up to attack; Gandalf explicitly comments how things would have gone much worse for the good guys if the duo hadn't been present.
The whole first part of The Fellowship of the Ring just wouldn't have happened, had Barliman Butterbur not forgotten to just send the Gandalf's letter to Frodo.
Speak Friend and Enter: Gandalf spends hours casting opening spells and trying passwords on the door into Moria. He finally realizes that he mistranslated the inscription on the door: instead of "Speak, friend, and enter", it was "Say 'friend' and enter" All he had to do was say the Elven word for "friend" and the door opened. Gandalf read the inscription aloud before, but in the common tongue, not in Elvish.
Staff of Authority: The Istari, including Saruman and Gandalf have staffs that seem to be symbolic as well as practical. In their confrontation at Isengard after the Ents march on the place, Gandalf breaks Saruman's staff to show that his authority has been revoked by the Powers That Be.
Starfish Language: The language of the Ents is implied to be this. Even the simplest words are very long and elaborate, and so even the shortest conversations probably last several hours.
The Starscream: Saruman. He was one of the Istari, agents sent from Valinor to assist the Free Peoples against Sauron. His initial intentions were beneficial; he desired the One Ring from Sauron and planned to use it as a means to permanently defeat him. However, during his time in Middle-earth, Saruman grew more and more proud of himself, and decided he could use his skill as a highly persuasive Consummate Liar to fool Sauron himself into an alliance, and instead use the One Ring to make himself the ruler of Middle-earth. Sauron caught on pretty quickly though, and Saruman became so terrified of his wrath that after his army was defeated he locked himself in his tower for the majority of the War of the Ring.
Stay on the Path: Averted. Gandalf tells the hobbits to stay off the roads on their way to Bree.
Stealth Pun: Merry is given the name "Holdwine" by Éowyn and Éomer once, and it's never mentioned again. It means "loyal friend" in Old English, but in Modern English ...
Steel Mill: Saruman runs one at the basement of Isengard. Instead of coke, he uses charcoal made from trees as the iron reducing agent. Which, of course, the Ents find less than amusing, considering the sheer number of trees he's cut down.
A Storm Is Coming: When Gandalf came bearing news of Saruman's plans to the Rohirrim. King Théoden (still under Saruman's influence by way of Wormtongue) calls him "Stormcrow", and Wormtongue mocks him: "Láthspell I name you, Ill-news; and ill news is an ill guest, they say."
Storming the Castle: Subverted. Sam attempts to storm the Tower of Cirith Ungol alone, but the two orc units inside turn on each other, sparing him the trouble.
Stranger in a Familiar Land: When they return home after the War and the Shire is back to normal after its occupation, all of the four hobbits do feel this effect to varying degrees. While the other three are coping with it, Frodo, with the additional burdens of the Ring and his other wounds, cannot "return home" or find peace again; he leaves the Shire to sail to the West with the Elves.
Gondor once had a brutal civil war, the Kinstrife, over who should inherit the throne, the half-Rohirric Eldacar or the 100% Númenorean Castamir. Eldacar won... after ten years in exile and losing his eldest son in battle.
The Steward Pelendur ruled Gondor for a year after the death of King Ondoher (and his sons) because both Ondoher's son-in-law King Arvedui of Arnor and his cousin Eärnil claimed the throne. He decided in favor of Eärnil.
After Eärnil's son Eärnur went on a Suicide Mission to Minas Morgul and disappeared, unmarried and childless, Pelendur's grandson Mardil became the first Ruling Steward rather than choose someone with a weak claim and start another Kinstrife.
The Ringwraiths are constantly surrounded by an "aura" of this. Hardened soldiers break and run in their presence, and it's strongly implied that Éowyn is only able to stand up to the Witch-King because she's been living in constant despair for years. She's used to it.
The Cavalry of the Dead has the same effect, either because of inherent magic or just the natural reaction to seeing a huge horde of nasty ghosts. In the book it's left ambiguous whether they can actually hurt people, but they don't need to because the fear is enough. In the film, because this sort of subtlety is hard to express in a visual medium, they kill people by more direct means, but their appearance still sparks a Mass "Oh, Crap!" from the enemy.
Tolkien's worldbuilding establishes that an aura of fear and terror is an innate trait to the undead, from ghosts to wraiths and anything else. The Ringwraiths are just particularly potent with it because they've got the power of the Nine Rings backing them up.
The Dead Marshes feature the usual treacherous footing, constant fog, and corpse candles. There were also horrible, pallid faces floating just beneath the water's surface. Looking at the faces too closely would cause you to become entranced and fall into the water.
There was also the insect-infested Midgewater Marshes in Fellowship of the Ring.
"What do they live on when they can't get hobbit?"
Swan Boats: The Elves of Lóthlorien have swan-shaped boats — a symbol of beauty and high culture.
Gandalf's description of the "nameless things" that dwell beneath Moria; Tolkien's description of many of the Orc's family-unfriendly habits, and of Sauronhimself and his hideouts. If it's something of which Gandalf or Aragorn "will not speak... to darken the light of day", you know it's bad.
Aragorn seems to have encountered the Ringwraiths personally at least once before he met the hobbits in Bree; the only description he can bear to give is simply: "They are terrible!" And as he says it, his hands are clutching the arms of his chair.
Take That!: Both the Ents and the fate of the Witch-King were Tolkien's Take That! at Macbeth. He thought that the march of Birnam Wood just being a bunch of guys dressed as trees, and Macduff being a C-section baby rather than a woman, were cop-outs. Hence, Ents and Éowyn and Merry.
Take That, Critics!: In the Foreword: "Some who have read the book, or at any rate have reviewed it, have found it boring, absurd, or contemptible; and I have no cause to complain, since I have similar opinions of their works, or of the kind of works that they seem to enjoy."
Isildur takes Narsil from his dead father, and 3000 years later Aragorn uses the same sword re-forged in the War of the Ring.
A literal, unspoken example when Sam, believing Frodo dead from Shelob's poison, takes Sting (and the Ring).
Tangled Family Tree: The Hobbits. Thanks to generations worth of intermarrying between the Tooks, Bagginses, Bolgers, and Brandybucks (all of them among the most respected families in the Shire), Frodo is Bilbo's first and second cousin, Pippin's second and third cousin, Merry's first, second, and third cousin, and his own third cousin! Sam, in fact, is the only major hobbit character who isn't related to any of the others - although once his children reach marriageable ages...
Talking in Your Sleep: Frodo seems especially prone to doing this. It also applies to Merry, Éowyn and Faramir in the Houses of Healing.
Terrain Sculpting: The Ents divert a river in order to flood Isengard. Once this is done, they put it back again.
Think Nothing of It: Faramir has such a moment after Sam compliments him for rejecting the Ring.
Yes sir, and showed your quality: the very highest. Faramir smiled. A pert servant, Master Samwise. But nay: the praise of the praiseworthy is above all rewards. Yet there was naught in this to praise. I had no lure or desire to do other than I have done.
This Is Reality: Halflings and Ents only belong in children's tales, not real life, according to one of the Riders of Rohan.
Thou Shalt Not Kill: After spending time in Mordor, Frodo eventually declares that he'll "bear no weapon, fair or foul." He doesn't commit any acts of violence during the Scouring of the Shire, sets a strict rule against any of the rebels killing hobbits who've sided with Sharkey, and tries to keep them from killing Men who surrender as well.
Tightrope Walking: Legolas does this. Similar to the movie example, in Lorien, Legolas ran along a rope to get to the other side of a stream. It was mentioned that elves did this sort of thing a lot if a bridge was not available. He points out nobody else in the group is an Elf, so it is probably easy for them.
Treebeard, who's said to be the oldest of all living things, and Tom Bombadil, who claims to be older than the Earth. Lampshaded when Treebeard refers to the ancient wizard Gandalf as "young Master Gandalf".
Both Ents and Elves are not subject to dying of old age, though Ents get "sleepy" and more and more tree-like as they age, and Elves eventually get "weary" of watching all the death and decay in Middle-Earth and decide to leave it to go to the Undying Lands. Fangorn (Treebeard) is unusual in the fact that he's still active despite being one of the first Ents. Most of the really old Elves in Middle-Earth in Frodo's day have been forbidden to (re-) enter Valinor unless/until they humble themselves and repent.
Elrond has outlived every nation in the world, but he's still a kid compared to Glorfindel (well, kind of) and Galadriel, who is, in some materials, described as being older than thesunnote as in, she can remember watching it rise for the first time ever, though the sun is relatively young (about 7000 years old at the time of the War of the Ring).
Círdan, described and only actually seen once, is the oldest Elf around and mentioned at the time of the War of the Ring. He was probably among the first to awaken of the elves at least 11,000 years prior to the War of the Ringnote depending on the conversion factor between Valian years and Solar years, for which Tolkien gave several different values, at the time of the War of the Ring, Cirdan may be over 70,000 (Solar) years old. He's old enough to have a long, white beard. Elves don't grow beards until their third cycle in life, each cycle takes a few millennia.
'Hurray!' cried Pippin, springing up. 'Here is our noble cousin! Make way for Frodo, Lord of the Ring!'
'Hush!' said Gandalf from the shadows at the back of the porch. 'Evil things do not come into this valley; but all the same we should not name them. The Lord of the Ring is not Frodo, but the master of the Dark Tower of Mordor, whose power is again stretching out over the world. We are sitting in a fortress. Outside it is getting dark.'
And later, the title of the Red Book of Westmarch, which is the supposed source for the whole book, is given as: "THE DOWNFALL OF THE LORD OF THE RINGS AND THE RETURN OF THE KING (as seen by the Little People; being the memoirs of Bilbo and Frodo of the Shire, supplemented by the accounts of their friends and the learning of the Wise.)"
Together in Death: Arwen chose a mortal fate (much like her ancestor Lúthien in The Silmarillion) so that she could die soon after Aragorn and follow his spirit out of the world.
To Serve Man: While the Orcs and Goblins do not condone cannibalism among themselves (or at the very least find it abhorrent), they are happy to eat Humans, Elves and Dwarves.
All of our real-world languages do not exist in Middle-earth, and so the common Translation Convention applies. When not convention-translated, names and speech make use of either Tolkien's constructed languages, or of a real-world language used as stand-in for a fictional one. The latter ones are not chosen randomly, but to represent the relation between the respective 'proper' languages, or a certain image. Languages regularly replaced by stand-in languages in the text are: "Westron" aka the "Common Speech" is always rendered as English (as it is the Third-Age-novel's POV-character's language), the Rohirric language by Anglo-Saxon aka Old English (to appear vaguely familiar to the hobbits' Westron-English), and the language used by the Dwarves and the Men of Dale by Old Norse. Information on the 'translation' and what these languages 'really' look like, can be found in various appendices and additional texts.
If you read the appendices you also find out that the "original language" version actually has features which influence the plot, but which are not rendered in the English "translation". One of such is the contributing factor to the rumor in Minas Tirith that Pippin was a Prince of high status and power: "Standard" Westron as used in Gondor has a T-V distinction, with different pronouns and modes of address used for formal speech (used between people of unequal status) and informal speech (used for social equals). Hobbits no longer have/use a formal address, instead always using the informal, so Pippin's informal address to Denethor made the listeners think he would have to be of high status indeednote Pippin was in fact of relatively high status among hobbits, being the only son of the Thain, the Shire's traditional military leader and the closest thing to a traditional feudal lord among hobbits, but common Gondorians didn't know that.. It's better implied in some of the foreign translations, in languages that do have formal and informal variations of "you" (e.g., in French translations, Pippin uses tu rather than vous).
Trapped on the Astral Plane: This is indicated to be Sauron's ultimate fate at the end of The Lord of the Rings. Technically he cannot really die until Arda itself is unmade by the creator God, but his second defeat and the destruction of the One Ring has reduced him to a powerless spirit unable to build another body for himself, still wandering the world but unable to influence it in any way. Meanwhile, his former boss Morgoth is trapped in the Void Between the Worlds outside Arda.
Took a Level in Badass: The main hobbit characters start out as mild-mannered rustics, and by the end have become some of the greatest heroes of the Age.
Treacherous Advisor: Gríma Wormtongue, to Théoden, having himself fallen under the influence of Saruman.
Trouble from the Past: If only Isildur had destroyed Sauron's ring when he had the chance. If only, if only, IF ONLY.
True Companions: The Fellowship of the Ring. The appendices only reinforce this; it's strongly implied that when Legolas finally sailed West, Gimli went with him, the only Dwarf ever to sail out of Middle-Earth.
There's a Greater-Scope Villain in the Back Story. Then again, Tolkien states that Sauron at the height of his power was more powerful, in a sense, than Morgoth during the War of the Jewels, as Sauron merely strove for "superficial" domination: an empire on the earth and control of the wills of others, while Morgoth wanted to control the very matter of the universe. Interestingly enough, he's not motiveless Evil Incarnate: his Start of Darkness was motivated by a desire for order and control, not destruction.
Depending on which version you favor, Morgoth started out far more powerful than Sauron but graually became weaker as he spent his power damaging the world. (At the start of The Silmarillion the combined powers of all the other gods/archangels can barely hold him off; but towards the end of the War of the Jewels one single Elf challenges him to a duel and manages to wound him seven times.)
Sauron at his height is more powerful because he's using the power of "Morgoth's Ring", that being the corrupted world itself. All of his armies are comprised of evil creatures that Morgoth spent his power in creating. Thus Sauron is adding Morgoth's power to his own, just like what would happen if someone else claimed the One Ring. The flip side to this, though, is that unlike Sauron, Morgoth can be imprisoned but not destroyed unless the entire world is destroyed.
Undead: The Nazgûl and the Dead of Dunharrow. The barrow-wights however, are evil spirits possessing the remains in the barrows, so are functionally undead.note Word of God suggests the spirits could be the ghosts of elves who rejected the authority of the Valar, and were instead enslaved by Sauron, making the barrow-wights fully undead, but there is room for doubt.
Underground City: Khazad-dûm, aka "the Mines of Moria," was one of the oldest and grandest Dwarven cities in existence until its inhabitants Dug Too Deep and awakened an angry and powerful Balrog.
Gandalf: "The courtesy of your hall is somewhat lessened of late, Théoden son of Théngel."
Unexpected Inheritance: Lobelia Sackville-Baggins has always been one of Bilbo and Frodo's least favorite relatives (in large part because of her greed and temper), and the feeling is mutual. When she dies some months after the Scouring of the Shire, Frodo is therefore surprised to find she's named him her sole heir (her husband died in the years between Frodo's thirty-third and fiftieth birthdays, and her only son Lotho was murdered by Wormtongue before Frodo's return), leaving him all her money to be used for helping the hobbits left homeless by the actions of Saruman, Wormtongue and Lotho.
The Unfavorite: Faramir, as Denethor openly prefers Boromir for being more loyal to him and having a better reputation in Gondor.
Unintentional Backup Plan: Gandalf and Aragorn's Batman Gambit pays off in getting the One Ring to Mount Doom, but the One Ring itself spans their plans by finally corrupting Frodo at the last crucial moment. Fortunately, Gollum shows up to take the ring for himself before accidentally falling into the volcano and destroying it.
Unishment: Aragorn's judgment of Beregond. To help save Faramir from his father's madness, Beregond abandoned his post as a member of the Tower Guard during the siege of Minas Tirith, and shed the blood of his comrades on the Rath Dínen when they attempted to force their way past him to carry out Denethor's will, all of which would have earned him a sentence of death in the past. Aragorn instead had the death sentence remitted in recognition of Beregond's valor during the subsequent Battle of the Morannon, and that his actions were out of his love for his Lord. He therefore decrees that Beregond would be removed from the Tower Guard and the City itself...in order to take up his post as Captain of the White Guard when Faramir departed to take up his posting as Prince of Ithilien.
When he recalls what Gandalf had said about Bilbo's mercy to Gollum: Then be not too eager to deal out death in the name of justice, fearing for your own safety. Even the wise cannot see all ends. What Gandalf had actually said was "Then do not be too eager to deal out death in judgment. For even the very wise cannot see all ends."
When he reminds Gollum of the true nature of the One Ring: One Ring to rule them all and in the darkness bind them. There was no such line in any verse; the closest thing would be the inscription on the Ring, which read "One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all and in the Darkness bind them."
Unstoppable Rage: After seeing Éowyn apparently dead on the Pelennor fields, Éomer takes up the Battle Cry of "Death! Death!" and he and his men become an unassailable force of vengeance for the rest of the battle.