Franchises that use this ready-made model of Dwarfdom
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Record of Lodoss War had a handful of dwarf characters. The most notable was Ghim from the first series, who played the role of Older and Wiser mentor to the hero, Parn; he was grumpy, fought with an axe, had a beard, and possessed incredible stamina, like you expect from a dwarf.
The sequel, Chronicles of the Heroic Knight, introduced a dwarf priest named Father Greevas, who subverted the trope by being quiet, gentle, and fatherly, with a bowl-cut and goatee instead of the standard bushy beard.
Kiryu's Infernity Dwarf in Yu-Gi-Oh! 5Ds is, other than the fact that he's a Dark Monster, pretty much a dwarf. (The burning axe was added for the card game version later.)
Outbreak Comany which is set in an alternate "Tolkeinesque" world uses stock standard male dwarves. Subverted for the female dwarves as they resemble anime lolis.
Dwarves have appeared sporadically in Magic: The Gathering, though the game designers seem not to like them much. They live in the mountains and like to fight so they belong to the Red color/philosophy, but the stoic and orderly culture of traditional fantasy dwarves is more White, not to mention how goblins hog all the slots for person sized red creatures, so they're sort of an odd race out. MtG did shake up the usual dwarf formula in the Odyssey block, where the dwarves were portrayed as passionate artisans and warriors with a strong affinity for fire magic. Later in the game's history, the kithkin in Lorwyn were portrayed as sort of a cross between hobbits (which is what they were originally intended to be called) and dwarves, combining the Little Folk's general smallness and pastoral living with the Stout Folk's tenacity and well-organized communal defense; the kithkin become even more dwarflike in Shadowmoor, where they have abandoned their country villages for heavily fortified castles and become rabidly xenophobic.
The Eventide expansion to the Shadowmoor block added actual dwarves known as duergar, with affinities for both white and red, and modified the design of dwarves to axe the hair and make them up more pasty. These creepy dwarves are based on the folklore of Britain.
J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings is the origin of the trope. Interestingly, in an attempt to make them sound fundamentally different from other races, Tolkien's Dwarvish language is constructed along the lines of the Semitic languages; none of them ever speak with a Scottish or Welsh accent at all. When you combine the quasi-Semitic language with their lost homeland and usual status as a minority in lands ruled by other races, many writers have compared them to analogues to the Jews (an allusion that also comes up in the Discworld series). Tolkien himself alluded to the idea in response to allegations that it was a negative depiction; he was particularly sympathetic given the time he was alive. His dwarves are different from dwarfs of folklore and fairy tales primarily in that a lot of them are warriors in addition to being miners and craftsmen. They of course, pay tribute to their roots, being quite Nordic in culture (Rohirrim are primarily Saxon-land-Vikings, an Gondor has a Nordic vibe too), and having names stolen from the Poetic Edda. A thing that Tolkien long regretted as it forced him to come up with an explanation why a Real-world language such as Old Norse would exist in a Fantasy world.
He at least hand-waived the in-universe dichotomy between their quasi-Semitic language and their decidedly non-Semitic names in one of the appendices (or in The Silmarillion): the dwarven names are actually pseudonyms dwarves use when in contact with any non-dwarves, never mentioning their true names. This is due to their secretive nature especially when names and language are concerned: Khuzdul (the dwarven tongue) is only spoken in purely dwarven communities and never revealed to an outsider — with all others, they speak the Common Tongue and, depending on region, other dominant regional human languages. In-universe, there are only two or three non-dwarves in history who learned the language. In the case of the names, it apparently went even further, since even Balin's tomb in Moria (which can safely be assumed as having been a dwarf-only community) bears an inscription in Khuzdul, which gives his name as Balin — even on a tombstone among his own people, his true name is not recorded.
Tolkien's background notes reveal the reason Dwarves are so different from the other races: that they were made by Aulė, one of the Valar — not Eru Ilśvatar himself, although after the fact Eru gave them the spark of free will that Aulė couldn't provide. Since he knew that Morgoth was loose in the world, Aulė designed the Dwarves to be able to resist suffering and evil — a fact that came in handy millennia later, when Sauron offered them seven golden Rings of Power — which they took, but unlike the Nine Rings given to Men (which corrupted them, gave them a painful immortality, and bound them to Sauron), the Seven Rings were only capable of making the already-greedy Dwarf-Lords even greedier. While this indirectly led to the ruin of all of the Dwarf settlements/mines, the Dwarves still managed to recover quite well.
The Chronicles of Narnia features dwarfs, but depicts them as a race that is almost Always Chaotic Evil. While there are good dwarves (the "red dwarfs"), who are grumpy but good-natured, the majority of them (the "black" ones) are ruthless, greedy, traitorous bastards. The black dwarfs eventually renounce Aslan's existence, and are duly punished with being blind/insane and abandoned to grovel away at each other (they are, of course, Lewis's allegory for atheists).
Interestingly, many black dwarves resemble Mongol raiders in the movie adaptation.
A brief mention in Gnomes by Wil Huygen and Rein Poortvliet. Quote: "An almost extinct species of the male sex." (Could there be a connection there?) "Height 1 metre 20 cm, often smaller. Can still be found in the middle of inhospitable forests and in the mountains. They dig for gold and silver in extensive mines; they are masters of metalwork. They are good-natured except for a solitary few who are capable of ugly deeds. If a dwarf falls into human hands, he buys his freedom with gold. They do not have beards."
David Weber's Bahzell trilogy has dwarves. Heavy emphasis on mining and living underground, technology better than anyone else's, and an absurd emphasis on family and clan that no other race can even follow.
Discworld plays with the trope (when doesn't it?)—wherefore see a partly overlapping discussion in the Literature folder under "Parodies and radically different versions" below—by having this as the traditional Dwarven image that most Dwarfs aspire to, but many were born and raised in cities and work in factories.
This is partly a parody of the way that an ethnic group will rhapsodise the old country more as they get further away from it. No-one in Scotland habitually wears tartan, for instance. Thus, it's noted that dwarfs who led quiet and respectable lives in the mountain mines reach Ankh-Morpork and are seized by a compulsion to dress in armour, carry battle-axes and drink like crazy.
Further, extremely fundamentalist dwarfs attempt to never emerge aboveground. If they're ever forced to, they wear garments that completely envelop them so they don't have to look at sunlight; the in-story explanation for the outfit, aside from the fact that they abhor sunlight because of beliefs established in their folklore, is that it's a ceremonial version of the protective clothing worn by dwarfs who do the important but extremely deadly job of dealing with gas pockets in mines; originally, the dwarfs who occupied this position in society would have been members of this profession who survived long enough to retire.
Though, when you catch that the headgear comes to a point, you see a nice allusion to Klan-wear. Especially when one of the deep-dwellers likes to give speeches on how it isn't murder if its a troll.
Pratchett also subverts the trope with dwarf characters such as Casanunda, the world's second greatest lover (We Try Harder), and Hwel, the Discworld Shakespeare. Also Carrot, the seven-foot dwarf (by adoption), and the openly female Cheery/Cheri Littlebottom.
To explain, Discworld Dwarves take the 'Females have beards' thing even further. All Dwarves are considered male unless otherwise specified. And they only specify otherwise to their spouse, and even then only after a lengthy courtship (as in decades). For Cheri to act and dress openly female on duty is like a Human police officer turning up to work in lingerie. And even in her case, "act and dress openly female" mainly means putting rhinestones on her axe holster, wearing chainmail fitted like lingerie, and grooming her beard differently.
She also wears a leather skirt, welds heels onto her boots and drinks sherry instead of beer.
Also, a nod to the 'craftsman' stereotype in that they are good at any craft. Mostly the typical metalworking and stoneworking, but they are very good at anything. In particular they are as good at baking as they are at metalwork and stonecarving. However, their bakery is mostly good for weaponry. They grind down rocks to make the flour. The best way to enjoy Dwarfbread is to keep it uneaten, so that any other food will taste good by comparison. The "Scottish" stereotype is brought up here as the Low King (low being better than high for a mining people) of the Dwarves being crowned on the Scone of Stone. In Scotland, Kings were always crowned on a giant stone called the Stone of Scone (pronounced Skoon) because it was held in Scone Abbey, Perthshire.
They also practically monopolize the cosmetics industry, most likely because they have real chemistry instead of alchemy..
Dwarf folklore is an interesting deviation; it holds that dwarfs and trolls are diametric opposites and will forever hate each other. Thud! takes it a step further by introducing what may be the oldest of dwarf folklore, the story of the creation of dwarf, man, and troll. The story goes that Tak, a very laid-back not-quite-deity ("Tak doesn't require that we think of Him, only that we think") created a stone egg in a cave, which hatched and released two brothers; one left the cave and found the things that made him man, while the other ventured deeper within and found the things that made him dwarf. Then, unbeknownst to Tak, the stone egg came to life and became a troll, but without Tak's blessing, it was an agonized half-life, without thought, creation, or virtue, such that killing it is not murder, but mercy (the citation when this story is first told mentions that in the original document, the passage about trolls appears to have been added later by a second author). Later, we're given a new version of the troll passage; Tak did notice the egg trying to come to life, and he was overjoyed by it, giving it the last little push it needed to become a troll (this one was recited by a pair of diplomats trying to establish peace between trolls and dwarfs, and insofar as either version belongs with the rest of the story, this is probably the one, considering the book's message).
Dwarves of Inheritance Cycle are polytheistic and devoutly religious people who pretty much play the trope straight in all other respects. Paolini makes a point of mentioning dwarf women, but doesn't detail much about how they differ from dwarf men. They have some cities underground, but also some aboveground, even with a Lampshade Hanging when Eragon is surprised to find that Dwarves have open surface cities just like everyone else, and a dwarf tells him that they like the open air as much as anyone else. They also have seven toes, and two dwarves hold a bet on whether or not humans actually have only five toes. According to history, they are the oldest of sentient races, and lived in Alagaesia before the elves or humans arrived.
The dwarves of Guy Gavriel Kay's The Fionavar Tapestry pretty much fit the mould except for the One-Gender Race, and the one dwarven main character being more of a The Quiet One. Dwarf women in Fionavar are sylph-like and graceful; as one character admits to herself, she should no more reasonably expect them to look like their men any more than she herself resembles her male companions.
Kage Baker may have slightly different dwarves in the "Company" series, although they are more a subspecies (or rare parent species??) of humans. They are partway between Tolkien-standard elves and Tolkien-standard dwarves: small, cranky, subterranean, and complete geniuses of invention; but pale, shy, and weak.
In The Death Gate Cycle, on the world of Pryan, Dwarves are played straight. On Chelestra, they're less xenophobic and more friendly, especially in regards to other races. And on Arianus, they live in devotion to something called the Kicksey-Winsey Machine, which their entire lives revolve around. They're dead on Abarrach (where they are primarily remembered as the mortal race that survived longest in that miserable realm.)
Dwarves in the Harry Potter books at least follow the blunt-speaking and stolid parts, which caused Hilarity To Ensue when Gilderoy Lockhart hired a bunch of surly dwarves for Valentine's Day. Lockhart dressed them up like cupids and set them up working as letter-carriers, which they did not seem to enjoy and nor did anyone else, least of all the other teachers. However, that's the only major appearance of dwarves in the entire series.
Tad Williams' Memory Sorrowand Thorn trilogy features two races that could qualify as Dwarves, both of whom (intentionally) avert the typical stereotypes. The Qanuc are actually referred to as Trolls and borrow many aspects of Inuit culture while living in snowy mountains and taming sheep for mounts. They do brew a mean liquor, though. On the other hand, the branch of the Tinukeda'ya that went underground became known as Dwarrows — superb stonemasons and crafters, they were once the artisans of the Sithi and helped build many of their great cities, but had a falling out over their treatment as little more than slaves. They are most definitely not warlike, shrinking from any sort of combat and trying their best to stay out of the grand conflict with the Storm King. However, when provoked, they are fearsome fighters due to their strength and endurance from millennia of delving in the earth.
Markus Heitz's Dwarves manages to play this trope perfectly straight, yet gives each character enough Character Development to be an effective character, rather than just the trope. Not surprising, since all main characters are dwarves.
Invoked in the Council Wars series. Dwarfs are humans who have used advanced technology to deliberately change themselves into the standard representation of Fantasy Dwarves.
Notably averted in Terry Brooks' Shannara series. Brooks's dwarves not only live above ground, they hate being underground or in caverns, and are famous for their gardeners and foresters. Though they are also noted as the greatest builders in the world, creating intricate bridges and a massive collection of locks and dams to control the seasonal flooding of the Silver River.
While detesting being underground and their love of woodlands separates them from the norm, other than that they play this trope straight, especially when it comes to being The Big Guy in any group they're in.
Alexey Pehov's The Chronicles Of Siala series has bog-standard dwarves, except they wouldn't be seen dead in a beard (to avoid looking like gnomes).
The dwarves get very little "screentime" in The Sundering, but don't appear to deviate from the standard model very much, which is not surprising given that the story intentionally resembles The Lord of the Rings a great deal. There does seem to be a link to plants, but this isn't really explored in any depth.
In Chris Evans Iron Elves trilogy Sergeant Yimt is a Boisterous BruiserSergeant Rock. The only other dwarf met in the series is a veteran turned unscrupulous merchant. Dwarves were once enslaved by the Empire and brought to it from across the sea, resulting in a a racial claustrophobia of being inside ships. Due to the racial habit of chewing crute, a metal infused spice, most Dawrves are literally Made of Iron, or at least their bones are. While they do use axes other common weapons are the drugar, whose description sounds a lot like a machete, and the shatterbow, a cross between a crossbow and a shotgun that fires explosive bolts.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, "dwarf" is a medical condition, not a species (in other words, like Real Life), making it a case of Our Dwarves are Different. The only really prominent one is Tyrion Lannister, who doesn't particularly fit any of the Tolkienesque dwarf stereotypes (well, other than being short and liking booze).
Well... he does fight surprisingly fiercely with an axe (not to mention that crossbow...), grows something you could call a beard, makes a big deal about Casterly Rock and its gold mines being his rightful inheritance, drinks heavily, has trouble controlling his temper, holds grudges like nobody else, mistakes a female dwarf for a male one, and gets snuck past the wall of a merchant's mansion in a barrel...
The Witcher series may differ considerably from the Medieval European Fantasy archetype, but the Dwarves are still all the same. Short, broad and muscled, have a high tendency to be blacksmiths. The only difference is that they're second-class citizens and may sympathize and collaborate with Elves to the Humans Fantastic Racism against "Otherlings."
They do have a few notable differences from the norm. Sure, they're skilled craftsmen, but in this world that speciality goes to the gnomes. Dwarves are known to be shrewd and cunning businessmen, and many prominent Dwarven characters are bankers. There's also a law firm run by Dwarves that specialised in winning cases by making witnesses disappear and arranging mysterious 'accidents' for the enemies of its clients.
In Rebecca Lickiss's Eccentric Circles Malraux is friendly and hospitable but gruff. He later explains that he's caught in the fantasy cliche and doesn't even like mining but he's a dwarf and that's what they do.
In The Dwarves of Whiskey Island, the titular dwarves are pretty standard flavor; they give the accent, horned helmets, and axes a miss, but keep all the other standard traits.
Averted comedically in Grailblazers by Tom Holt. Toenail the dwarf (brother Hangnail, cousin Chillblain) is about 3 feet tall, clean-shaven, and decidedly not a warrior. He goes and hides in baskets or under tables when trouble threatens. Dwarves in general are servants to the knightly class; they're the ones who clean the floor and polish the armor. They are also extremely clever at solving puzzles, riddles, and crosswords; since they're too short to reach the pool table and too weak to throw darts, that's all they have to do at the pub on their nights off.
Live Action TV
The Seven Dwarves in Once Upon a Time. Grumpy gets the most screen time for some reason and fits the trope to a T.
Later appearances of the dwarves in the series show some more unusual characteristics, one of which is the fact dwarves aren't born, they're hatched in eggs.
Norse Mythology — here's where it all started. Though they were somewhat varied, the basics of common lore goes back to mythology. The long beards, skilled at metallurgy, lived in caves, etc. They also turned to stone (sometimes temporarily, sometimes not) when exposed to sunlight. There was also discrepency amongst how long they lived, some myths had them be an adult at three years old and an old man by nine, some myths had them always looking old but being immortal. They had coal-black hair, extremely pale skin, actually were a type of elf and were human-sized at first, but Memetic Mutation changed them a lot even during the Viking era. By the late Middle Ages, they were much closer to the Dwarves we'd recognize today. In Norse Mythology, dwarves were originally endoparasites. Like tapeworms, living in the intestines of some of the first giants.
In one version, they first appeared as maggots in the corpse of Ymir, whose body was then made to form the earth itself. In this light, the stated origin for the dwarves seems an appropriate metaphor, what with their penchant for tunneling and living beneath the surface of the earth.
Marvel Comics' use of the Norse Mythos (via the super-hero The Mighty Thor) have Dwarves that look like the modern model but otherwise are more like their ancient inspiration. In effect, they are cave-dwelling magical gadgeteers.
Tapeworms aside, it should be mentioned that they usually appeared as cave-dwellers forging weapons and jewelry. Sometimes with remarkable results. It was cavedwelling dwarves who made Thor's hammer (always hits, destroys its target, returns to the user), Odin's spear (always hits its target), Freya's necklace (shining like the sun), and the nine golden rings (give birth to new rings). Thus the legend of the stunted master forgers in the mountains was born.
Experts in germanic mythology actually believe dwarves began as chthonic death related spirits, which makes the maggot origins and synonimity with the dark elves all the more evident.
Dungeons & Dragons — not surprising, given how much it was originally based on Tolkien. There's other differences as well.
One widely used D&D addition is the idea that Dwarves are inherently more resistant to magic, being that they're all stolid and stony like the earth and all. Yet in the original myths, dwarves produced all manner of magical artifacts for the Aesir. Even Tolkien's dwarves managed to make mithril, the local Unobtainium. That said, they were resistant to The Corruption.
Seemingly because they love gold and cunning more than they love power.
Interestingly, the Races of Stone Supplement for 3.5 provides a special Prestige Class that allows the casting of spells in armor, providing a description that's best summed up as "Nobody thinks there's any Dwarven Wizards because they wear Armor like the rest of the Dwarves". Of course, this is still entirely fitting with this trope.
D&D has shown an interesting evolution in the question of Dwarven females. In the oldest editions, the race was essentially monogendered. Later on their women became more feminine — but still had luxurious beards. In the latest edition they just look like very muscular Halfling lasses — albeit generally Bad Ass ones.
Even Eberron — the setting that brought you good undead, necromancer elves, intelligent giants (granted that's ancient history), removed alignment restrictions, among other things — cannot escape this. Its dwarves are the same, with the exception of House Kundarak who are bankers instead of smiths or miners. Though if this articleby Keith Baker himself is to be believed, the Neogi (Who look like a cross between a wolf spider and a moray eel) were actually formerly dwarves altered by the Daelkyr.
Forgotten Realms with its dazzling level of diversity and details subverts this trope a few times with sub-races like the wild dwarves and arctic dwarves, plus Gray Dwarves (duergar). Shield dwarves and gold dwarves are closer to the stereotype, as a beard-combing grimly determined Proud Warrior Race Guy is never too far. Gold dwarves tend to be tradition-bound, suspicious, greedy, obscenely rich and almost as haughty as elves, though trade with humans and other folk a lot. Shield dwarves are split. Some are "The Hidden", isolationist clans. Most are "The Wanderers" who got a clue from all those empty clanholds that dwarves aren't too far from extinction, and see interacting with the world proactively as they duty. These are borderline Boisterous Bruiser sort, allying with anyone up to elves and half-orcs if necessary, adventuring, working as smith in non-dwarven cities. They are fairly traditional, but marry whoever they like including humans, gnomes or halflings instead of checking exact age, social status and opinions of all elders in both clans before starting a family.
Dragon Lance played with the trope a bit. They had the Hylar, Niedhar, and Daewar clans of dwarves, all of which were in the general neighborhood of Lawful Good, and the Daergar, who were Lawful Evil. But they also had the Thiewar, a Chaotic Evil, magic-loving clan, and the Klar, a clan with insanity in their genetics, making them Chaotic Neutral when not being manipulated by the Daergar and Thiewar. Which, sadly, happened a lot.
Mystara uses this trope 100% straight with its Rockhome dwarves, then subverts it with their Kogolor predecessors, who lived aboveground and mostly raised goats for a living.
The classic supplement The Dwarves of Rockhome goes out of its way to justify the trope by explaining the modern dwarves' backstory, which they themselves don't generally know: after the Blackmoor civilization in its wisdom accidentally wiped itself out in a quasi-nuclear cataclysm that tilted the very axis of the planet, the Immortal Kagyar — not so coincidentally the patron of craftsmen — took some of the few surviving Kogolors and turned them into a new race highly resistant to poison and radiation (and incidentally magic as well) and with a predilection for living underground so that even if a similar disaster should strike the world again, dwarven culture and its achievements would be able to survive in spite of it. Thus, dwarven underground cities essentially serve double duty as a potential fallout shelters for their inhabitants.
It also plays with the idea that dwarves are always craftsmen by including a clan of dwarf farmers, descended from criminals who'd been sentenced to the "humiliating" task of growing food. The Wyrwarfs, tired of being treated like riffraff, voice their discontent by threatening to withhold food from the other clans: if they're unwilling to acknowledge the farmers are equal to the miners and artisans, the rest can huddle down deep with their trinkets and eat rocks.
The largely forgotten Chainmail D&D Miniatures game (The early 2000s relaunch, not the classic 60s version that inspired D&D) ended up using pretty standard D&D dwarves, but oh What Could Have Been. The original design specs called for a dwarf faction that had deposed their king, abandoned faith in their god, and become communist factory workers and miners. The Dwarves would have dressed like something out of a 30s era Soviet propaganda poster and built mecha golems.
Just like elves, dwarves in D&D have a subterranean Evil Counterpart: the Duergar, or Gray Dwarves, who are built on the folktales of dwarves as nasty schemers with supernatural powers. The Duergar have limited Psychic Powers and have a grim, humorless society based around slave labor and constant toil.
Athas' Dwarves play this straight, except for few noticable differences. They're completely hairless, and they have a tradition of working toward short and longterm goals that only they know of.
Warhammer plays them as straight as it comes, though Warhammer Dwarfs are most definitely Dwarfs and not Dwarves. Female Dwarfs in Warhammer are not bearded, but tend to look like plump, braid-haired viking maidens straight out of a Wagner opera.
Once upon a time, though, Warhammer had the Chaos Dwarfs, which were based on ancient Mesopotamia of all things and diabolic slavemaster warlocks with cloven hooves and addicted to Black Magic. Sadly, their army nearly dropped off the face of the earth, and the few new Chaos Dwarfs we've seen (as crew for a war machine model) seem very much standard, if eviler-looking.
Warhammer's Dwarfs don't tend to speak with a Scottish accent, but with a thick Yorkshire accent - the ubiquitous English stereotype of Yorkshiremen being that they are gruff, grumpy mining folk with a strong disdain for soft southerners and their airy-fairy ways (and it is no accident that Warhammer's Elves speak just like those refined and aristocratic upper-class southerners). The Gotrek & Felix novels play with the accent, introducing a Dwarf character whose speech is a comically exaggerated version of a real Scottish brogue. Even the other Dwarfs can't understand him half the time. Their technological superiority is also notable. These Dwarfs have guns. (No Fantasy Gun Control here!) And cannons. And helicopters. And Ironclad submarines. They also have the 'love for alcohol' base covered. They have ale that is so filled with nutrients that they can literally survive on it alone. Bonus points to the fact that they distill their helicopter fuel from it!
Dwarves in Warhammer have one special niggle that sets them apart from other dwarves in fiction: their hat is Revenge Before Reason. They have a big book called the Book of Grudges, and if you ever wrong a dwarf, they write it down in the book. Grudges all have set standards for fulfilment, usually disproportionately high, and they will never stop until it is repaid. Ever. Classic example: a White Dwarf Dwarves vs. Empire battle report that resulted in heavy casualties for both sides was justified by a backstory that explained why the Dwarves were attacking: six years ago, the lord underpaid the Dwarven workers who built the castle by twelve pennies - as far as the lord (and sane real-life human beings) are concerned, it's simply a matter of a few missing coins, but to the Dwarves, you have cheated them out of money, and for that, you mustdie. In a more modern example of this, during the Battle of Grimspike Pass, an Orc shaman became too powerful and exploded, causing the pass to collapse and kill ten thousand Dwarf warriors who were standing under it. After the battle, the Dwarves declared vengeance, but not against the Orcs, but the pass itself. In their own words, they won't stop until Grimspike Pass is "mined to exhaustion and the rocks of the pass are as dust". Seriously.
They take their honour extremely seriously as well. How seriously? Well, what does a Dwarf do if he or she cannot fulfil a grudge? Well, they become shamed in the eyes of Dwarven society and become Slayers. They cut their hair into a huge mohawk, take a huge battle and no body armour, and seek out battles with the biggest, meanest beasties they can find in the hopes that they die. Some of the most successful (or alternatively least successful) Slayers are veteran warriors who have killed everything from demonic personifications of primal rage to dragons the length of football pitches. And they do all this because honour demands it. The only alternative to being a Slayer is being a submarine crewman: Dwarves hate and fear water with unrivalled fervour. The majority choose to become Slayers. Yeah.
Interestingly, while the individual Dwarf in Warhammer is fairly slow (it's the little legs), Dwarf infantry is effectively among the fastest in the game. This is because the game mechanics say that you can't march (read: move at double your normal speed) when there are enemies within 8". Dwarfs, by virtue of being Determinators, can ignore that rule, and effectively always march. Apart from when they charge. The result is that army of short bearded guys is going to tactically outmanoeuvre you by landing their gyrocopters 7" behind your lines and so suddenly everyone but your cavalry is being outpaced.
Warhammer 40,000 once had the Squats, which, naturally, were Dwarfs IN SPACE, but the designers couldn't quite decide on their overall theme. Some models were straight Dwarfs, while others were more like really short Biker DudesIN SPACE, so they got removed from future editions — i.e., they Dropped AHive FleetOn Them. However, the "space Dwarfs" concept, if not the models, seem to be returning in the form of the Demiurg (Greek for "craftsman"), a mercenary alien race that has worked for both the Imperium and the Tau in the past.
The Tau themselves seem to fulfill some of the functions of dwarves in the 40,000 Verse. They are shorter and stouter than humans, they have a weak presence in the Warp (meaning they're not very magical), they have a highly ordered and stratified society, and a strong warrior culture... At least when it comes to the Fire caste. And only when compared to other Tau, who are largely peace-loving and lack any aggressivity.
The Forge Fathers in Warpath are space dwarves through and through. A race of miners and industrialists with very advanced technology that decks their soldiers in Power Armor and builds stompy Mini-Mecha. Not much is known about them, though, mostly because they are very secretive and determined.
Dragon Dice plays it straight with standard, Tolkien inspired dwarves — not surprising for a game from TSR that was significantly inspired by Dungeons & Dragons. They are composed of the elements of earth and fire, have beards, are expert craftsmen and miners, live in the mountains, wield axes, and wear horned helms...
Oh, and their cavalry ride on giant lizards and mammoths, just for a change of pace.
The now-defunct Mage Knight minatures game had standard Tolkieny dwarves. All male, all bearded, all craftsmen and miners (some not by choice), and their craftiness led to literal Steam Punk tech such as Steam (mecha)Golems and steam-powered mounts.
There are some differences from the standard model here. They are actually shorter lived than humans, an elderly dwarf being about 30, and they play up the resistance to magic. They were actually forced by The Empire of Atlantis into slavery, mining for magic Phlebotinum because they were immune to the deadly radiation. They joined the Black Powder Rebels in order to free their comrades from this slavery.
Changeling: The Lost has the Wizened, humans who were made to work as the Gentry's craftsmen and servants. Like dwarves, there's usually something "diminished" about them (sometimes size, sometimes muscle, sometimes social presence), they tend to be cranky (see "diminished social presence"), and they're very, very good with crafts.
Winterweir's Bathas are evil sociopathic slavers but still live underground and have an interest in wealth. They also invent things.
Dwarves in GURPS: Banestorm are a race of natural artificers and merchants. All adults have at least one point worth of signature gear.
In the GURPS predecessor The Fantasy Trip, dwarves are straight out of the Tolkienian mold. However, some details (mostly concerning dwarf women) are left unspecified, meaning that players will form their own conclusions.
Burning Wheel not only plays straight dwarf stereotypes but even builds upon the tale of Moria from Lord of the Rings by working an attribute called "Greed" into the rule system: all dwarves are covetous. The higher a dwarf's Greed, the more likely they are to betray others, or even go Ax-Crazy, in the pursuit of possessing objects of high value and/or craftsmanship. They get bonuses to rolls done in the pursuit of wealth. However, if the Greed attribute reaches its maximum through indulgence of the vice the dwarf hides himself away with his hoard of goods in paranoid seclusion never to be seen again.
Dwarves in Rifts come in a couple different varieties, each of which comes from a different dimension. Regular dwarves come out of the Palladium Fantasy dimension, and exhibit all the classic characteristics. Pantheons of the Megaverse has dwarves that represent the dwarves from Norse Mythology, right down to being the creators of Mjollnir. There's also races like the Dwarf Forgemasters from the Three Galaxies setting, but they're all basically variations on a theme.
A list that circulates around message boards and other sites called "You Know You've Been Playing Rifts for Too Long When..." has an item in it that reads "You've ever made a Dwarf character whose name did not have 'axe' or 'beard' in it."
Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, epic predecessor and undoubted inspiration to Tolkien (the clue's in the title). His Nibelung dwarves are, true to their Norse roots, subterranean miners and metalcrafters. His dwarven brothers Alberich and Mime inspired the thieving dwarf Mīm who appears in The Silmarillion.
Dwarves also get a lot more variety in terms of what crafts and industries they're capable of. This is due to the dwarves being the playable race, so any new array of items to make becomes available to the dwarves. Mining, gemcutting, smithing, stonecrafting, brewing? As expected. Pottery, glassmaking, beekeeping, leatherworking, waxworking and more? Of course.
Dark Souls 2 gives us The Gyrm. Aside from being human sized, and the anecdote that they were actually forced underground by racist humans, they're pretty typical. The only Gyrm you interact with on friendly terms—Gavlan—is also a heavy drinker and a merchant (the only one in the game you can sell things to, in fact). This is doubly unusual for the Souls metaseries, which is usually quite far removed from standard Tolkien/D&D-style fantasy.
Guild Wars mostly follows the standard, although the dwarves come off a bit more Scandanavian than Scottish. This trope is partly averted by the Stone Summit clan, a bunch of xenophobic slavedriving hatemongers, then it gets taken to its conclusion at the end of the Eye of the North expansion pack. The dwarves seek to awaken the Great Dwarf to battle the destroyers pouring out from beneath the earth. What happens is that they become the Great Dwarf, their bodies turning to solid stone and their hearts consumed with an eternal thirst for battle, so they can fight the destroyers for eternity.
They have appeared sporadically in the more High Fantasy installments of the Final Fantasy series, with the only distinction being that their catchphrase is "Laliho!"
Final Fantasy IV plays it straight, and heck, so do most dwarves in Final Fantasy IV: The After Years. However, Luca keeps herself clean-shaven (other female dwarves in the game have beards) and doesn't have much love for dwarven fashion. The one thing she gets right is a love of technology, with two custom-built clockwork dolls at her command, but she'd rather study under the human Cid than other dwarves.
The Lilties of Crystal Chronicles also fit the archetype fairly well, but in appearance resemble childlike humanoids with plant features (besides Crystal Bearers, in which a wide variety of Lilty types appear). A big difference is, before they began weapon smithing, they were primarily alchemists. And while they've always been mediocre at using them, they were experts at creating the Green Rocks required for spells.
Moogles in the Ivalice Alliance games are also fairly dwarf-like: short, mechanically inclined humanoids.
The Dwarves of Final Fantasy IX are perhaps the least dwarf-like Dwarves in the series. They spend their time above ground, albeit on a mountain, and the sun is a big part of their society and religion.
Played mostly straight (mostly since it's set in the gameworld's Steam Punk 1880's so they wear tailcoats as well as armor) in the RPG Arcanum, including what may be one of the earliest examples of the now-standard Scottish accent as spoken by NPC Magnus. Females are never seen, so all dwarves are the same; bearded stocky men. Asking about dwarf women is a surefire way to send a male into a homicidal rage.
Two dwarves appear in Tales of Symphonia, with one of them being the foster father of the hero, Lloyd Irving. In Tales of Phantasia, which takes place about 4,000 years after Symphonia, dwarves are extinct, though their ruins are intact.
A skit in in Tales of Symphonia mentioned that the majority of the dwarves are hidden by Cruxis somewhere in Derris Kharlan as they use them for maintaining machinery, so they may have still be living on the comet.
In Mace: The Dark Age, a Soul Edgestyle weapons-based 3D fighter for the Nintendo 64, the dwarves are represented by hidden character Gar Gudrunnson. His people are mountain-dwellers enslaved by despotic Lord Deimos (think Nightmare with his own kingdom) to build his weapons of war. Gar is among a handful of rebels, and his weapon is an enormous steam-powered Warmech, ironically making him the largest character in the game and one of the few who are original. He's rather overpowered though, and is more on par with sub-boss Grendal due to his enormous strength and the fact that he can't be thrown or Executed. The mace enslaves him and the other dwarves and it motivates them to wage war on mankind.
Averted in Kingdom of Loathing, where dwarves are 7-foot tall miners. They are all the same, but not like dwarves in other fantasy fiction.
Golden Sun's dwarves, in the Loho mining camp from The Lost Age, probably don't have Scottish accents, since Funetik Aksent is used for the two humans with Scottish accents but not the dwarves. Additionally, some are historians, which is why the dwarves are in Loho, excavating the ruins there. However, they all have awesome facial hair and a love for digging— "If you live in Loho and don't dig, you just don't belong"— and the only visible female in town is the human innkeeper, so they otherwise fit this trope perfectly.
Played mostly straight in Bungie's Myth series of fantasy games. Dwarves there are short, construct underground cities, are good with gadgets, greedy, and have chemistry far beyond that of the other races leading to them becoming explosive and demolition experts. However, instead of sounding Scottish, they are voiced to sound more like crabby old men.
Two "Dwarven Swordsmiths" appear in The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past. They are the only dwarves to appear in the entire series, and nothing is made of their presence in a village otherwise made up entirely of Hylians.
Lampshaded in Lusternia. The dwarven race were originally called the Clangoru (having descended from the Elder God Clangorum); when the humans arrived in Lusternia from a different dimension, they puzzled everyone by calling the Clangoru dwarves. They did this because the Clangoru — alone of every other mortal race — were recognisable to the humans, being indistinguishable from the dwarves of their native dimension.
Dwarves are a recurring race in the Shining Series, at least in the older games. They follow the Tolkien/D&D model fairly closely—most dwarves are axe-wielding warriors. A notable exception, though, is that the first dwarf you meet, Luke/Lugh, is young, cheerful, and beardless (but still an axe-wielding warrior). They are not slowed down by hill terrain, which makes them surprisingly mobile.
It's because Luke from [Shining Force'' is a hobbit, Gort is a Dwarven Warrior, but Luke is a hobbit. Jaha in Shinning Force II is also a Hobbit, but Gyan and Randolph are Dwarves, funny because Randolph is beardless.
The "Dwarf" character of Dragon's Crown is a stocky, heavy-set brawler, wielding hammers (and occasionally axes) and possessing strength enough to pick up and toss most foes. The Dwarf's ending reveals the Ancient Dragon had chased the Dwarfs out of their subterranian homes, forcing them to become nomads and driving them to the brink of extinction. The player character's Dwarf becomes a hero and leader among his people, helping them prosper.
In both Neverwinter Nights games, this is both played straight and averted. When it's played straight, it's hilarious.
Averted: Neverwinter Nights features the possible henchman and later a boss in an expansion Grimgnaw. He's a Monk of the Order of the Long Death, which as you can guess from the name, isn't exactly a nice group. He's the only henchman with an Evil alignment, and has a fascination with death that is damn creepy. He isn't loud and boisterous, is bald and has no beard, and doesn't need a giant hammer or axe to kick some serious ass. He loves to send people to the Silent Lord, often in the most violent way possible.
Neverwinter Nights 2, on the other hand, features Khelgar Ironfist, who is a stereotypical dwarf to the extreme, drinking lots of ale without paying, being very loud and fantastically racist, and is easily provoked and will start a fight with a group of drunk sailors just because one of them agreed with him. Ironically enough, Khelgar also can become a monk, just like his polar opposite Grimgnaw, a possible reference to NWN1. As with most dwarves, he's not a good fit at all for the class without a lot of nudging, he just knows he likes being able to beat things up with his fists.
Master of Magic has a fairly stereotypical dwarves: tough, hard-working, good at mining and climbing mountains, but not fond of ships. They also make golems and steam cannons.
The Mountain Dwarves in Dungeon Crawl are standard issue. Deep Dwarves are different, though: see below.
In Runescape, the Dwarves are short, live in mined out caves, are the major source of ore (aside from the players), are extremely fond of beer and kebabs, and pretty much the only way you can tell it's gender are whether it has a beard and/or helmet or not.
While no actual dwarves, or any other conventional race, appear in the series, the Godom of Paladin's Quest certainly invoke this archetype. They're a subterranean race who excel in weapon smithing and explosives, but are generaly bad at magic. Their appearance, on the otherhand, is anything but. They actually resemble large bipedal dinosaur, insect, ram... things.
The Darksiders games have the Makers, who are similar to your stereotype dwarf in every way except one: instead of being short, they are about four times as tall as your average human.
Chrono Cross has dwarves that pilot tanks, wield worker tools in battle, and are short and stocky like normal. They also live in a swamp and seem to hate the fairies, enough to capture them to feed their protector Hydra and murder them for living space.
The Mana series has always included dwarves that fit this mold.
In Final Fantasy Adventure, you eventually meet a colony of dwarves, but they don't do much besides point you in the direction of a product you have to buy to save one of their dwarf friends. Once you do buy it and go on a quest to save him, you will find out that his only "companion" ability is to sell you basic items that you might need to break him out of the dungeon. Once you do get him out and back to the dwarf cave, he thanks you the only way dwarves know how...by selling back to you the items he made out of the silver you risked your life to get him.
Secret of Mana has Watts, which continues this. He is a dwarf who basically knows that your party is out to save the world, and so he only continues to forge your weapons in exchange for increasingly massive amounts of money. He's probably saving up to buy the entire Gold City, and with his smithing skill, he probably could.
Twice Blessed has Vadim as a main character, who meets most dwarf stereotypes, but comes from a Russian-type culture and has a matching accent, drinks Vodka, uses the word "brother" in place of "laddie", and never seems to feel the need to point out that he is a dwarf.
Dominic Deegan has recently added Dwarves to its array of races, and from their first appearance, we have bearded females, and a long-standing rivalry with Halflings. Mostly over beer nowadays.
Diggy Diggy Hole from the Yogscast is a catchy music video for this trope, and neatly illustrates how the song could be about any author's dwarves. The dwarves mine, drink, sing, and fight goblins in their vast underground fortress.
Born underground, suckled from a teat of stone
Raised in the dark, the safety of our mountain home
Skin made of iron, steel in our bones
To dig and dig makes us free, come on brothers sing with me
Yes, they're short humans rather than a Tolkienesque race, but it's worth a mention: the Mississippi state legislature has considered giving dwarfs a special dispensation to use crossbows — a stock fantasy-world dwarf's favorite projectile weapon — to hunt deer in archery season, as short limbs really do impede the use of conventional bows.
Gold-smithing in Ancient Egypt was often carried out by dwarf artisans, who were favored vassals of the royal household.
Graves from Ancient Greece found that Greek farmers were about 5'4 and 140 pounds. That is they were short, stout, bloody minded folk who prefered fighting by simply having two armies ram into each other like bighorns with no subtlety. Ok, they were really humans but still they do sound a lot like dwarves.
Franchises that customize the model
Gold Digger Dwarves have optional beards on both sexes, no specific accents, aren't all short tempered and have plenty of non-miners, but otherwise fit the mold. A female Dwarf villain, G'nolga, insists that the beauty of dwarf women is legendary. While she and other dwarf females definitely don't look bad, one does wonder how much of this comes from her being acknowledged as one of the ten strongest fighters on the planet.
In ElfQuest even thought they're called trolls, the trolls are identical in every way (except being green) to stereotypical Dwarves. However Two-Edge, a half-troll half-elf looks identical to a typical dwarf but is bat-shit insane.
In Castle Waiting, Hammerlings are short, hairy miners and engineers with much fewer women than men. However, they're considered to be notoriously sneaky and devious, and are widely accused of War for Fun and Profit to create a market for their magic weapons. This is because Castle Waiting is more influenced by The Brothers Grimm than Tolkien.
The film version of The Hobbit is taking pains to avert this trope. The dwarves are all short, hairy, and crusty, but they have great variety in their faces, beards, clothing, body types, personalities and weaponry. They also have accents that range throughout Britain, from Scotland to Ireland and Wales.
Glóin is the most stereotypical of the dwarves, being a stout, truculent, gold-loving guy with an axe, a Scottish accent, and an impressive beard... all of which is very deliberate, since he's the father of Gimli, who is arguably the modern day codifier of the trope.
In Van Helsing, a bunch of wicked, sharp-toothed dwarf-like creatures called "dwergi" reassemble Dr. Frankenstein's equipment for Dracula.
The Shannara series has dwarves mutated from human stock (like most of the races of the books) but with the added caveat that, due to their ancestors' millennia of hiding in shelters, they are claustrophobic and dislike going underground. They actually appropriate the typical elven skill in that they are skilled woodsmen, and their crafts are mostly carved from wood rather than stone.
Flint Fireforge, from the Dragonlance Chronicles trilogy, was originally going to be a well-dressed fop. Eventually, though, they decided against this, and just made him the standard dwarf. The well-dressed fop concept later became the preferred mortal guise of Reorx, god of the forge.
The Valerians of the Lensman series are a race of strong, tough, axe-wieldingproud warriors, but they're really human Heavyworlders, not fantasy dwarves. Also, the shortest Valerian described stands at above 7ft tall in his stockinged feet.
Dwarfs in Narnia are expert archers, a trait more commonly associated with elves. Just so happens that there aren't any elves in Narnia, or at least not the Tolkien sort, so dwarfs got to appropriate one of their talents. The dwarfs as a rule are cynical and suspicious—even the good ones—and seem to be a stand-in for skeptics, agnostics, and/or atheists.
They also come in red-haired and black-haired models. And it's explicitly mentioned that Trumpkin (red) smokes and Nikabrik (black) doesn't, which kind of sticks out as a way of acknowledging personal preference, since pipe-smoking is usually right up there with drinking as the substance abuse of choice for dwarfs.
Possible example: Gregory Maguire's Mirror, Mirror, in which the eight (yep) dwarves are, at least initially, shapeshifters. They're also far more, well, mineral than your typical humanoid character.
The urZrethi of The Dragon Crown War initially appear to be bog-standard dwarves, but are gradually revealed to be quite different. They are a race of short, stocky expert smiths and miners who live in elaborate subterranean mountain fortresses and have a lifespan measured in centuries. However, they're also a matriarchy, have limited Voluntary Shapeshifting powers, were created by overthrown elder gods to dig them out of the prisons the dragons stuck them in (a cause most urZrethi ended up abandoning after a disastrous war with the dragons), and the fem!Sauron-esque Big Bad is actually a half-urZrethi (and half-dragon) who uses her shapeshifting abilities to look sort-of-elven. Turns out that they're not actually restricted to the "short, stocky humanoid" model, they just find it fairly utilitarian.
Star Trek has the Tellarites, one of the founding members of the Federation. They had a fierce rivalry with the Vulcans, are stubborn, undiplomatic, and generally have the competence to back up their boasts, all dwarven hallmarks. They are also short and often show up in mining contexts — again, all dwarven hallmarks. Customized by also being pig men.
The Klingons are also Proud Warrior Race Guys who frequent dimly-lit great halls, drink a lot, and have an ongoing feud with the Romulans.
Mike Pondsmith's Castle Falkenstein roleplaying game (from R. Talsorian Games) had dwarves based more on the ancient Germanic myth model — supernaturally strong and resistant to fire, with chicken feet (which they hide by wearing big boots), and no females at all. When they marry, they marry Faerie women — the male children are more Dwarves, the girls are Faeries like Mom. They do have the whole mining and beer obsession, but are more likely to fight with big wrenches than axes as they are the master technologists of their world.
Falkenstein's Dwarves started out as more typical Faerie, but gave up most of the classic traits thereof in exchange for the ability to handle iron with impunity.
Young Falkenstein dwarves are also raised and named by their mothers. Their main drive toward industrialism and workmanship is so they can make or discover something impressive enough to make a name for themselves with, so they don't have to introduce themselves as "Buttercup" or "Morningblossom".
As mentioned above, Dungeons & Dragons has produced a few dwarven subraces that break the mold.
The wild dwarves from Forgotten Realms are barbarians who live above ground in jungles and hunt with poisoned blades. Still very gruff and loyal, though.
The derro are a race of insane sorcerers with traces of human ancestry. They have bluish skin, blond hair, and huge pupilless eyes, and many go beardless. (In Pathfinder, though, they are actually evil fey with no connection to dwarves.)
Several dwarven subraces in Dragonlance. Clan Daergar resemble common dwarves in appearance and culture, but are ruthlessly evil. Clan Theiwar are an Expy of the derro who look similar to other dwarves but retain the derro's affinity for magic. Clan Zakhar are hairless, diseased outcasts. Finally, Clan Aghar, more commonly known as gully dwarves, are diminutive idiots who serve as Plucky Comic Relief.
3.5 presented several environmental variants with only minor differences from the standard hill dwarf. Desert dwarves are gruff miners who are good at finding water. Glacier dwarves are gruff miners who are good at surviving in the arctic. Seacliff dwarves are gruff miners who are good at swimming. And so on.
Duergar, essentially the dwarf equivalent of Drow, have shown up in a few settings. They tend to be grim, regimented, joyless workaholics and slave-traders. In Pathfinder, they are actually the corrupted descendants of the original dwarves, tracing their lineage to those dwarves that didn't burrow up from the heart of the world at the start of the race's history.
The Mountain Folk of Exalted draw heavily on the Norse Dwarves for inspiration, but two of their castes (Artisans and Warriors) are actually human-sized; the Artisans are tall, beautiful super-geniuses, and their warriors look like neanderthal space marines in power armor.
There are two common stereotypes for Dwarves in Shadowrun; they're all good with machinery, and they all have major Napoleon complexes. The average dwarf has a tendency to get loud and belligerent when either of these stereotypes is applied to them. This does not change the fact, however, that the dwarf willpower bonus is so useful to certain professions that almost every rigger you'll find is a dwarf.
Of course, that just fits the stereotype all the more. Riggers are the nearest thing you will find to a blacksmith or miner in the setting.
Dwarves also make really good awakened (mages, shamans or adepts) due to said willpower bonus.
Dwarves in the setting grow beards simply because they get sick of being treated like children (which a lot of people think they resemble as adults due to their height) without them, which may explain why the stereotype of the "hot headed halfer" came about (as one dwarf tells you in Third Edition in the Dwarf racial description, "you spend a day getting patted and pinched and see how calm you are.").
The same essay voices the opinion that dwarves seem to prefer living underground because basement apartments tend to be cheaper, and low ceilings aren't a problem for them.
In Talislanta, the Yassan and Vajra races are both short, stocky artificer/miner typesin other words, indubitably stouts. However, this being Talislanta, the Vajra are scaly, ovoviviparous, and have a berserker rage ability (which can usually be used exactly once), and the Yassan are silver-gray, six-fingered, and flat-faced. Additionally, both races are hairless and closer to the short end of average human height.
Iron Kingdoms dwarves are short, squat and master mechanics, often being creators or users of guns and Magitek robots, but are typically beardless.
Gloranthan (the original setting of RuneQuest) dwarfs are immortal as long as they do their assigned tasks, regard themselves as servants of the World Machine, and are the only users of firearms in the world. They also invented iron. Not 'discovered', invented.
They're also massive subversions of this trope, in that they are actually a Robot Republic of Golems made by Mostal the Maker and taught how to build themselves (hence why female dwarves are so rare-they're actually products a minor glitch in the process) before he was broken in the Chaos War. Flesh (Clay) dwarves are actually an invention to make up for lack of resources and time to build more dwarves (and a deeply resented one since they're softer and have less raw intelligence than "pure" Mostali). They're also something of an antagonist to everyone else, being deeply xenophobic Well Intentioned Extremists (literally the only thing that matters to them is Mostal's repair) with a severe case of Blue and Orange Morality (what everyone else calls greed, the dwarves call keeping track of their projects and resources, down to the last coin - actual trade is regarded as something of an oddball heresy).
The Dwarves of The Elder Scrolls were a breed of elves, roughly human-sized, with a material culture like that of ancient Mesopotamia with a hint of classical China. And yet, they lived in fortresses under mountains, tapped magma to power their forges, were masters of metalworking, made really high-quality beer steins, developed technology millenia ahead of any civilization before or since, had huge beards, were reclusive, hated (other) elves, and finally dug too deep and vanished from the face of the earth. Though neither Scottish nor Norse in the least, they were, unmistakably, Dwarves.
Of course, they didn't hate other elves for anything like the usual reasonthey hated anything other than Dwemer, viewing other beings as at best potential slaves or experimental subjects, with few exceptions (a brief alliance with the Dunmer, for one). They also eventually annihilated themselves by trying to use the heart of a dead god to become gods themselves (or not, it's not explicitly confirmed, the people that were around at that time are a bit uncertain of what exactly the Dwemer were up to, but it had something to do with divinity, and likely had something to do with the disappearance of the Dwemer).
The technology deserves a special note as being obscenely far in advance not only of the other races of the setting, but the Dwarf trope in general: the Dwemer weren't just master metalworkers, they also had a vast airship fleet, electric lighting, Humongous Mecha and rudimentary AI capable of powering automated security bots. Their craftsmanship is such that their technology survives intact for thousands of years. The dwarven armor and weapons one may find in their ruins are widely assumed to be powered — or at least have been at some point.
In Skyrim you can start finding Soul Gems inside Dwemer Animunculi (their automatons)...the Soul Gems are filled when you find them, leaving the implication that the animating force behind the machines are the trapped souls of assorted beings possibly Falmer
We're told that the term "dwarf" is a common misconception. The actual name of the race is "Dwemer"... which basically translates to "Deep-dwelling elves". It's a bit played with: the elvish bit shines in the fact that they were also masters of magic, which is not a common interpretation of dwarves. Beyond these differences though, they are, for all intents and purposes, dwarves. One author in Skyrim even calls them such in his book after saying it's an improper term just because everyone does it.
There is a book which says that the Dwemer were called "dwarves" because they looked small next to the Giants. Dwarven armor fits other races and shows no signs that it was made for short people. Everything in their cities is full sized.
Age of Mythology goes back to the roots of Norse myths, making Dwarves simply good craftsmen and gold-diggers. They don't use axes, except for gathering wood or when transformed into Heroes of Ragnarok by the Ragnarok godpower.
Eitri uses an axe to fight in the campaign, though he can use it to cut wood. His brother Brokk has a hammer instead.
Warcraft is an interesting case. For most of the RTS games, this was played straight, but right before World of Warcraft hit, dwarven miners unearthed (no pun intended) evidence that linked them to the titans—specifically, being created by the titans. This caused a surge in the interest of science and knowledge in dwarven society; King Magni Bronzebeard even ordered that the main dwarven industry switch from mining to archeology. Now you'll find just as many explorers, scientists, archeologists and scholars among the dwarves as you will miners and blacksmiths.
Female Dwarves are quite common in dwarf settlements and for the most part look like short, stout women of average attractiveness. However, among the player base they are quite rare (perhaps in part due to the fact they are just plain looking compared to other races). Lore mentions bearded women and are considered quite beautiful among dwarves, however, none are shown in game.
Here's a quote from the dwarf decoy on an undead fishing quest: "I am drunk, like many of my fellow dwarves. I've dug a tunnel and wound up here. Who wants to drink?"
Warcraft also features a few subraces for dwarves:
The main playble race is called Ironforge dwarves, who live in the city of Ironforge and follow the above information. Most Ironforge dwarves belong to the Bronzebeard clan.
The next is the Wildhammer dwarves who live above ground, live at peace with nature, fly gryphons as a major part of their culture, and are slightly Ax-Crazy. Until they actually joined the Alliance they were fairly neutral and had good relations with the Horde-allied Tauren.
On the other end of the spectrum are the Dark Iron dwarves, who were until recently enslaved by a massive fire elemental (that they summoned in a failed attempt to destroy the other two clans). They're pyromaniacs and were Always Chaotic Evil, live deeper underground than their Ironforge cousins, are much more educated in magic, and are slightly better suited for stealth, but otherwise largely resmble what the Ironforge dwarves would be if they were evil. There is one group of rebel Dark Irons that can help playable characters, but even they are listed as being always lawful evil, and are motivated purely by greed. Dark Iron dwarves have black skin and red eyes. The fact that the queen-mother of Ironforge was married to the Dark Iron emperor, and that her son, the future king, is half-and-half, has caused much consternation.
Beyond this you have Earthen, which are stone-flesh creations of the titans that the dwarves evolved from, but besides being made of stone pretty much fit this trope to a tee, and...
The frost dwarves, who are the frozen counterparts to the Wildhammers. They are descended more directly from the Earthen as indicated by their proximity to the Titan Architecture found around their homeland.
Additionally, the technology aspect of the dwarves exists in some forms, but for the most part, this is taken up by the Dwarves' roomates, Gnomes.
The technology basically breaks down into two categories: anything that can be made reliable, cost-effective, and useful on the battlefield will be adopted by the Dwarves, i.e. tanks, guns, gyrocopters. The Gnomes manage the overly-expensive, unreliable and quirky technology, as per their Mad Scientist hat. If it's cheap, unreliable, and dangerous, that's Goblin territory.
Prior to Cataclysm, Dwarves mostly fit into the melee archetype, with their only available classes being physical damage dealers and tanks, with the exception of Priests and Holy Paladins. But after the expansion, Dwarves gained the ability to be Mages, Warlocks, and Shaman (explained in lore by the Wildhammer and Dark Iron clans joining Ironforge, with the Wildhammer teaching Shamanism and the Dark Iron bringing arcane and dark magic), making them the most versatile Alliance race (they can be everything but Druids), and make perfectly viable casters in addition to brawny melee and hunters, though their passive racial bonuses still favor melee more than magic.
Azeroth's Dwarves also historically have had pretty good relations with the Elves- The Wildhammer Clan were close allies with the High Elves, and the remaining High Elves in the Alliance are reasonably good allies with the Ironforge Dwarves over a shared love of history and scholarship. The Night Elves have no special relationship with the Dwarves, but are comfortable enough with having them as allies.
In Magical Starsign, dwarves are basically tiny balls of fluff who consist mainly of a beard with hands, feet, and beady little eyes. Not much is made of their physical prowess, but they're the best starship engineers in the galaxy.
Even Kingdom of Loathing doesn't stray from the path too far. Yes, their dwarves are 7-Feet Tall, but other than that they act exactly the same as here.
A few deviations by the dwarves in Dragon Age: Origins. Dwarves speak with American accents (except Bodahn, who may be trying to affect the accent of humans), and are often mustachioed or even clean-shaven instead of bearded. In addition, dwarven alcohol is brewed from dirt and lichen and apparently tastes awful, to the extent that the one dwarven party member, Oghren, much prefers surfacer booze. Finally, dwarven women are readily distinguishable from the men and often quite attractive. They're also not especially honorable, or even fair, given one of the two remaining examples of their native society has many of them incredibly obsessed with status and rank. They still seem to take honor seriously, but if you can get away with poisoning or undermining rivals cleanly then they pretty much encourage it, similar to MANY cultures with strict honor codes and insular tendencies). In other regards, they play the trope dead straight, with a closed, insular, hidebound society (they have a rigid caste system); elaborately braided beards among the upper class; great underground halls; skill at mining and smithcraft; axes, hammers, and crossbows as their preferred (though not only) weapons, and heavy plate as their favored armor; squarish, angular motifs in their equipment and architecture; a fondness for ale; and so on and so forth.
The character of Varric from Dragon Age II seems to be a deliberate aversion of this trope; he's a clean-shaven, sophisticated, charismatic urbanite who loves the surface, hates the underground, and is a crossbow-wielding rogue. His brother Bartrand, on the other hand, is as traditional as can be, having been born and raised in Orzammar before their noble family was exiled for fixing Proving matches.
Varric: You know what Orzammar is? It's cramped tunnels filled with nug-shit and body odour, and every person there thinks he's better than you because his great-great-great-grandfather made a water clock or something.
Surface Dwarves seem to intentionally avert this. After the entire Merchant caste left Orzammar for the surface to get better trading deals, Orzammar declared them "Lost to the Stone" and decreed that all Surfacers were to be considered Casteless from that point onwards. The Surfacers responded by simply abandoning the caste system altogether and many other Dwarven traditions, with many going completely native. Varric is a prime example of the cross-cultural mixing, invoking both the traditional Paragons and Ancestors venerated by Dwarven religion, as well as the Maker and Andraste worshipped by the Human Chantry.
Delve Deeper. It's played mostly for laughs, but they're about as generic as it gets.
Rune Factory 3 introduces two dwarves. One is a craftsman and blacksmith — downright obsessive and extremely talented — but is incredibly friendly and laid-back, to the point that he considers his job as a blacksmith to simply be a hobby. The other is your typical belligerent warrior dwarf. Both are human-sized and beardless, with pointed ears — the warrior complains that the whole "short, bearded man" thing is simply a racist stereotype.
Rune Factory 4 Takes this a little further. While Gaius and Zaid from the previous game were at least among the shorter characters, Bado, the laid back and downright lazy dwarf blacksmith in the next installment is quite possibly the tallest humanoid character in the series. Doug, the other dwarf in Rune Factory 4, is also rotten at crafting. (Dwarfs being good at making weapons is the one trait associated with dwarfs that the series makes a point of telling you still holds true.)
Despite this, there is one character who fits the common dwarf mold perfectly, having a short stature, long messy beard, talking in a gruff accent, etc. Leo, from the first Rune Factory game claims he picked up these traits while training under a dwarf, but he himself is human. The most dwarf-like character in Rune Factory is a human.
Rift's dwarves seem to be rather more inclined towards magic use than the usual, and don't always have beards. Also, the women are ridiculously cute.
Deep Dwarves in Dungeon Crawl are a variant. Unlike the Mountain Dwarves (who are typical), they never left their underground homes. They are highly resistant to damage, but lack the Healing Factor all other species have. They are not as battle-skilled as mountain dwarves, though they are still good with axes and crossbows. They have better survival skills, such as Stealth. Though they are only fair with spellcasting, they are good with necromancy and translocations and very good with earth magic, more than can be said for mountain dwarves. They are also a lot better with invocations and evocations than their cousins.
The Dwarves of the old Might and Magic verse customized their dwarves by removing one of the traditional details: rather than hating elves, they were allies (up until Heroes IV). Well, except for Might and Magic VIII, but the Dark Dwarves of that game customized the model by being xenophobes to the point that no one is really sure if they are allies or servants of the Earth Elementals instead.
We don't know yet if Pillars of Eternity's mainline dwarves follow the Tolkien model, but we already know they have at least one ethnicity that doesn't. Boreal dwarves seem to be what you get if you cross a dwarf with an Inuit or Tlingit (or an Icewind Dale barbarian): tundra-inhabiting surface dwarves that coexist peacefully with caravan elves. The one currently known exemplar, Sagani, is female, beardless, and kinda cute.
Despite being mentioned as a straight example above, Dwarf Fortress actually creates a fairly complex dwarven society. They have elected officials and a rudimentary police force and bureaucracy, as well as a larger-than-usual range of professions; you have dwarven tailors, cooks, millers and even beekeepers as well as the usual blacksmiths and miners.
Dwarves in Tales of MU mostly follow the model, with a few additions. Their names have a Germanic flavor, they count in base seven, and while they seem like a One-Gender Race, it's been explained that male and female dwarves just don't get along. The one full-blooded female dwarf who appeared was not described with a beard. MU dwarves have a strong disposition for secrecy and privacy, though the college-going ones are willing to make exceptions for attractive women of other races. One recurring minor character, Gebhard, shows a somewhat fussy and fastidious nature.
The dwarves in Arcana Magi are techno savvy. One dwarf is on the Board of Directors for Avalon Tech Enterprises as head of the metal works division. One dwarf works there in the technology department.
In Aelan mythology from Ustal Naror islands, dwarfs are more or less the same, but will be modification of humans. Anyway they will dig out trinkets that will end bread age.
Twice Blessed has Vadim as a main character, who meets most dwarf stereotypes, but comes from a Russian-type culture and has a matching accent, drinks Vodka, uses the word "brother" in place of "laddie", and never seems to feel the need to point out that he is a dwarf.
Unforgotten Realms averts this about as far as is possible. Any character which isn't obviously another species is invariably a Dwarf. Probably the only character who even has a beard is Sir Schmoopy of Awesometon, one of the two main player characters.
Most of the Dwarves in Looking for Group are evil, black-leather wearing, pierced punks.
And Pella is quite shapely and fan-servicey, not fat and dumpy like dwarven females are so often depicted as.
However, they are exceptionally skilled architects, blacksmiths, and sappers.
Although we have not actually met any dwarves in Digger, they seem to go at least a little off model — they apparently use large amounts of magic in the construction of their underground cities. Digger the wombat does not approve, as that magic tends to wear off after a while if not carefully maintained, leaving abandoned dwarf cities as veritable deathtraps.
Come to think of it, the wombats seem to fit the traditional dwarf mold pretty well, themselves.
Angus is a retired adventurer who now works as a pub chef, but otherwise fits the trope straight. So straight that the Scottish creator of the comic gave Angus (and Angus alone) a Scottish Funetik Aksent.
Flintlocke, of Flintlocke's Guide to Azeroth plays around with this one. While he adheres to several Dwarf stereotypes, including a love of combat, boisterous loudness, a strange sort of Scottish accent, a few demonstrated instances of marked greed, and some impressive facial hair, he also happens to be something of a cross between a Gadgeteer Genius and a Mad Bomber, and where most of the other Dwarves are shown as sensible individuals, Flintlocke is about as dumb as a pile of hammers. On more than a few occasions he's managed to outwit himself. It gets to the point that the Spirit Healer had to get a word in.
Spirit Healer: Dumbass.
In Vanadys: Tales Of A Fallen Goddess, dwarfs (note the plural spelling) are the second most numerous race in the world next to humans, and live and work close to humans. The stereotypical dwarf is a keen businessman with a great talent for making money, and many human businesses employ a dwarf, or several, to handle their finances. Berrok, the main dwarf character in the comic, is a trenchcoat-clad Deadpan Snarker with a shady past.
Oglaf has the "fukken" Dwarves, a group of vertically challenged, utterly deranged pests who make disturbing, useless and lethal inventions.
The dwarves of Hitmen For Destiny were bred for their stature, grooming and attitude to be just the same as Tolkienian dwarves. Thing is, when you breed for one quality, another might tag along, so they also ended up completely Ax-Crazy as well (yes, more so than the usual dwarf).
The Gods Of Arr Kelaan featured a group of dwarves who worshiped the Mesoamerican sun god Inti, shaved, and moved above ground. Up until Inti decided it was time to leave Arr-Kelaan and destroyed their temple, then most of them moved back to the mines.
The KoreanWebtoonTower of God has Evan Edrok, member of the Silver-haired Dwarf race. They are small and they tend to birth Guides, who can navigate wonderfully through the cave like middle section of the Tower. That's how traditionally dwarfish they are, because Evan and his father Alumik defy stereotypes.
It's becoming increasingly common in anime-derived art, including some video games, for female dwarves to be portrayed as cute young girls (often straying into Lolicon territory).
The Japanese pen and paper RPG Sword World does this, with the female dwarves looking more like Gnomes than anything else.
In One Piece, dwarves are extremely small, have animal tails and pointy noses, and are extremely fast and strong. They do not seem to take up mining but rather have a connection with plant and animal life. In general, they are extremely gullible. Beards are also not very prominent.
Matt Cavotta, art director for "Magic: The Gathering", wrote a column about the lack of dwarves in Magic. He starts with the stereotypical red dwarf and changes it step by step into the ideal, red dwarf. Results are ... interesting.
In Discworld (where it is spelled "Dwarfs", just like Tolkien noted in the preface to later editions of The Hobbit). Policeman Vimes' experience with them points to countryside dwarfs usually being quiet industrious types who don't cause trouble, and putting on airs of being rowdy and violent seems to be a trait only annoyingly common in his city. This is probably because, unlike their home mines, the city won't cave in on their heads if they're noisy, and there's more beer available. Also they are German and Welsh as well as Scottish. Interestingly, given the Semitic roots of Tolkien's dwarvish language, there are theories that Pratchett's dwarfs are Jewish-ish (quiet, hard-working, thrifty, very respectful of ancient traditions that they don't feel they necessarily follow as closely as they're supposed to—which last is why many tropers have chosen to discuss Discworld Dwarfs above, in the Literature folder under "Franchises that use this ready-made model of Franchises that use this ready-made model of Dwarfdom").
The above description also fits many other ethnic and/or immigrant groups besides Jewish-ish.
The "Dwarfs as Jews" group-think probably came from that one Watch book that had multiple jokes about Dwarfs being in love with gold. "What? No, we only say that to get it into bed."
One should note, however, that somewhat similarly to Judaism, where it is forbidden to destroy a text that mentions the name of God, for the dwarves it is forbidden to destroy any text at all.
The love of gold, of course, is very probably from the miner/craftsman aspect (especially since it is often compared to their love of iron) making things seem very recursive. The Dwarfs seem to have the tendency of being put in the place of any immigrant ethnic group whether black (in Soul Music they come up with "Rap" or "Rat" music) or Muslim (Thud) or yes, Jewish. Trolls on the other hand, seem to be just be sentient rocks.
Trolls and Dwarfs do share a tradition of "Hole Music".
Dwarf women are also often seen — however, they are physically indistinguishable from male Dwarfs. This has had an effect on their culture somewhat, in that many Dwarfs do not use female pronouns, courtship is largely devoted to very carefully finding out what sex, under all that leather and chainmail, the other Dwarf is, and a Dwarf identifying herself as female is treated akin to coming out as gay in a conservative society.
Exemplified by Sergeant Cheery Littlebottom of the Ankh-Morpork Watch, who "comes out" as a female, wearing boiled leather skirts, high-heeled boots, and makeup, much to the chagrin of other dwarfs; but is never without her iron helmet, battleaxe, and beard. Upon suggestion of shaving, she's outright horrified of the mere idea of losing her beard.
Being a dwarf also seems to be more a matter of certain actions and traditions than a biological thing, as Captain Carrot is technically a dwarf despite also being a nearly seven foot human.
Carrot's making a nature/nurture point — culturally he's a dwarf. He was raised as a dwarf, by dwarvern parents and went through all the normal process of growing up as a dwarf. He may not be as hardline dwarfish as the Deep Uberwald dwarves — mainly due to coming from a surface dwarf community near Lancre — but is still more dwarfish than many an Ankh-Morpork city dwarf. He questions the relevance of being (genetically) human in the light of all this.
It's pointed out several times that according to dwarf law and custom, Carrot actually is a dwarf. This tends to disturb other dwarfs meeting him for the first time, because they know something's not right but can't quite put their finger on specifically what it is, since their definition of "dwarf" doesn't actually say anything about height.
And about as averted as you can get in Artemis Fowl where Dwarves are human/mole/earthworm hybrids with Prehensile Beards that burrow through the dirt by eating it and then crapping it out as fast as they do. Also, they can suck in water through their skin (a dehydrated dwarf can use this to Wall Crawl!), and their saliva is a fast-hardening, glow-in-the-dark anesthetic.
In many ways, it's more of an elaborate Justified Trope than a direct aversion. They live underground and collect gold and jewels because they're evolved to live underground, and hoarding valuables is only natural when you find yourself in a society that values those shiny rocks you come across on a regular basis. They hate elves because a lot of them are criminals, and most of the police are elves. They have long beards because their beard hairs are ultra-sensitive whiskers for probing around in dark tunnels, and can be used to pick locks.
Niven and Barnes were probably playing homage to this trope with Mary-Martha "Mary-Em" Corbett, an eccentric live-action Gamer from the Dream Park novels. Though human, she's 4'1" tall, is built like a muscular fire hydrant, wields a halberd (~battleax), is The Big Guy of her adventuring party, guzzles beer like a pro, calls a spade a spade, and sings repetatively while she's marching. Although her songs tend to be a hell of a lot raunchier than this trope usually allows.
The Soddit, being a parody of The Hobbit, starts by taking the traditional portrayal of dwarves up to eleven and then some, although with ludicrously exaggerated Welsh accents, rather than Scottish ones (well, what would you expect a race of miners to sound like, look you, bach?). It's revealed early on, however, that dwarves hate having beards, it's just that they're allergic to shaving soap. Later, when Bingo Grabbins questions how they could have possibly carved the great caverns of the Mines of Black Maria with hand-axes (or, as the dwarves themselves claim, trowels), they're forced to admit that they didn't; all the mountains in Upper-Middle Earth are naturally hollow. And at the end of the book it turns out that dwarves are the larval form of dragons.
In the Dragaera novels written by Steven Brust, Easterners, who are identical to real-world humans, are sometimes called "dwarfs" by the tall, elf-like Dragaerans. Easterner society is based on medieval Eastern Europe rather than anything resembling Celtic or Nordic. The Serioli come a bit closer, living underground and forging powerful magical weapons, but are otherwise completely different.
Trapped on Draconica: Inverted. Lucia is slender, skilled with magic, avoids fighting, and holds little interest in gold or industry. Thus, he's closer to an elf than a tradiitonal dwarf. Whether all dwarves are like this is unknown because he's the only one in the setting.
In Once Upon a Time, dwarves are always "male", are asexual, and are hatched in groups of 8, fully grown (and fully clothed) from eggs. Their names are magically given to them by their pick-axes based on their personality, and it's their job as a species to crush diamonds into fairy dust.
Sontarans from Doctor Who are like typical dwarves in that they're an all-male race of short, stocky Proud Warrior Race Guys, but that's about where the similarities end. For starters, they're an alien clone race with greenish-grayish-brownish skin, potato-like faces, and virtually no hair. Also, they're a ridiculous exaggeration of the Proud Warrior Race Guy trope in that fighting is literally all they think about. For this reason, unlike many other dwarves, they're almost always villains.
Overlord deliberately exaggerates all dwarf stereotypes for comedic effect. Drinking, mining gold, hoarding gold, doing something altogether unsanitary to gold, sporting gigantic beards, wielding enormous axes, and harassing elves is basically their entire function. They have even less personality than the elves, which is impressive considering that the elves spend all their lives bewailing their lot and talking about how awesome they used to be. In fact, the only sound you get from a dwarf is a grunt. Followed by axe swing/flamethrower.
Armageddon MUD has a race of dwarves that is completely hairless, used to be enslaved, are immensely determined to their personal task to the point where every one of them is a Determinator. They are no more fond of mountain homes, alcohol, forging and axes than people of any other race are.
The Ura of Bastion are an odd combination of dwarves and Wutai.
Shadow Hearts: Covenant features a monster called Duergarnote Duergar is the Norse name for dwarves that was once a stereotypical Dwarf but his hatred of humankind warped him into a creature resembling a bug-eyed alien of some sorts.
Valhalla Knights Have Dwarves who are tall and have somewhat dark skin, they also have alot of Markings/Tattoos and the males don't seem to have anything more then a goatee if even that. According to the manual, although the Males are still stereotypical Bruisers, Females have increased intelligence and resistance, which is lead to believe they can be farily good spell casters, although they are still great front liners (which when you think about it, means they'd probably be the least 'Squishy' Spellcaster.). They also don't appear to have any issues with Elves.
The Rune Factory series has some very non-dwarfy dwarves. They're all of average or above-average height, live above ground like anyone else, may or may not have any forging skill, and often have no beard at all (those who do have a beard only have a small one, and it's only the older dwarves who do; the younger dwarven men are Bishounen like the rest of the young male cast). They also have pointy ears, though usually not quite as long as the elves' ears, and don't take any issue with elves or outsiders.
The Tiny Tina DLC of Borderlands 2 parodies this trope. Not only do all dwarves fit the classic stereotype, they all look like Salvador.
Loren: The Amazon Princess gives the character of Ramas, who plays the trope straight with a few twists (he's a merchant and doesn't live underground), but massively averts the trope with Dora. She's a Genki Girl, a Lovable Rogue, lives above ground with the humans, and has no problem with elves or anyone in the party.
In DM of the Rings, Gimli brings up the characteristic of dwarves. Aragorn, Legolas, and the DM mention a handful of other things than what he meant.
Cleric of Loki: Can you tell me anything that differentiates him from any other dwarf?
However, Durkon himself is a custom model. Unlike other dwarves, he rarely swears or loses his temper. He almost always remains calm and serves as the voice of reason in the party. He is unfailingly loyal and honest. His primary role on The Team is Good Shepherd /Combat Medic instead of a blacksmith or warrior. One wonders how he ended up worshiping Thor.
Sharon: So you're a dwarf? You're taller than I expected, um, you get that a lot don't you?
In Guilded Age, we have Gravedust Deserthammer, a dwarven shaman archer. He is amongst the most level headed in the group, as well as being mannerly and polite. He's never been seen to drink, ever. His name is the only thing truly dwarfish about him.
It may be difficult to find these days, but an old Gamespy comedy feature article were two writers comparing various things (like sorcerers versus warriors) and once, Elves VS Dwarves came up. They pointed out that there are many different depictions of elves, but dwarves tend to all be the same.
In Tales of the Questordwarves are practically blind, their toes are prehensile, and their beards are actually a thick coat of fur sprouting out of their chests.
In Yogscast Minecraft Series, dwarves are mostly the standard model, but in Hole Diggers Duncan jokes that male dwarves can be impregnated as well, while Simon jokes that dwarves lay eggs that need to be fertilised before any offspring are born.