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Culture Equals Costume

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"We then pan up to get a clear shot of the big shots on the catwalk, and here's what we find: 1) a guy wearing an American army general's uniform, 2) an obviously Russian woman wearing a big Cossack hat, 3) a Yasser Arafat-type with a kaffiyeh on his head, 4) a dead ringer for Fidel Castro, 5) a black guy in a dashiki, and finally, 6) a Japanese guy in a business suit. Nope, not one single stereotype in the whole bunch."

A Sub-Trope of Hollywood Dress Code which applies to ethnic and cultural backgrounds, occurring when works of fiction choose to put characters in the traditional (or stereotypical) costumes of their culture even when it would be rather unusual in Real Life. In some countries, people do indeed wear traditional clothes on a day-to-day basis, and in others, they may wear traditional clothes in certain circumstances, but some characters regularly show up wearing traditional clothes in situations where this is not applicable.

Reasons can vary. Sometimes, it's simply that the character in question is unorthodox, and it fits their personality or beliefs to wear it. Other times, it's more likely to be a case of ignorance on the part of the author, or maybe pandering to the Small Reference Pools. It is also a convenient way to invoke stereotypes, especially in days gone past. When you have lots of people from different cultures, it can be a quick way of pointing out that they're a diverse group — for example, Cosmopolitan Council members often dress in their stereotypical regional/national costumes. And sometimes, it's just the Rule of Cool coming into play (see Costume Porn).


Note that not all of the costumes featured in this trope are actually traditional costumes of the respective countries/peoples. Many costumes are stereotypical, but not actually traditional.

(As noted, there are actually places where traditional clothes are plausible — for example, India and parts of the Middle East. This shouldn't just be a list of characters in traditional costume — just cases where use of the traditional costume is noticeably unusual, whether it's justified or not.)

This trope is an important part in the portrayal of most countries featured in the Hollywood Atlas. Compare Overly Stereotypical Disguise.



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Specific flavors, for the sake of example:
  • Most Japanese women don't actually wear a kimono all the time, but that doesn't stop the occasional author from having their Japanese character treat them as casual day-wear: they're mainly for special occasions nowadays. The few women who still wear kimonos every day are mostly very old women.
    • These days, a lot of younger Japanese women don't even know how to tie the obi on a yukata. Clip-ons have become increasingly common.
  • Similarly, most Chinese women don't actually wear the qipao (AKA cheongsam in Hong Kong and often therefore the West) at all, let alone on a regular basis, but for some authors, that's just what Chinese women wear. This is acceptable in some settings though such as 1920s-1940s Shanghai or 1950s-1960s Hong Kong where the qipao was the daily wear for Chinese women. There are also Chinese restaurants and more than a few girls' schools in Hong Kong that have qipao as uniforms.
    • Some authors probably find the qipao to be sexy.
    • There is also the male equivalent of Changshan— THE look of all Elderly Kung Fu Teacher Archetypes.
    • Ironically, the qipao is actually based on Manchurian dress. A lot of the clothes thought of as stereotypically Chinese were forced on the Han on pain of death by the Manchu when they founded the Qing dynasty, including the long braid and shaved scalp, or queue, that men wore. Qing-dynasty clothing has been so heavily influential in molding the perception of "how Chinese people dress" that pre-Qing Chinese clothing is largely unfamiliar outside and even sorta inside China (though in recent years there's been a drive to re-popularize it). In stories, you only ever see it in pre-Qing settings, and sometimes not even then.
  • There was a time not so long ago when some authors put all their German stereotypes (and maybe their Swiss ones too) in lederhosen or dirndls on a regular basis in the honest belief that it was plausible. The pickelhaube also seems to be more common as an everyday clothing item than as military gear.
  • Similarly for the Spanish stereotypes, and so on.
    • South of the Border, everyone wears a sombrero and sarape and has a moustache. Due to the popular conception of Spexico, these two areas are often mixed. In reality, Mexicans don't wear sombreros or sarapes in everyday life. Some never wear them at all.
  • Every adult man from England from the 1860s through the 1960s, must wear a three-piece suit, including waistcoat (with pocket watch) and dome-top/derby/bowler hat, according to Hollywood. They all also carry large black umbrellas.
  • Hollywood also likes depicting French people wearing berets, even though few ever actually wear them. They also wear striped shirts about as frequently as anyone else does. However, the stereotypical French tourist (to the French) is the beauf: an obese man in sandals and shorts, a wifebeater, and one of those fishing hats with Ricard on it. Also a cigarette dangling from their mouth.
  • According to Hollywood, every Italian-American man either wears a fancy tailored suit, or a tank top and jeans (leather jacket if it's a winter scene). Even people who aren't "greasers" or "mobsters" will often be seen sporting one of these two looks. Mobsters will often trade the wife-beater for a wispy, loudly-colored tracksuit. There's the dark shirt/white tie combo worn by all 1940s era gangsters, as well.
  • To denote "Jew" in general, have them wear a yarmulke, or go all out and depict them in Chasidic or Ultra-Orthodox dress wearing all black, long beards, and long curling sideburns. While everyday dress for a small segment of Jews, the vast majority rarely even wear yarmulkes except in services, depending on how observant one is. Alternatively, Hollywood insists Jewish Americans in particular are partial to the argyle sweater vest with long sleeve button-down dress shirt and thick-rimmed glasses, which tends to overlap with Hollywood Nerd.
    • The origins of this are weird. Those huge black coats, fedoras/fur hats, and curling sidelocks actually originate in 17th-century Poland rather than the ancient Middle East. And the nerdy look? Nerd stereotypes partly originated from nasty stereotypes of Jews and East Asians. In other words: Jews and Asians are nerds by definition.
  • Russians always wear the stereotypical ushanka fur hat and a huge wool coat.
    • In real life, ushankas are part of military and police winter uniform. Civilians wear them too (though not everyone, as Hollywood may lead you to believe). "Ears" are almost always tied up, getting down only when it's very cold.
    • A Russian babushka ("grandmother") must wear a headscarf. In English, the headscarf will also be called a babushka (the actual Russian word for it is platok).
  • Hindus will invariably wear a Sikh turban no matter whether or not they are actually Sikhs. Weird, since Hinduism and Sikhism are entirely different religions and about the only thing they have in common is that they originated in India. Even though certain Hindus do wear turbans (E.g: Mahatma Gandhi in his early years) they are different from Sikh turbans, both in their make and method of wearing. Also, all Indian women wear saris all the time (which logically means anything vaguely traditional-looking worn by an Indian woman is a sari).
  • Go into any Arab country, from Africa to the Persian Gulf, and the men will wear headdresses no matter where they are, and expect women in hijab and figure-concealing dresses all over the place, if not burqas (although some authors will refer to whatever they wear as a burqa, even when it's clearly not). While Truth in Television to a certain extent, like the "Jewish" example above, Muslim men and women can dress in varied ways depending on how observant they are, where they live, and what branch of Islam they hail from.
    • In Ottoman times the fez was the choice headgear for fictional depictions of Muslims, especially Turks. Sometimes they're still shown, even though the fez fell out of favor in Turkey after World War I (though it is still worn in some other Muslim countries).
  • Canadians can't go anywhere without their toques and Mountie uniforms, eh?
    • Every Canuck goes to work in that Mighty Lumberjack style.
    • Ohmigod don't forget your nine sweaters and parka! It's freezing up there, right?
    • You mustn't forget that staple of light summer wear, the hockey jersey worn over jeans. A CFL jersey may substitute if your hockey jersey's in the wash or something.
  • Americans in general are less prone to this (partly because so much media is made by Americans), but the closest thing to a traditional American costume seems to be a cowboy outfit. The reasoning seems to be that most early American entertainment exports were Westerns, so other countries sensibly assumed that they were supposed to be representations of the contemporary US. Different regions of the US, however, often get this:
    • Californians are usually dressed like surfers, hippies, or valley girls.
    • Westerners and Texans get the cowboy hat, plaid jacket, blue jeans, and boots. Texan businessmen in media can wear suits, but even they they still need to wear it with a cowboy hat.
    • For Midwesterners, it's dusty denim overalls. Preferably with a plow or pitchfork in one hand to complete the look.
    • Southerners? For the women, it's super-short "Daisy Duke" denim shorts and a button-up shirt that's been tied instead of buttoned, baring her midriff. The men wear mostly the same clothes as the Midwesterners, only with even more of a "country bumpkin" look. Expect more wife-beaters and shirtlessness, though. The men wear caps or shirts with Confederate flags on them.
    • Obnoxious Americans abroad are portrayed as obese middle-aged men wearing Bermuda shorts, sandals with socks, and either Hawaiian shirts or touristy T-shirts/sweatshirts with loud writing on them. Sunglasses, stupid hat, camera and/or cell phone, and fanny pack complete the look.
    • In general, you can tell an American in fiction by their casual yet tasteful clothes: baseball cap, T-shirt, blue jeans (worn form-fitting, unless the character is a hoodlum), and sneakers. In reality, this tends to be truer of Los Angeles and cities and towns in the Midwest; people in other cities (New York, San Francisco, et. al.) often dress more stylishly, such as wearing three-piece suits or skirts and blouses even when not working.
  • Most Dutch people go through their daily life without ever wearing wooden clogs and/or mirrors in their hair.
  • Scots wear kilts on special occasions (weddings, funerals, football matches, barfights, etc, etc) and that's it. Despite this, it is a common belief that all Scottish men wear them all the time.
  • Indigenous North Americans are almost always shown with the Braids, Beads and Buckskins despite those aspects only applying to a couple out of literally hundreds of cultures across Canada, USA, and Mexico. If it's a modern setting and the buckskin look is too much, elements of cowboy clothes may be substituted.
  • Brazilians only wear fancy costumes (particularly the Carmen Miranda-like) during Carnival. And they do not wear tutti-frutti hats at all — that was a get-up of Carmen Miranda.
  • Apparently, All Asians Wear Conical Straw Hats.

    Anime & Manga 
  • Ranma ½ shows that it crops up in Japan as well.
    • The assorted Chinese characters are normally seen wearing some variation of stereotypically Chinese clothing. Ranma him/herself, despite being Japanese, also wears nothing but Chinese clothing (as well as a thin, tightly-braided pigtail) to emphasize the parallel to traditional Wuxia heroes.
    • Some of the Japanese characters get the same treatment. Soun and Genma (when he's human anyway) are normally seen wearing martial arts gi, and Nodoka is normally seen wearing a kimono to show how traditional she is.
  • No matter where in the world he is, Goemon Ishikawa XIII of Lupin III wears a kimono and hakama. Lupin once commented on how unusual it was for a modern Japanese man to be dressed in such an old-fashioned manner. Goemon calmly responded he was normal and the rest of the country had gone odd.
  • Dragon Ball:
    • The setting doesn't exactly correspond to any real-world country or culture, but with so many elements lifted from the Chinese story Journey to the West, many of the mainstay characters dress with a decidedly Chinese "feel": Tien, Gohan, Goten, Mercenary Tao, King Kai, Krillin, and Yamcha all sport different variations of changshan (in Tao and Kai's case, all the time), Mai and Oolong don Mao suits, and Chi Chi has an entire assortment of qipao. Prior to Z, most background characters also dressed in similar fashion.
    • Though not everything is Chinese-influenced. As an alternative, Majin Buu's character was inspired by Middle Eastern jinn and Arabian Nights, and was given clothes with a more vaguely Arabic aesthetic. The Destroyer Dieties even invoke the popular look of ancient Egyptian monarchs, which coincidentally fits twins Beerus and Champa, being actual cat gods.
  • In Hetalia: Axis Powers, most of the countries wear a standard military uniform that reflects their background, such as America wearing a bomber jacket, Russia with a long tan overcoat (based off an Imperial Army overcoat) or Japan in a Japanese Navy uniform.
  • Samurai Harem: Asu no Yoichi:
    • Angela Takatsukasa wears a qipao constantly, contrasted by Tsubasa, who just wants to be normal and refuses to wear anything that doesn't let her pretend to be so.
    • Yoichi wears something other than his samurai uniform for all of one chapter while on a 'practice date' where they get him a normal set of clothes. He switches back to his uniform afterwords.
  • In Hayate the Combat Butler, Isumi wears a kimono, even disdaining the school uniform to do so, depicting her use of 'hand soap'. In one chapter, she even tells another character she needs to go home and change (into another kimono) before meeting the new kitten. The depiction tosses a lampshade on such an event.

  • The Norman Rockwell painting The Golden Rule with all the people from all over the world. It seems to be a quick visual way of portraying diversity...through stereotypes. Poor guy just can't win these days.

    Comic Books 
  • Tintin: Thompson and Thomson's idea of "incognito" is the traditional costume of wherever they go. Which looks ridiculous in day-to-day life. They sometimes don't even get the country right: they show up in Syldavia (a Central European country) in traditional Greek clothes. Into a space base no less.
    Thomson: Greek costumes? But we specifically ordered the tailor to make us Syldavian ones...
    Thompson: I told you he didn't seem very bright.
  • A token Islamic member of the X-Men, Sooraya Qadir, code name Dust, wore a full-body black abaya. Her "burqa" (as it was often incorrectly referred to) was often drawn as very form-fitting, which is not how it's supposed to be worn, and unfortunately her characterization under most writers starts and ends with her religion, though some at least had the sense to have her say that she wore it by choice and not because anyone was forcing her.
    • On a similar note, in Ms. Marvel (2014), Kamala's friend Nakia chooses to observe hijab of her own free will, despite her Turkish family being relatively liberal with regards to customs. Similarly, Kamala's brother Aamir almost always dresses in traditional apparel due to being very devout of his faith - the only time he wears something else is for a job interview when he puts on a three-piece suit. Kamala herself is more liberal with her choice of clothing, such as keeping her head uncovered most of the time (she does wear headscarves when required, such as at the mosque) and wearing urban styles, but she does observe hijab in that she dresses modestly, even as a superheroine. Of course, one of the ideas of the comic is that there are all kinds of walks of life within Islam, and some are more observant than others, in such a way that the point isn't as on-the-nose as one would expect.
  • In Sunnyville Stories, the Tanuki family, operators of the town's restaurant, is Japanese; the mother and daughter both wear kimonos while the father wears a happi coat.
  • In Watchmen, the mysterious Hooded Justice is a closeted-gay mass of muscle who openly supports the Klu Klux Klan and the Nazi party and is theorized to be a circus strongman in his "day job" (that last part is never confirmed). His costume a Klan-like hood, tight ropes reminiscent of bondage, and a circus-like cape.
  • The retired Astro City hero El Hombre wore a costume modeled after a very streamlined matador.
  • In W.I.T.C.H. and its animated adaptation Yan Lin commonly wears the hanfu. Justified because she's an old lady (in her fifties in the animated adaptation, unspecified but older in the comic books) and noted to be quite eccentric, and she likely does it to stand out among the other inhabitants of Heatherfield's Chinatown (who wear western clothing).
    • Done subtly at Yan Lin's funeral: as the defunct and most of the attendants are Chinese, they wear white clothes (as white is the color associated with death in Chinese and many other East Asian cultures). Even Hay Lin's friends, who are not of Chinese descent, are seen wearing white out of respect.
    • Both of Hay Lin's Guardian outfits and the one worn by Yan Lin are based on Chinese clothing: the traditional Qipao for Hay Lin (with the second being as close as possible to one while still making it a two-piece) and the tangzhuang for her grandmother (who was actually born in China and lived there for a while).

    Films — Live-Action 
  • Armageddon had the Russian astronaut wear an ushanka hat and Born in USSR t-shirt. On a space station. To be honest, he was called a little weird.
  • In the Harry Potter films:
    • Kingsley Shacklebolt, who wears robes patterns after the traditional West African Dashiki, which makes him stand out considerably from the other adult characters dressed in Victorian-esque fashion.
    • In Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire: Parvati and Padma wear Lehenga cholis to the Yule Ball.
    • Also, Cho Chang wore a silver formal qipao to the Yule Ball. This and the above example are justified in that they were dressing for the Ball. Though in the book they just wore regular dresses.
    • The male students from Durmstrang wore thick fur coats and capes. Karkaroff and Viktor Krum even wore ushanka fur hats (though the latter are technically not Bulgarian. Also, Bulgaria is quite hot in comparison to Russia).
  • In the Czech movie Adele Hasn't Had Her Dinner Yet, a loving parody of early 20th-century pulp detective fiction, American detective Nick Carter is called to solve a case in Prague in the first decade of the 20th century. For this, he puts on a traditional Bohemian peasant's costume patterned after the color plate in an encyclopedia. This of course makes him look comically out of place in what was a very modern European metropolis at the time.
  • The "United World" council in the original Batman: The Movie (1966) is a bit more subtle with this trope than you'd expect, but even if the delegates didn't talk (all in their native languages, too, which makes it impossible for them to understand one another!), you could still tell who was who in a few cases: the Englishman wears a bow tie and has a handlebar moustache, the Russian is in a Red Army uniform, and the delegate from Nigeria is wearing a dashiki. (The American, meanwhile, wears Nerd Glasses and talks like a character from an old B-movie.)
  • The first Austin Powers movie has a similar UN scene, which includes a delegate from Spain dressed as a bullfighter.

  • Discworld parodies this trope:
    • In Jingo, a group of ambassadors to Ankh-Morpork are described thusly:
      They wore their national costumes, but since by and large their national costumes were what the peasants wore they looked slightly out of place in them. Their bodies wore feathers and silks, but their minds persistently wore suits.
    • In Pyramids, a group of diplomats from Tsort attempt to wear "traditional" Djelibeybian attire. The problem is that Djelibeybian tradition goes back millennia:
      if a foreign ambassador to the Court of St. James wore (out of a genuine desire to flatter) a bowler hat, a claymore, a civil war breastplate, Saxon trousers and a Jacobean haircut, he'd create pretty much the same impression.
  • Exploited by the Scottish regiment in McAuslan, on the grounds that it makes the Arabs sit up and pay attention. Truth in Television, actually.
  • Irene in the Belisarius Series attended an Indian monarch's court as ambassador dressed in the absurdly hot robes of a Byzantine noblewoman. Her reasoning is that making a good diplomatic impression is worth a little sweat.

    Live-Action TV 
  • Played with in the Doctor Who story "Terror of the Zygons", when the only people who dress in stereotypically Scottish clothing to fit in are the Doctor and the Brigadier. The Brigadier has some Scottish blood ("I am Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart! Of the clan 'Stewart'!") but is very much not Scottish otherwise, and the Doctor is... the Doctor.
  • Costumes play a big part of The Amazing Race; locals hired to run tasks and pit stop greeters will usually be in traditional costumes, and often racers will be put in costume as part of a task. Averted for everyone else the racers encounter.
  • The Singaporean talk show It's A Small World, done entirely in Mandarin, involves several foreigners now living in Singapore, going from honing their Mandarin in the first season to discussing their culture after that. All the 'students' dress in outfits unique to their culture in order to distinguish them (the season 3 finale has the Israeli Amit Gilboa complain that he's been mistaken for the Romanian Adrian Rusu), which works out okay in some cases (the Japanese Yasui Akemi in a kimono and both Korean ladies in hanboks), but some overly stereotypical ones include the American Michael Blanding as a cowboy, even though he's actually a New Yorker, and Pretty Fly for a White Guy.
    • Of special note, the third season adds the English Innes Bridges (a mixed-parentage young lady who also goes by her Chinese Name Qiao Yi Ming as recording artiste), who started out in a very generic Morris-dancer-ish dress, which in later eps has been replaced with a dress straight out of the Prince William wedding. Complete with funny little hat. There's a Call-Back later on as Innes mentions that England is so old that they have no record of their own Independence Day, and they wind up treating major events such as the Charles and Diana wedding or — you guessed it — the William and Kate wedding with the same magnitude as a national event.
  • Tyr in Andromeda regularly wears a chainmail tank-top, presumably to announce that he is a Nietzschean. Nietzschean dress in general tends towards militaristic and minimal, though few take in quite to Tyr's extremes.
  • In The Twilight Zone episode "Five Characters in Search of an Exit" one of the people trapped in the featureless prison is a Scotsman in full tartan regalia and carrying a bagpipe. Justified in that all the characters are dolls, and that's probably how he would have been represented in the early 60s.

    Print Media 
  • Spoofed in a MAD Magazine installment of "100 Worst Things About...", with this one being "100 Worst Things About Sports." They complain about how stereotypical regional mascots can be, usually to the point of depicting some unusual native animal that wouldn't ever be seen otherwise, and joke that if Paraguay ever hosted the Olympics, they'd probably have a character named "Sammy the Sloth" in the international parade.

    Pro Wrestling 
  • Alex Koslov dons an ushanka before performing a Cossack dance (kick you in the head, double stomp to the face, now you dead).
  • Hiroko, the wife of Japanese wrestler Kenzo Suzuki, always wore white face-powder and a kimono.
  • Averted by most Mexican wrestlers in non-Latin American promotions nowadays, but in ages past, they did appear wearing sombreros and sarapes. More recently, Super Crazy did wear costumes with Mexican national colors and symbols on them.
  • Back when he was pretending to be from France (he's actually Canadian), Rene Dupree sported what was probably the most obnoxiously "French" facial hair in the history of mankind (thankfully, he eventually shaved). He also starting bringing Fifi, a French poodle in full lion clip, to the ring with him.
  • Muhammad Hassan wore a kaffiyeh during his short run in WWE (despite being from Detroit, Michigan).
  • A strange subversion was Mr. Fuji, who during his managing days dressed like a stereotypical Englishman (probably as a nod to Oddjob).

    Theme Parks 
  • The "It's A Small World" ride at Disneyland does this.
  • So does "Carnival Festival" at Efteling.

    Web Comics 
  • Collar 6 had Sixx tell Laura about the major global powers of their world. Each nation was represented by a woman in a fetishized version of some type of clothing stereotypically seen as characteristic of the region.
  • In Mahou Shounen Fight!, all of the main character's transformed selves are modeled from their culture's stereotypical associations: Mike the American being a Cowboy, Oliver the Brit being a knight, Yuki the Japanese being a Samurai etc.

    Western Animation 
  • Played with in a King of the Hill where Hank has to entertain a prospective propane client from Boston. The client expects Hank to look more like a stereotypical cowboy and has it in his head that all "real" Texans dress like that all the time, so Hank has to wear cowboy boots and a hat, much to his chagrin and extreme discomfort, as he has chubby toes that make wearing boots rather painful. In the end, Hank had enough, since the client doesn't even care about the deal.
  • Averted with Rolf from Ed, Edd n Eddy, who only wears traditional costumes when some festival or ritual demands it. Of course, this is Rolf, so "Once per Episode" isn't that much of an exaggeration.
  • Totally Spies! had an auditorium full of Russians in which every single person was wearing the same fur hat.
  • An episode of The Simpsons takes this Up to Eleven by showing a televised national beauty pageant in which all of the girls are costumed in a way that stereotypically references their home state (so that Miss Indiana, for instance, is wearing a Hot Wheels race track as a belt).
  • Helga's nanny Inga on Hey Arnold! had a Scandinavian traditional-looking costume the entire time and even made Helga wear it.
  • Turned up to ridiculous levels on Kick Buttowski with Gunther's family and his home-country, considering they're Vikings. When we finally do see his home-country in a half-hour episode, every single person is dressed in a Viking get-up, which proves that Gunther's parents weren't just doing it for the theme of their restaurant (even though they have been seen with normal get-ups outside of work).
  • Miraculous Ladybug: Both times she gets akumatized, Kagami ends up with a form that references her Japanese heritage — as Riposte, she's dressed in samurai armor and a kabuto helmet, and as Oni-Chan, she's dressed up as...well, an Oni.

    Real Life 
  • As noted, there are countries and cultures in which traditional clothes are still commonly worn. The best-known example would have to be the Japanese, where the kimono and all those other variants mistaken for kimonos have been pretty much integrated into contemporary culture.
  • See also the Miss Universe pageant.
  • The Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam almost always wore Western suits, but when receiving his Nobel Prize wore a traditional achkan, shalwar, and turban — especially significant as he was the first Pakistani and the first Muslim laureate (although most mainstream Muslims view Ahmadiyyas (of which Salam was one) as heretics).
  • An interesting trend with Muslims is that they tend to dress up far more traditionally when they move to a Western country than they did back home. This has got to do with the culture shock and certain ethnic pride, as faced with discrimination they want to show that they are not intimidated by it. As such Western tourists visiting the Middle-East can find that many places look remarkably Westernized compared to the exotic-looking immigrants back at home.
  • Iranian former President Mohammad Khatami, who, as a Muslim cleric, usually wore a mullah's uniform (black robe and black turban) during public appearances, when interviewed by Italian TV station donned a completely black Western-style suit including the shirt, necktie, and shoes... plus turban.
  • Imperial Japan switched quickly away from Western-style uniforms and trappings during the pre-war buildup, as it can be seen in the portraits of Admiral Yamamoto in 1919 and 1941.
  • A lot of Russians really do wear ushankas. Their climate leaves few other choices.
  • Many people wear cultural garb on formal occasions. You see plenty of brightly colored robes on visiting African dignitaries at embassy receptions, for example.
  • Although most South Pacific islands have it bad, the media portrayal of the island of Papua New Guinea is just... Bad. Documentaries and the like have a tendency to show the people in loincloths, face paint, and headdresses, often conducting tribal rituals. In reality, western clothes are universally worn, and since almost the entire country is Christian, people mostly wear traditional dress to perform at province festivals.
  • We're a Culture Not a Costume. The purpose of the poster-ad campaign was to discourage people from wearing culturally insensitive Halloween costumes. The internet has had a bit of fun with this.
  • A number of British officers in the nineteenth century thought old-style red coats had advantages over khaki in making a psychological impression on their enemies in colonial warfare.
  • Each one of China's 55 officially recognized minority has its own official costume, and they are so well characterized that they are fewer costumes and more uniforms (it is common for a member of a minority to show up to state functions in their ethnic costume, like how a Scotsman generally goes to Buckingham Palace in a kilt).
  • In Texas and other parts of the west, cowhands do still dress like movie cowboys. Even in the cities, some people integrate cowboy flare into either their everyday clothes or more commonly dress outfits.


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