An unbuilt trope is a work that seems
like a deconstruction
but is actually
the trope maker
itself. This is often because later appearances of the trope have decayed
(or been Flanderized
) compared to the original, defining appearance.
Picture the following scenario:
Boy, replacement goldfish is kind of a weird idea isn't it? Replacing someone you loved like that always struck you as kind of odd. The kind of person who would do that must not be a paragon of mental stability.
So you buy the full stack of volumes and look at the production date. 1952? 1952! It pre-dates every replacement goldfish you've ever seen. How can someone turn this vision into that?
Simple. Because the work was the trope maker, it could freely explore the ramifications of the trope before it solidified
(or in some cases, congealed) into its current form. It seems like a deconstruction, but at the time there was no trope to deconstruct; there was just an interesting idea to explore. It wasn't expected to conform to a certain pattern because the pattern had not yet been established. The trope could have taken on its current form for many reasons: the imitators could have been part of the misaimed fandom
of the work they drew inspiration from; they may have consciously decided that the original was too dark and thus needed to be lighter and softer
; they may simply have decided to take what they wanted from the story, and calling the original their inspiration caused people to assume the original was similar plotwise; or the imitators may not have had the talent required to depict the trope with the same depth that the original author did. After all, frequently a genius invents the trope and works it out with skill, and the hacks come after
, only able to vaguely copy it
or intentionally simplify it to make it easier to work with.
It can also go the other way around: the original is bland and unappealing (many sci-fi trope makers suffer from this, and even The Lord of the Rings
was considered such when it first came out); the later authors are the ones that constructed the mythos and the popular cliches. Alternatively, the deconstructed
form of the trope, rather than the original, became more popular and accepted over the long run.
Remember that this trope is not to gush about "the original" and how the rest of the works "don't get" the genius. Only about the source of the conventions in a certain genre
. Just because a work came early doesn't make it better or more genuine, in the same way that sketches are not better than the final work. If a work simply is an example of a trope that's more commonly associated with a later, more well known work, you may be looking for Older Than They Think
or Ur Example
The reverse of Seinfeld Is Unfunny
and Dead Unicorn Trope
. See Ink Stain Adaptation
and Lost in Imitation
for the process of how an idea can gradually lose nuance with new incarnations.
Sister trope of Early-Installment Weirdness
and Lost in Imitation
. Related to "Funny Aneurysm" Moment
, Hilarious in Hindsight
, and Harsher in Hindsight
, if it predicts a problem that won't be relevant until well after it's first shown.
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Anime and Manga
- The above example is from Astro Boy. Thanks to his sophisticated storytelling, a lot of Osamu Tezuka's work is like this. It's difficult to convince people that Pluto isn't so much a darker and edgier version of the tale, so much as a mere perspective flip.
- Imagine just how messed up life would be for an ordinary person in a world where all the real power is wielded by a relatively small number of people, and that power is not financial or political, but militaristic. Democratic government is essentially meaningless since no union of ordinary people can stand against the might of a lone badass. Because everyone knows that violence is the force that drives the wheel of civilization, fights occur constantly, and everyone with a bit of ability wants to claw their way as high up the badass scale as possible, whether for the sake of protecting innocents or enforcing their own will on others. The only genuinely powerful people who have any interest in being in charge are usually megalomaniacs and/or sociopaths. Governments tend to be either tyrannies, or farcical constructs whose laws can only be adequately be enforced by sympathetic vigilantes and a few Knight Templar civil servants who butt heads with them at every opportunity. Countries are constantly in flux between the two as evil overlords are dethroned by good guys, replaced with ineffectual governments, and conquered again by new bad guys. The series... Fist of the North Star. One of the first shonen fighting series.
- Galaxy Express 999 in its various incarnations is a very pessimistic account of prospects for The Singularity, despite coming out in 1978, nearly a decade before Vinge introduced the term.
- Mazinger Z built off the concepts in Gigantor to create the Super Robot genre. However, the series also featured multiple deconstructions of Super Robot tropes, such as the main character nearly destroying a town while learning to pilot his Humongous Mecha. A later episode even has the villains take over a Japanese village, at which point they systematically slaughter any civilians they consider "useless" and then use women in the village as Human Shields for their latest weapon.
- Great Mazinger introduced the Hot-Blooded Ace Pilot archetype with Tetsuya, who turned out to lack a sense of self worth and constantly feared being replaced due to a massive inferiority complex, which causes him to abuse his adopted sister and later results in the death of his adoptive father.
- Go Nagai's Violence Jack started After the End manga in Japan. It devoted its entire first chapter to showing in loving detail a Nightmare Fuel, Gorn filled account of The End of the World as We Know It. Things go From Bad to Worse after that, with a Villain Protagonist who fights and kills out of mere curiosity or boredom. Compared to that later series such as Fist of the North Star can be seen as Lighter and Softer
- Also, from the same author, Cutey Honey established several of the elements of a magical girl warrior, including a naked transformation sequence, several different gadgets to use in fight, an In the Name of the Moon speech, female Monster of the Week and more, however she is not magical as she is a gynoid (Or possibly, a cyborg) she also fights alone instead of having a team and her decision to fight is personal instead of her being a chosen one.
- Skull Man has all the trappings of a Nineties Anti-Hero, complete with killing numerous people just for the hell of it. And yet it also does a good job of pointing out the protagonist is murdering relatively innocent people and by his own standards, he'd have to kill every person in Japan to accomplish his goals. It also originated in 1970.
- Rei Ayanami of Neon Genesis Evangelion was the creator of the Rei Ayanami Expy. She also happens to be deconstruction of the archetype, as she is a Came Back Wrong under-aged clone of her love interest's mother inhabited by the soul of an Eldritch Abomination that goes on to destroy the world.
- Rei is also thought to be one of the Ur Examples of Moe...and she is also a deconstruction of it for much the same reasons as above.
- Similarly, Evangelion helped popularize the master planner Manipulative Bastard type character with Gendo. However, Gendo is portrayed as a deeply screwed up man who has only become ruthless because of the loss of his wife. In the end, he gets effortlessly out-gambitted by Rei, who steals the role he had planned for himself and gives it to Shinji instead.
- Sailor Moon, and the Magical Girl Warrior genre inspired by it, is cited as being at the extreme idealistic end of the Sliding Scale of Idealism Versus Cynicism, favoring The Power of Friendship over a bullet between the eyes as a way to defeat evil. But in the original manga, the Sailor Senshi rarely attempted to redeem villains and had no problem with killing them.
- Saint Seiya popularized the Rescue Arc as well as the convention of having a sequence of enemies impeding the heroes, but it also deviates heavily from later versions of it. The Gold Saints were above the level of strength Seiya and company could bring to the table and frequently the battles had to be determined by outside forces intervening.
- Dragon Ball Z helped start the concept of people with a Super Mode, but also showed the genocide of an entire race with such an ability by an enemy who wanted to destroy the group while they were still "normal". The Super Saiyan mode is also shown in a very nuanced light; while it's not exactly a Superpowered Evil Side, it often takes a toll on the sanity or morality of its user, and when it's first attained, it's not clear whether or not it's a good thing.
- Barefoot Gen shows how brutal society in Japan could be after the bombings; after Grave of the Fireflies, it gets worse off from here.
- In a similar way to Gendo, Haruhi Suzumiya popularized the idea of overpowered Reality Warpers. The series also spends a lot of time demonstrating how ridiculously dangerous Haruhi's powers would be: she nearly destroys the universe several times, without even knowing she's capable of doing so. Her self-serving powers have also caused her to become an unbelievably self-centered jerkass, and it takes her a long time to begin growing out of it.
- After the Merchandise-Driven anime, several spinoffs, and a number of less-memorable wannabes, it's easy to forget that the original Yu-Gi-Oh! was one of the darkest manga this side of Death Note. The early chapters are about a lonely, bullied geek taking revenge on his tormentors through Deadly Games involving torture, disfigurment, and Mind Rape. Even after Yugi mellows out a bit and the focus shifts to card games, the story is full of gruesome and sometimes horrific imagery. And then there are the villains: Kaiba and Marik both had abusive fathers, and in Marik's case it was so severe he developed a Split Personality. Pegasus is driven by a desperate and obsessive need to see his lost love again. Dark Bakura is the spirit of a man who had survived the genocide of his village and was consumed by the desire for revenge. Lesser villains are often weirdos and loners with equally haunting pasts who take their gimmicks way too far. Almost universally, they are obsessed with this card game and the power it gives them, and have a penchant for Death Traps, cruelty, and twisting the knife. For all the series gets criticized for harping on the value of friendship, there's a disturbing implication that Yugi's True Companions are literally the only thing that keep him from becoming as bad or worse as the people he's fighting against. And in the ending, Yami Yugi the master card gamer accepts Redemption Equals Death, crossing over into the land of the dead so that his "good half" can move on to a normal life. Far from being a celebration of tabletop gaming, the story is about how obsessing over a hobby to escape your problems turns you into a nasty, miserable, misanthropic person.
- The Golden Age of Comic Books, at times, was significantly darker than The Silver Age of Comic Books and more mature than The Dark Age of Comic Books:
- Most of this is because comics were only just escaping the influence of pulp fiction. The Golden Age also straddled the same time period as the second World War. When your countrymen are killing and dying on foreign shores to protect life and liberty, it makes sense that your comic book heroes would kill and die too. This can be overstated, though, particularly with regard to the most famous superhero characters. For instance, as professional Batmanologist Chris Sims has noted, "Sure, Batman might’ve fought vampires and carried a gun for like three issues, but by the end of that first year, it was pretty much all cat-wrestling and trips to Storybook Land."
- If you read the very first Batman/Joker story, it almost looks like someone decided to actually combine the violence and murder of the Frank Miller version with the campiness of the Adam West version. (This was also before Bob Kane decided NOT to have the Joker be one of the villains that spew terrible puns) It has simplistic art and bad dialogue, but people actually die laughing with huge unnatural smiles on their faces.
- The Human Bomb stories going back to 1941 always had a fair amount of Wangst in them. Everything he touched exploded, and the stories like something from Marvel from the seventies often explored how that would affect his pysche. Some of the time. Some of the time they played it as a joke.
- If you tell someone there's a comic book where the Human Torch is burning someone's arm to the bone on the cover, they'll probably think "what have comics come to these days?" or "man, they'd do anything to be edgy in the 90s." What they probably wouldn't think is "it's amazing what they put on comic book covers before there were rules about what you could put on comic book covers." Unless they've seen the issue in question◊.
- Golden Age Superman stories surprisingly have more in common with modern Superman than their Silver Age counterparts, in that Superman was portrayed more as a defender of the common man than the super powered lawman he later evolved into, and stories often had political and social themes to them. In general, many characters treated Supes as a thorn in the side of the establishment, just as one might expect they would in Real Life.
- To one who reads Watchmen today, the character of Rorschach feels like a deconstruction of the Nineties Anti-Hero, when he was in fact largely the inspiration for many Darker and Edgier heroes, whose creators missed the point. Ironically, Alan Moore ended up popularizing the Anti Heroes he set out to deconstruct.
- This is even more true with Watchmen's other anti-hero, The Comedian. He has all the mannerisms and attitudes of later "badass" gun using characters like Cable and The Punisher, who became increasingly popular in the decades right after Watchmen was published. He's also a rapist, a war criminal, and an all around asshole.
- Marshal Law, while deconstructing traditional superheroes, managed to deconstruct the '90s anti-hero in the '80s: At one point Marshal Law accuses the Public Spirit, a Superman analog, of inspiring an entire generation of heroes to go to war in the Zone, in what can only be described as "Super-Nam". The Public Spirit turns this around by telling Law that Law's own vigilante actions have also inspired people, except in a more horrific manner. We then find that Law, the 90s anti-hero, inspired the main villain to take up his actions in the first place, thus completing the cycle. The reader is left to conclude that Law and the Spirit are both extremely messed up people.
- Marvel's Secret Wars (preceding Crisis itself) was the start of the Crisis Crossover... and for the most part it never crossed over into the characters' books. You'd just get a few panels of the character disappearing for the crossover and reappearing.
- Wolverine was the Trope Namer for Wolverine Claws, but unlike a lot of other examples of the trope, stories with him have actually addressed that having claws come out of his hands HURTS; in fact some stories with him depicted blood coming out of his hands whenever he uses his claws and a period where he didn't have his Healing Factor addressed that without it he had to constantly bandage his hands whenever he used his claws without his Healing Factor to repair them. While also considered one of the Trope Codifiers for the Healing Factor power, having it had drawbacks like meaning anesthesia can't be used on him.
- Jack Kirby's OMAC seemed to utterly defy classification when it hit the stands in 1974, and didn't make it to nine issues. The series has since established a cult following, who have placed it firmly into the Cyberpunk genre: ten years before Neuromancer, you had a hero who gained his powers from an AI satellite, put in place to hold off nuclear exchanges and nullify attempts at corporate espionage. Long before Blade Runner and Ghost in the Shell popularized the concept, OMAC was showing sympathy to Ridiculously Human Robots and discussing ideas like memory and identity in a world where a person's memories can be removed or rewritten. One blogger even pointed out that it actually analyzed cyberpunk themes more than the 2011 reboot.
- Many early Italian Exploitation Films tried to paint themselves as "True Art", rather than just shocking for the sake of shocking. Indeed many sub-genres of Exploitation have their origins in Italian "art films", only to be copied by other lesser film makers who just didn't care. Ever hear of Salo or the 120 Days of Sodom? While being one of the most disgusting, shocking, and offensive movies ever made, it's not pointlessly so, but rather a satire on Italian Fascism. Anyone going into Cannibal Holocaust will expect disturbing and Gorny. But a thought provoking commentary on Imperialism?
- Although the giant monster movie genre has come to be synonymous with gleefully watching the invincible monsters tear apart the puny human cities, some of the earlier ones had a far more "realistic" and nuanced view of this. In The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms, half of the movie consists of the hero, labeled as a delusional foreigner, trying to convince the American authorities that the rhedosaurus really exists at all. And when it shows up, it's not Immune to Bullets, but – being a recently-resurrected dinosaur – carries all manner of hideous diseases we've never seen.
- The original Godzilla is nothing like the kaiju genre it spawned. In it, Godzilla is a clear metaphor for the horrors of nuclear weaponry. The nuclear bombing of Japan was fewer than 10 years past at the time. Godzilla is an evil abomination of nature, and his rampage is not treated as gleeful a spectacle of destruction. Rather, the film includes extended scenes of little kids painfully dying of radiation burns and other horrors. The film also examines the political ramifications of the Applied Phlebotinum that kills him.
- And similarly, Them! came out in 1954, when the giant monster movie was still new, and the first half of the movie is clearly... a Police Procedural (just with really bizarre clues), until we finally see what 'they' actually are. Them! itself was extremely influential. A number of its successors imitate the police procedural structure... even when, in terms of the plot, there's actually no mystery as to what's going on.
- Metropolis is one of the first science fiction movies ever, set in a futuristic city dominated by technology. And what's it about? How cool all the machines are? How awesome that robot is? No. It's about unionized labour and class division.
- Several works explored the ramifications and possibilities of the Reality Show, years before Big Brother and Survivor, the Trope Codifiers for reality television, were a speck in anyone's eyes:
- The Truman Show. While shows that we would now call "reality TV" (COPS, The Real World) did exist at the time, they were done in a far more documentary-style manner than the types of shows retroactively skewered by Truman. A line from the film ("We're tired of actors giving us fake emotions, pretending what to feel") hits harder than ever now.
- Ed TV did the same thing at the same time, only it did it in a more realistic fashion. Truman doesn't know he's on TV. Ed was one of many applicants for the job, and ends up finding out that being a reality TV star isn't all it's cracked up to be.
- Robert Sheckley's 1958 short story "The Prize of Peril" predates all of the above. It's about a man who goes on a TV show in which he must evade people out to kill him for a week in order to win a large cash prize.
- Albert Brooks' 1978 Mockumentary Real Life also skewered many Reality Show tropes.
- Another early example (1981) is the definitive cult icon's less successful younger sibling Shock Treatment, which was eerily prescient of reality television's cults of personality, lewd consumerism, and destructive effects on the talent long before Reality TV actually existed.
- The Cowboy Cop trope has been deconstructed multiple times before it was ever played straight later on without a hint of irony primarily in the action movies of the 1980s and 1990s.
- Bullitt was actually the first Cowboy Cop movie, but seen today, it looks like a deconstruction of the genre: the cop (Steve McQueen) ignores his superiors and dismisses the quite reasonable demands of a slimy politician (Robert Vaughan) out of distrust, but accidentally kills all the witnesses and ruins any chances of finding the real mob bosses. The film ends with him staring into a mirror, realizing just how badly he's screwed up.
- Dirty Harry also qualifies as an unbuilt trope. Harry's methods aren't actually shown all that positively. His Jack Bauer Interrogation Technique on the Scorpio Killer is downright horrific and ends up doing no good. And in the end he throws away his badge after disregarding orders and endangering innocents.
- The French Connection did something similar. Popeye Doyle is The Shield's Vic Mackey before Vic Mackey – goes against the books, quick to jump the leash, and at least a little bigoted. And what happens when he goes in guns blazing in the final Darkened Building Shootout? He kills a police contact, providing enough chaos for the kingpin to get away, and a "Where Are They Now?" Epilogue explains that he ended up getting transferred out of Narcotics for the clusterfuck.
- Where the Sidewalk Ends, from 1950, predates them all. The protagonist is a true Cowboy Cop, rampaging all over the city in his pursuit of justice – or he would be, if he didn't have to spend so much time dealing with the consequences of his actions.
- Blow-Up contains the Unbuilt Trope version of the Enhance Button. It's based on the realistic version of the trope: a photographer in a dark room. Unlike most other versions of the Enhance Button, enhancing the image is a time-consuming process, and the final result is so grainy that the photo might not show what it seems to show. Ultimately, it's like two mimes playing tennis.
- Harold and Maude: Harold is a Defrosting Emo Teen before there was emo.
- That paragon of 1980s action flicks, Conan the Barbarian (1982) is an introspective, dialogue-light opera exploring Nietszchean ideas about Man versus Society.
- How many people remember that First Blood was a downbeat film about a Shell-Shocked Veteran fleeing the law, rather than Rambo mowing down dozens of Dirty Commies while shirtless?
- Saturday Night Fever portrays disco lifestyle in a manner that is decidedly unsentimental and depressing enough to be labeled as a grim Deconstruction. A slew of imitators that followed were indeed unapologetically feel-good escapist fantasies – which SNF isn't.
- They Call Me MISTER Tibbs, a sequel to In the Heat of the Night, predated Shaft by some years and was a more conventional crime drama than later street-crime-seen-through-the-eyes-of-a-black-protagonist productions. Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song came out shortly after Tibbs and added, among other things, the fast-paced action scenes with funk music backgrounds that later became really popular through Shaft.
- Despite its influence on the modern day slasher film genre and kickstarting the career of Wes Craven, the original The Last House on the Left really bears no similarity to modern day slasher films at all. There is no shocking out of nowhere "jump scenes" or tension that has become a trademark of the genre, the killings are slow, obvious and fairly realistic and shocking in that manner. The Soundtrack Dissonance is quite obvious and fairly odd, as is the comedic bits sprinkled throughout. Furthermore all the killers including the gang and parents are both seen as normal people, not almost supernatural and indestructible beings. By today's standards it'd almost be seen as a dark comedy instead of a horror film.
- The Siege is a movie that looks at how a major terrorist attack in New York would disrupt life greatly... three years before September 11, 2001.
- This cracked article makes an interesting case that Starship Troopers, viewed today without context, could easily be mistaken for a satire on the War on Terror. A militaristic right wing government, complacent in its own superiority, suffers a devastating disaster that destroys a major population center. They blame a race of far off aliens on an isolated desert planet that couldn't possibly be responsible, and go to war, egged on by media saturated with progadanda. They quickly get bogged down in a quagmire. After capturing the leader, and torturing it horribly, they declare victory. Except it was made in 1997.
- Gunnery Sergeant Hartmann from Full Metal Jacket is the Trope Codifier for Drill Sergeant Nasty, but his methods lead to one of the recruits snapping and killing him, then committing suicide.
- Drunken Master, the first film of the "Jackie Chan learns Kung Fu" series. In it, Jackie's character was very good at fighting to begin with (he bests his teachers), and was actually sent to the Training from Hell as punishment, though ultimately he ended up becoming much better at Kung Fu than before. But in many subsequent films, Jackie plays an absolute novice with no previous fighting skills who suddenly becomes the best fighter in a very short time, much less time than in that first movie.
- Animal House actually does a lot in deconstructing Wacky Fratboy Hijinks, as it's pointed out how the wild and destructive Deltas do things that no sane college adminstration would allow; things that would get real college students arrested. Though the Deltas do ultimately get their revenge on the Dean and the snobbish Omegas by the end, it's a Pyrrhic Victory – in spite of it all, they're expelled from the college, and it's heavily implied that at least some of them end up drafted into the Army and sent to Vietnam. As Dean Wormer perfectly puts it, "Fat, drunk and stupid is no way to go through life, son."
- Funny Games plays like a Genre Deconstruction of the torture porn genre that was popular in the mid-2000s... except that it was made in 1997, as a testimony against any violent media. In fact, the popularity of the genre during this period may have been what prompted its Shot for Shot Remake in 2007.
- Get Carter feels at times like a brutal deconstruction of the Brit gangster flick that emerged in the late 90's due to directors like Guy Ritchie and Matthew Vaughan. The villains are shown as ruthless and incredibly sleazy, the killings are done in a very matter-of-fact manner with little blood and no dramatic tricks, it's set in bleak Newcastle rather than London, there is a complete absence of any pop soundtrack or any form of music and the lead character is cold-hearted and utterly ruthless, not shown as any better than the men he kills. Were it made today, it would almost certainly be a Genre Deconstruction. Yet it was made in 1971, long before British Gangster films became big.
- The Death Wish saga pioneered the urban Vigilante Man concept, but it also showed how dangerous it would be.
- Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon actually deconstructs many aspects of the oft-imitated plot structure that it lends its name to. Instead of using its famous "Three contradictory flashbacks" format as a simple plot gimmick (like most of its imitators do), it's a deeply philosophical character study that uses the format as a vehicle for discussing human beings' inherent inability to tell the truth, examining the moral implications of this idea in full. At one point, one character even concludes that almost all of mankind's evils arise from their attempts to avoid confronting the truth by lying to themselves. By the end, the story has ceased to be about a murder trial at all, and become the story of said character's struggle to regain his faith in humanity. Notably, the traditional "Fourth true flashback" (which has grown into a common conclusion for Rashomon Plots) is also strongly hinted to be another lie. We're initially led to believe that the Woodcutter (a neutral witness to the murder) is the only one telling the truth...until it turns out that he also left out several details to cover up the fact that he was the one who stole the murder weapon.
- Part of the reason why It's a Wonderful Life is a holiday classic is that it's one of the first – and very few – films to tackle the subject of holiday depression, doing it long before cynical takes on Christmas became common in pop culture. And unlike so many of those later films, this one does not play the depression for comedy, although there are some welcome moments of comic relief here and there.
- Viewed today, Michael Bay's The Rock can come off as a deconstruction of the mindless action and gung ho American patriotism that Bay's films are frequently criticized for—even though it was the second movie of his career, and his first military thriller. For one thing, the main antagonists are American terrorists fighting for an unusually sympathetic cause, with the Corrupt Bureaucrats that motivated them presented as the true villains. For another, the movie spends almost as much time condemning America's treatment of veterans and presenting a damning view of government secret-keeping as it does on action. Not to mention that the hero is a lone Brit who saves the day singlehandedly after the Navy SEAL team backing him up is killed.
- In Clerks, the famous "Death Star contractors" scene both describes the No Endor Holocaust trope, then deconstructs it seconds later. In the scene, Randal makes the observation that, since the second Death Star was still under construction at the time the Rebels destroyed it, it probably had innocent civilian contractors on board who were killed needlessly when it was destroyed. This idea is then taken apart seconds later by a custumer who happens to be an actual contractor: he overhears the conversation, then tells Dante and Randal the story of how he was supposed to do work on a mafia boss's house, but conned the job off on his friend when he found out whose house it was—leaving said friend to be shot dead by a rival gang when they put a hit out on the mafia boss's house. The contractor comes to the conclusion that, if the contractors were stupid enough to take a job inside a giant target like the Death Star, they have nobody to blame but themselves for their deaths.
- The Blair Witch Project, the Trope Codifier for the found-footage genre, also deconstructs elements of it. For one thing, Heather's insistence upon filming everything even when logic suggests she put the camera down for once, a staple of found-footage horror movies, is suggested by Josh to be her way of coping with the fact that she's lost in the woods — the screen on the camcorder all makes it feel less real. This also causes a rift between her and the rest of the group, with Mike and Josh telling her several times to turn the camera off and even attacking her over it. Furthermore, the film's tiny budget and rambling improv style, with the camera catching as many mundane events as it does exciting action beats, also makes it feel like a deconstruction of the many slick, big-budgeted imitators that it inspired.
- Network, a 1976 satire of television news, has been described as one of the most chilling movies ever made due to its deconstruction of a lot of the tropes present in 24-Hour News Networks – nearly two decades before such networks were an omnipresent force in news reporting. Howard Beale, for one, predates most examples of the Pompous Political Pundit, both real and fictional. It's also shown that his "mad as hell" attitude comes not from political extremism or another nefarious purpose, but is the result of him literally going mad as a result of working in television for too long. The network, meanwhile, is happy to feed his insanity in the name of the ratings that his unhinged rants produce, eventually dissolving its news department and placing it under the control of its entertainment division.
- The Bourne Identity is celebrated for revolutionizing the spy thriller flicks. However, the first film itself is not about spying. Instead of a spy, Bourne was an assassin, somebody who murders instead of collecting information, and a rogue one at that. Instead of taking down terrorists or criminals, Bourne is only interested in his survival. In fact, the primary Big Bad in the movie works for the U.S. government, and he himself is not killed by Bourne, but by a backstabbing partner of his.
- After reading books and watching shows like The Clique, Pretty Little Liars, and Gossip Girl, one might be inclined to view Mean Girls as a response to such stories, intended to deconstruct their catty heroines and antagonists by portraying the damage that such soapy high school backstabbing does to young people in real life. Nope – it was made in 2004, and in fact a case could be made that its success directly inspired the aforementioned books/shows and their imitators (including, ironically, its own sequel).
- Night of the Living Dead never used the word "zombie", and also broke some of the major zombie "rules"; its zombies can not only run, but are intelligent enough to open car doors (or at least, know to reach for the handle) and use melee weapons. Furthermore, it showed the main characters wiped out by their own incompetence while the world outside quickly figured out what was going on and was systematically wiping out the last of the zombies by morning. Both sequel series retcon this in different ways, but as a standalone film it's completely clear that the disaster is over. Later films either always treat zombie uprisings as an apocalyptic event, or joke about how stupid that is (like Shaun of the Dead).
- Likewise, Dawn of the Dead implied that the only reasons why someone would actually want a Zombie Apocalypse or some other doomsday disaster to happen are because they hold a grudge against some part of society, fantasize about being a badass, want to run wild, or some mixture of such – all the way back in 1978, three decades before Cracked pretty much said the same thing. To demonstrate this, the film has a racist cop who uses the zombie outbreak as an excuse to shoot minorities and immigrants without consequence, rednecks who treat zombie killing like a party, and lastly, the biker gang that loots the mall.
- WarGames: Every hacking-related trope from the last 30 years owes its existence to this film. Yet, some of those who see it now thinks "another hacker-boy-saving-the-world movie". No, he was the hacker boy who saved the world. (After nearly precipitating its destruction. Way to save on major characters.) It doesn't help that much of what gave WarGames its punch is fading from collective memory. Having a plucky young hacker almost precipitate World War III was an allegory on how nonsensical the Cold War was to the average person.
- While Airport is regarded by many as the Trope Codifier of the Disaster Movie (especially aviation-themed entries in the genre), many of its conventions were used some fifteen years earlier in the 1954 John Wayne film (he starred and co-produced) The High and the Mighty (based on the novel of the same name by Ernest K. Gann) about the struggle of an airliner's crew to get its plane and passengers to a safe landing after an engine fails midway through a flight from Honolulu to San Francisco. Some may see it as being a deconstruction of the genre, considering that nobody dies or is even injured, and that the plane, in the end, lands safely at the San Francisco airport.
- 1939's The Wizard of Oz popularized, if not introduced, the visual effect of portraying mundane life in monochrome or bland lighting and using lush color to present the more exciting and wonderful world of freedom and adventure. However, most later films and commercials that use the technique don't center the plot around a protagonist who specifically desires to return to her relatively uneventful and colorless life in the end.
- What if somebody told you about a mystery novel where a brilliant Victorian detective spends seven chapters relentlessly hunting down a murderer who, instead of being a hardened criminal or an evil genius, turns out to be a completely sympathetic vigilante who was just trying to avenge his wife (but dies for his efforts anyway), and where the murder victims themselves are the closest things in the story to actual "villains"? Sounds like a deconstruction of the Black and White Morality of old-fashioned "superhero detective" stories, right? Nope. That's the plot of A Study in Scarlet—the 1887 novel that first introduced the world to Sherlock Holmes.
- In the same novel, Sherlock Holmes, Master of Disguise… is completely fooled by a mysterious crook posing as an old lady.
- The Hound Of The Baskervilles also gives us the Ur Example of the Scooby-Doo Hoax in a gritty mystery where the perpetrator is a hardened criminal who actually kills people, and specifically uses the charade because he knows that it's less likely to be investigated by the police than a string of more conventional murders. This was all written about 68 years before Scooby-Doo ever saw the light of day, but it shows how horrifying the archetypal "fake haunting" plot would be if it actually happened.
- Many of the original short stories look like a deconstruction, when in fact they're unbuilt tropes. It isn't Always Murder, much of the time Everybody Lives. Sometimes, no actual crime was even committed (which is Lampshaded by Watson). Sometimes, even when a crime is committed, Holmes will let the criminal go if he takes pity on them, believes they have learned their lesson and will commit no more crimes, and/or concludes that the scandal would do unacceptable damage to innocent bystanders. Sometimes, even if the crime is a murder, if Holmes decides the murder victim was enough of an Asshole Victim, he'll let the killer go free.
- Sherlock Holmes is the Trope Namer for Sherlock Scan (maybe Dupin was the Ur Example) but the trope is deconstructed in The Sign of Four, when Holmes deduces that Watson's brother was a scoundrel by studying his pocket watch. This is Watson's Berserk Button, and he accuses Holmes of knowing the sad story of his brother's destiny beforehand, and of using Phony Psychic techniques to claim he deduced it from a simple watch. In a rare moment of humility, Holmes recognizes that he is a Insufferable Genius, and that he has hurt his friend's feelings by doing the Sherlock Scan For Science! without thinking into the consequences.
- The Murders in the Rue Morgue by Edgar Allan Poe is probably the first detective novel ever written. However, Dupin does not rely entirely on a logical Sherlock Scan, and the imagination of the detective plays a key role in the story. Also, the culprit comes from nowhere, subverting both Foreshadowing in general and the elements of a Fair Play Whodunnit.
- Trent's Last Case by E C Bentley is generally credited with starting the inter-war Fair Play Whodunnit boom. However, the Great Detective in it gets the solution of the murder completely wrong.
- Lord Dunsany's stories are this way. He had a taste for cruelly ironic endings for his Adventurer Archaeologist protagonists (see "The Hoard of the Gibbelins" for example), which seems like a subversion of the good fortune common to your average Barbarian Hero appearing in Sword and Sorcery stories. However, Dunsany predated Howard, Leiber, etc. who were inspired by Dunsany.
- "The Sword of Welleran", "Carcassone" and "In the Land of Time" as well, though "The Fortress Unvanquishable, Save for Sacnoth" has a happier ending. The King of Elfland's Daughter is a bit more ambiguous. Keep in mind that H.P. Lovecraft admired Lord Dunsany as much as any (then-)living writer.
- The Lord of the Rings bears this relation to High Fantasy, with its quasi-pacifistic overtones, Bittersweet Ending, and inverted Plot Coupon. The heroes do not stick together to the end, and their victory did not preserve the doomed Golden Age but merely warded off total conquest by evil. Also, the plucky hero, while exhibiting enormous fortitude, nevertheless fails in his mission; it was Gollum's unlucky slip which destroyed the Ring.
- Even the earlier, children's book The Hobbit does this. The dwarves turn out to be helpless against the dragon, who is killed by someone else entirely; when this happens, the humans, elves, and dwarves all immediately turn on each other to fight over the dragon's hoard. The hero betrays his companions (stealing the most precious gem of the hoard) in a (fruitless) attempt to buy peace.
- The current trend of Grim Dark fantasy is somewhat motivated by Hype Backlash against Tolkien. However, Tolkien had been creating Grim Dark fantasy (The Silmarillion, The Children of Húrin) long, long before Stephen Donaldson and George R. R. Martin.
- Also nowadays, the trend of fantasy worlds actually having little to no actual wizards seems like deconstruction, but in The Lord of the Rings there are no actual human mages, and Elves, while definitely being magical, do not use magic for direct attacks (such as fireballs). Gandalf is the only one we see using "direct magic" onstage, and (though few people outside the fandom know this) he's actually not a human sorcerer—he's a Maia, a being roughly akin to an angel in Tolkien's universe, who only appears human.
- While Tolkien is largely the inspiration for the modern conception of elves, many uses of them would count as subversions today. That's especially true of the Noldor of Nargothrond, a group of elves living in a large secluded cave city obsessed with craftsmanship and smithing. The "one with nature" stereotype, in particular, is only seen in a small group that is mostly insignificant within his greater mythos.
- Medieval European Fantasy works inspired by Tolkien tend to resemble The High Middle Ages more than anything else; people who make fiction that deliberately avoids this particular aesthetic often paint it specifically as trying not to create "Tolkienesque" settings. Tolkien's fantasy, however, is more directly inspired by The Low Middle Ages, particularly pre-Norman Conquest Anglo-Saxon culture (the most notable exception being the Shire, which is essentially a compact version of early modern England).
- Tolkien's portrayal of the Orcs also deserves special mention. Though most people consider them to be the Trope Codifier—if not the Trope Maker—for the Always Chaotic Evil trope, it should be noted that Tolkien went on record saying that he didn't consider the Orc race to be uniformly evil; because of his strong Catholic upbringing, he expressly rejected the idea of an entire race being beyond salvation, and said that he would have taken the time to include sympathetic Orcs if he'd been able to fit them into the narrative.
- The Orcs' homeland—the basis for another rather famous trope—can also be considered a deconstruction of the classic "Realm of Evil", as Tolkien actually took time to point out that a place like Mordor would have to include huge tracts of exceptionally fertile farmland in order to support a huge military juggernaut; this is actually borne out by reality, as volcanic soil generally does make very good land for planting crops.
- In the earliest vampire folklore, vampires are most definitely not tall, elegant, sexy aristocrats. Instead, they're short, ugly, smelly peasants—which is what you might realistically expect of people forced to live in seclusion and hunt other humans to survive. And, of course, it makes sense that peasants would be far more likely targets of vampire attacks than aristocrats in Real Life. Nosferatu, one of the first vampire-focused films in history, even uses elements of this early vampire lore in its portrayal of Count Orlok: a tall, ugly, probably smelly, aristocrat.
- For that matter, Dracula (which codified so many of the characteristics of modern vampires) had Drac running around in the daylight note and being killed by a couple of knives. He was also described as hairy (even hairy palms!), moustached, and rather brutish-looking, rather than the suave aristocrat he's been commonly depicted as after Bela Lugosi; His breath stank of rotting corpse, too. Also, Renfield isn't quite The Renfield: although more-or-less controlled by Dracula, he's not willingly so, and even tries to kill him.
- The villain of the very first vampire novel, aptly-named The Vampyre by John Polidori, did not have fangs. He did bear an uncanny and insulting resemblance to Polidori's boss, though. It wasn't until Varney the Vampire that fangs showed up, but that was a weird book, too: it ends with Varney killing himself at the crater of Vesuvius.
- Speaking of Varney, he was the first morally-ambiguous and conflicted vampire, before Dark Shadows, The Vampire Chronicles and Angel came along.
- Prior to Twilight's vegetarian vampires. The Vampire Chronicles skewered the concept of a "vegetarian" vampire in the first book, Interview With A Vampire, with its protagonist Louis. Although he tried to retain his humanity and survive on the blood of animals, his efforts were in vain and his creator scolds him for his hypocrisy of loathing the downsides of being a vampire while enjoying its benefits. In general, Louis is regarded with mild contempt by most vampires for trying to remain human to begin with and is generally considered the weakest of Lestat's children.
- Carmilla is the Trope Maker for Lesbian Vampire, but it's not sexploitation. Instead, it's written more as a standard "vampire victim" story, just with the victim and the aggressor of the same gender. It's not really a Romance either, although Carmilla can be interpreted sympathetically.
- The Prisoner of Zenda falls into this in respect to the "Swashbuckler genre". The antagonist usurper to the throne isn't a Card-Carrying Villain with 0% Approval Rating, instead, he's more of an Anti-Villain who is liked by the populace, and for good reason, as the legitimate ruler is a drunken boor who doesn't care about the average citizen. Nor does his Dragon have this characterization, instead being an Affably Evil / Faux Affably Evil type who is a Draco in Leather Pants in-universe. Also notable is that the book has a Bittersweet Ending which becomes a Downer Ending in the sequel which is in keeping with Ruritania being presented realistically, rather than as a story-book country.
- The book was also meant as a satire, partly of Austria and Russia's even then outdated method of ruling through absolute monarchy, partly of the politically unstable Balkan countries.
- The Genre Popularizer for pirate fiction would have to be Treasure Island. But the pirates in the book are actually the villains, not the loveable swashbuckling lovable rogues, or the care free lay-abouts seen in later works. Also, not a single act of piracy actually occurs in the book: the actual crime committed is mutiny, with the piracy itself in the backstory.
- Gullivers Travels is one of the oldest examples of adventure fiction, and is often seen as a classic of that genre. However, it was never meant as such. It was in fact a rather heavy-handed satire of European society of the time. It wasn't until Victorian times (the golden age of adventure fiction) that a Misaimed Fandom lumped it together with newer works. Similarly, another early "Adventure novel", The Swiss Family Robinson, was meant to be "educational", designed to teach boys Naturalism, Christian Values, and the Philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Doesn't very much evoke the treehouse-building, zebra-riding, and pirate-fighting of the Disney adaptation, does it?
- Gladiator features an invulnerable and super-strong protagonist who is unable to end a war, clean up Washington, or even make a living off his talents. Even his college football career ends prematurely when he kills another player. It reads as a deconstruction of the Superman myth, but it's the book that inspired much of the early Superman comics.
- If your only exposure to Yiddish-Jewish culture is Fiddler on the Roof, reading Mendele the Book Peddler, the first Yiddish novelist, is a shocker. His work is about how poverty and anti-Semitism have brutalized Jews, turning them into sadistic bigots – and how their faith in being "chosen people" is a sick joke. In his short story "The Calf," a happy young boy is essentially brainwashed and tortured by his teachers into regarding fun as sinful. His work reads like an angry Deconstruction of Fiddler on the Roof. But the Shalom Aleichem stories that Fiddler on the Roof is based on were actually a Lighter and Softer reaction to Mendele, and were about finding dignity and meaning even in a cruel world. As Tevye puts it:
Trying to scratch out a pleasant tune without breaking his neck.
- If the Dr Mabuse books were published today, they'd look like a deconstruction of Bond Villain Stupidity: the title character has several inherently self-destructive tendencies that always ruin everything for him, his plan isn't to Take Over the World but to bring about The End of the World as We Know It and then rule the ashes, and even his name is a pun on the French "m'abuse" – "I abuse myself." These books were written long before James Bond got started, and it's been argued that Mabuse was the direct forerunner to Blofeld, but with the latter's plot devices an integral part of his character.
- Horatio Hornblower: Even in what's arguably the flagship of the Wooden Ships and Iron Men genre, Hornblower is a brilliant captain, and a frequently self-doubting man who has difficulty remembering or believing that people actually like him.
- Frankenstein was one of the first major "monster stories." But going back and reading it now, after growing up exposed to generic Frankenstein's Monster stereotypes where it wanders around aimlessly, groans, and kills people, one may be a bit surprised to find an urbane woobie of a monster who is in many ways more sympathetic than his creator and quotes liberally from literature. He also carries firearms for self-protection. The only things that make him appear inhuman are his height and his eyes, and it's decidedly ambiguous whether Frankenstein's true crime was creating the monster or a form of Parental Abandonment. And although it's up for a lot of interpretation, the monster is probably not Always Chaotic Evil.
- Also, there's no Igor or peasants waving Torches and Pitchforks while running up to the castle—or for that matter (with occasional exceptions) any public knowledge of the thing at any point. And there is no castle; the monster is created in an upper-floor laboratory of a university.
- The physical abilities are also subject to this: the typical view of the creature is that he is slow and inarticulate, with only physical strength that it possesses little control over. In contrast, the creature in the book is strong, agile, and quite dexterous; as noted above, he also knows how to use firearms by the end.
- Jane Austen wrote Pride and Prejudice at a time when women found men like The Stoic Mr. Darcy completely unattractive. Today, of course, this only augments his attraction right off the bat rather than detracting from it.
- Dante's Inferno, despite being the Trope Namer of Fire and Brimstone Hell, and the source of many of the beliefs thereof, actually depicts the lowest and worst level of hell as covered in Ice. Further, Satan, far from being the Ruler of Hell, (the closest thing to a ruler is King Minos) is actually basically in Solitary Confinement (except for three humans whose faces he's chewing) and, far from being the omniscient Evil Counterpart of God, he's so stupid (or possibly mind-controlled) that he can't figure out that his attempts to escape the ice, by flapping his wings, is exactly what's making it so cold.
- Another interpretation is that Satan knows he's causing the cold with his wings, but is literally unable to help himself; his desire to return to Heaven is too strong for him to overcome.
- The original novel of Dr. No prominently features Doctor No's incredibly elaborate, cozy island lair, which was later immortalized in the film adaptation and set the standard for larger-than-life evil lairs everywhere. However, it also goes into detail about the time, money and resources that would go into constructing such a thing – Dr. No first appears in person as Bond wonders just how he managed to build a window facing out into the ocean into the wall, and how much such an operation would cost. Bond is also well aware of how strange, surreal, and (given that he isn't expected to leave alive) morbid his welcome is. The whole thing exists to serve Dr. No's special brand of megalomania. The movie included the impressive lair, but cut out the details of its construction and the kind of mind that led to its creation, making it seem a good deal less extraordinary.
- The film version of Dr. No was the Trope Maker for the megalomaniacal Bond villain and was repeated with characterisation of other villains in later films – when Dr. No is actually the 6th Bond book and the title character's megalomania was treated as something unusual and unlike the previous villains (some of whom then became the villains in future Bond films due to them being made in Anachronic Order). Confused yet?
- Speaking of Bond, imagine if someone set out to write a 'Darker and Edgier' version of the tuxedoed playboy spy that everyone knows today. It might involve Bond being utterly outclassed by the Big Bad, have him fail to notice that the girl of the week is actually working with him, and might end up with him totally disillusioned about his job and the demands of real politics. The basis of the very first Bond novel Casino Royale then.
- Consequently, the movie adaptation of Casino Royale seems like a deconstruction of the previous Bond films (and was even hyped as such, at a time when it was perceived that the Bond franchise was wearing thin), particularly the Moore era, when it's in fact being faithful to the source material, although there's definitely a certain mockery of the campier moments in Bond's history.
- A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court invented the Giving Radio to the Romans trope while pointing out all the problems it would realistically cause. While all of its adaptations and later users of the trope are comical and fairly idealistic, the original is pretty dark. There's humor about Medieval Morons, but there's also realistic depictions of a Corrupt Church and overall bad society. Moreover, instead of being a hero, like in the adaptations, the protagonist becomes a warlord through his technological savvy, and gets corrupted by power.
- The War of the Worlds, the H.G. Wells book, is perhaps the first story of a war between humans and aliens. But rather than the exciting battles, heroics, and scientific ingenuity of e.g. Independence Day or Doctor Who, it features human beings as panicking, weak, or mean, entirely unable to defeat their invaders, who are eventually felled by earthly microbes. It's more about how badly human beings deal with the collapse of civilization, rather than focusing on the fight with the Martians.
- It was also an allegory for imperialism. Invaders come from far away with vastly superior technology rendering resistance futile. In actual history, it was not local resistance that kept European colonies out of Africa until the late 19th century, but disease, hence the ultimate fate of the invaders. The War of the Worlds was an attempt to put Europeans in the shoes of Africans (or any other peoples oppressed by imperialism). So unlike all the later Scary Dogmatic Aliens (such as the Nazi aliens in the Orson Welles radio version, the Communist aliens in the '50s movie, or the Bin Laden aliens in the 2005 Tom Cruise movie version), the aliens in the book represent the exact cultural values of the society they are invading. The part where a soldier talks about what will happen in an invaded world takes some ideas from this, where he talks of resistance groups and some people collaborating with the aliens.
- Additionally, partially because of war paranoia and also due to the limitations of visual media, future aliens as evil outsiders would usually appear human. Only in recent years has the Starfish Alien become a trope in popular science fiction again. However, perhaps because he invented the Alien Invasion genre (a subgenre of the "invasion story"), he was free to provide an early example of the truly alien. In the context of a century of Rubber-Forehead Aliens, it manages to come off as Deconstruction. Wells actually tried to come up with scientific explanations about the aliens, they have trouble moving on Earth due to the higher gravity, and trouble breathing from the atmosphere.
- Though it wasn't the first, The Man in the High Castle by Philip K. Dick is considered a hallmark of classic Alternate History, but manages to deconstruct the genre by having the title character write his own alternate history in which the Allies won World War II, but in a different way than in real life. The ending is a Mind Screw which seems to hint that the characters realize that neither that fictional history nor their own is real.
- Also an Unbuilt Trope in a different way: this is probably the first serious "The Nazis win" Alternate History, but it seems to deconstruct several clichés associated with the genre nowadays. Rather than being a venerated father figure for the Reich, Hitler is in a lunatic asylum and none of the current Nazi leadership can bring themselves to admit that they have built a world based on the ideas of a man even they now think is mad. We spend much more time looking at the Japanese-ruled part of the US than the Nazi-ruled part. One character talks about how the Nazis' policies appeal to some white working-class Americans, making blue-collar jobs more celebrated in culture and socially acceptable (reflecting how they built their support in Germany in Real Life) rather than the usual modern Nazi Nobleman stereotype.
- Readers of Robert E. Howard's original Conan the Barbarian stories may be struck by how different the character – an intelligent, often cheerful, polyglot who wears heavy armor into battle – is from the Barbarian Hero archetype he inspired.
- The original novel of The Three Musketeers is a lot like The Prisoner of Zenda in that while it's a major influence on the swashbuckler genre, it's much more cynical than the films it inspired (including most of its own adaptations). D'Artagnan is something of an anti-hero: he has several love affairs and is not above tricking Milady into sleeping with him while she thinks she's sleeping with her lover. Unlike the malevolent Evil Chancellor of adaptations, Richelieu is an Anti-Villain who has France's welfare in mind. Ultimately, D'Artagnan ends up working for him and becomes good friends with Rochefort, Richelieu's Dragon, after besting him in several duels.
- The later books tended to deconstruct it further, with all of their antics in the first book biting them in the ass repeatedly in the later ones, and the most chivalric of the four suffering the most for his Royalist and traditional stances.
- A lot of early European novels like Tristram Shandy and Don Quixote seem to be deconstructions of the form, with the author intervening, characters reading earlier parts of the story, etc, and yet they can't be deconstructing the novel because Don Quixote is often considered the first modern novel, and Tristram Shandy is an early English novel.
- With its metanarrative, its extensive use of references, the narrative's exploration of the processes of memory and writing, and the manipulation of excerpts from other works of literature in order to give them new meanings, some critics suggest that Tristam Shandy – along with the later Moby-Dick – is this to the postmodern novel, long before the term postmodern was even coined.
- I Am Legend was the inspiration for many of the classic zombie stories, including Night of the Living Dead. It also has the inhuman hordes being depicted as sentient, and the lone survivor is their version of a boogeyman. The ethical questions concerning his attempts to survive in this new world are a primary theme of the end of the novel.
- The Picture of Dorian Gray is quite interesting in relation to Prince Charming and Prince Charmless. The novel is one of the very first uses of the term Prince Charming, which makes it kind of an Unbuilt Trope example, since it's used about Dorian (although of course there are later, straight examples of Prince Charming). Modern fairy tale parodies, reacting to the Flat Character of the stock Prince Charming, will tend to portray him as stupid (see Enchanted) or will have the character actually be Prince Charmless and act like a selfish cad (see Shrek, The Princess Bride, Fables, Into the Woods, etc.) Both of these subversions are used in Wilde's novel, but in a much darker way. When introduced, Dorian seems like the benevolent Flat Character version, but it's taken further since he's a Blank Slate or even an Empty Shell, which explains why when he goes bad, he goes really bad, since his shallowness is at Lack of Empathy levels. Dorian would come across as a very dark take on/deconstruction of Prince Charmless, were he not the first example of it.
- Misery. Both the book and the film seem to be a rather disturbing Deconstruction of the Straw Fan trope. Keep in mind that the book was written in 1987 and the film debuted in 1990, well before the full extent of Fan Dumb would be exposed on the Internet.
"...one will have any doubt that those are laborious triflers who spend their time on useless literary problems, of whom even among the Romans there is now a great number. It was once a foible confined to the Greeks to inquire into what number of rowers Ulysses had, whether the Iliad or the Odyssey was written first, whether moreover they belong to the same author, and various other matters of this stamp, which, if you keep them to yourself, in no way pleasure your secret soul, and, if you publish them, make you seem more of a bore than a scholar."
- Lolita was the Trope Namer for Lolicon, but if you read it carefully, you'll realize that it's a Deconstruction of that very trope by showing how Humbert's flowery prose and profession of his love for Lolita doesn't change the fact that he's a pedophile who took advantage of a preadolescent girl and ruined her childhood. The novel also implies that if Humbert could see Dolores objectively, he would see just another normal, banal suburban girl who is neither poetically pure nor some sexually precocious nymph.
- Isaac Asimov created the Three Laws of Robotics, which have been imitated by many other science fiction writers. However, Asimov's Robot stories were mostly dedicated to the Laws' inadequacies.
- Captain Nemo from Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (published in 1869) is an Unbuilt Trope of the Übermensch: A Wicked Cultured Well-Intentioned Extremist who claims to be Above Good and Evil because he has done with society and is practically above any law of the civilized nations thanks to the power of his submarine, the Nautilus. … however, he is a Deconstruction of the trope, because the contradiction between his unlimited power (that lets him cross the Moral Event Horizon) and his compassionate nature causes him a Villainous Breakdown. This dialogue between him and Professor Aronnax lampshades it 14 years before Also Sprach Zarathustra:
"I have hesitated some time," continued the commander; "nothing obliged me to show you hospitality. If I chose to separate myself from you, I should have no interest in seeing you again; I could place you upon the deck of this vessel which has served you as a refuge, I could sink beneath the waters, and forget that you had ever existed. Would not that be my right?"
"It might be the right of a savage," I answered, "but not that of a civilized man."
"Professor," replied the commander, quickly, "I am not what you call a civilized man! I have done with society entirely, for reasons which I alone have the right of appreciating. I do not, therefore, obey its laws, and I desire you never to allude to them before me again!"
This was said plainly. A flash of anger and disdain kindled in the eyes of the Unknown, and I had a glimpse of a terrible past in the life of this man. Not only had he put himself beyond the pale of human laws, but he had made himself independent of them, free in the strictest acceptation of the word, quite beyond their reach! Who then would dare to pursue him at the bottom of the sea, when, on its surface, he defied all attempts made against him? What vessel could resist the shock of his submarine monitor? What cuirass, however thick, could withstand the blows of his spur? No man could demand from him an account of his actions; God, if he believed in one – his conscience, if he had one – were the sole judges to whom he was answerable.
- The Godfather, the novel that inspired probably the most influential of Mafia movie series, has one of the central tropes of mafia fiction, Nothing Personal, taken apart by none other than Michael Corleone himself:
"Tom, don't let anybody kid you. It's all personal, every bit of business. Every piece of shit every man has to eat every day of his life is personal. They call it business. OK. But it's personal as hell. You know where I learned that from? The Don. My old man. The Godfather. If a bolt of lightning hit a friend of his the old man would take it personal. He took my going into the Marines personal. That's what makes him great. The Great Don. He takes everything personal. Like God. He knows every feather that falls from the tail of a sparrow or however the hell it goes? Right? And you know something? Accidents don't happen to people who take accidents as a personal insult."
- Creatures of Light and Darkness by Roger Zelazny has a novelty martial art – known as "Temporal Fugue" – practised by godlike superhumans, which involves practitioners projecting themselves through space and time to a place behind their enemies, striking right before their foes strike. If both practitioners use Temporal Fugue at the same time, it results in an infinite cascade of recursion and duplication, which strains the time-space continuum. At first, this would seem like a deconstruction of No, I Am Behind You, but Creatures of Light and Darkness was written in 1969, long before anime dealing with the subject first started to boom.
- We Will Use Manual Labor in the Future is subverted in The Sleeper Awakes by H. G. Wells, before Fordism was invented and assembly-line mass production took off. The future society contains a large slave class, and the narrator is initally led to believe that the slaves are like the slaves of his day – labourers. It's only later on that he realises that almost all production has been industrialised, and the slaves are just machine operators. Unlike the laborers of his day, they have pale skin and almost no muscle.
- The fairy tale "Little Red Riding Hood" is probably the archetypal "Stranger Danger" story. However it features elements that nowadays seem like not only a deconstruction, but a particularly angry one at that. The attack happens not outside, but in a house belonging to the girl's grandmother, a place where one would think she'd be safe, and the Big, Bad Wolf preys on her by assuming the grandmother's identity. Furthermore, the attacker gaining entry into said house is not the sole responsibility of the girl. Had it been written today, "Little Red Riding Hood" would've been seen as a stinging critique of the idea of "Stranger Danger", a reminder that most child predators are relatives of the children they prey on.
- Edmond Hamilton's short story "He That Hath Wings" is one of the first stories to feature mutants, written in 1938. The protagonist is a Winged Humanoid. He never uses his power to help people or to hurt them, he has his wings amputated once his fiancee demands it, and once they grow back, he flies himself to death.
- Don Quixote:
- Sancho Panza is not a villain, but he is the first example of exploring Cut Lex Luthor a Check, someone who realizes that he can get rich if he works for himself and not The Hero: He follows Don Quixote under the promise of a governorship in the future, but when he hears Don Quixote's claims about having the recipe of the Balsam of Fierabras, a Healing Potion from a Chivalric Romance that could revive a man cut in half, Sancho analyzes how to get rich with that: He quits the promise and only wants the recipe, planning to be rich selling it to sick and wounded people. He even asks Don Quixote how much it would cost to make it. Once sure that it’s profitable, Sancho helps Don Quixote prepare the potion. The potion seems to help heal Don Quixote, but makes Sancho very sick, so he concludes it only works with Knights, and Don Quixote is the only Knight left, making it not profitable.
- The first part of the novel established firmly Quixote's character as a Lord Error-Prone, but Misaimed Fandom considered him the Ur Example of a Mad Dreamer. In the second part, Cervantes decides to explore all the ramifications of a Mad Dreamer: It shows us a lot of people – Nobles, bandits, soldiers – holding Don Quixote in higher esteem within the work for his imagination and vivacity, organizing a Massive Multiplayer Scam that convinces Don Quixote he really is an Knight Errant… because they want to mock him. The Only Sane Man calls Don Quixote a fool for making all the others be as mad as he. Only when the novel finishes, Don Quixote realizes that, even when he lived the life of a Knight Errant exactly as the Chivalric Romance books said, he didnt do any good to anyone. So those books were lies. The Fan Disillusionment is so great, he dies. The really disturbing part is that the novel claims a Family-Unfriendly Aesop because this is the best scenario for a Mad Dreamer: He could never be as famous or lovable sane than he is as insane:
- The novel explores the Book Burning trope in a far more comedic way than you'll find in a post-World War II environment, with an emphasis more on the Moral Guardian aspect of the trope, since all the censorship in Cervantes' day was by the Spanish Inquisition; indeed, the anonymously-written Lazarillo de Tormes, the first picaresque novel and a major target for the Inquisition, was either a huge influence on Cervantes or else something he himself wrote, so he would have known how frustrating it could be to have your books burned. In chapter IV of the first part, Don Quixote’s niece and Old Retainer asked the Moral Guardians' permission to do the Book Burning in a desperate attempt to cure him. The Moral Guardians are the most educated people in the village (a curate and a barber); they never wanted to impose their ideas and are doing this as a favor to the family, so they don’t care much for this Book Burning, and end up stealing a few volumes they think are actually pretty good. In Chapter XXXII, the curate jokingly threatens to burn two of the four books an innkeeper has: two of them are Non-Fiction Literature about awesome Real Life soldiers, and the other two Chivalric Romance books heavy on Rule of Cool. The curate wants to burn the latter, and the innkeeper the former.
- Many old Fairy Tales are subject to Grimmification, being deconstructed into Darker and Edgier stories. However, many of the tales that the Grimm Brothers recorded were never meant to be kid-friendly. Some were horror stories, written by and for adults, or cautionary tales meant to scare children straight: For example, early versions of "Little Red Riding Hood" had the wolf kill the grandmother, trick Red into drinking her blood and eating her flesh, and, ultimately, eat Red.
- And what English readers got is actually toned down from the German. Several stories were omitted in their entirety for the early English editions because they were considered too offensive, and others were changed to be more palatable. Snow White's wicked stepmother who wanted to eat her internal organs? Remove the "step" from the equation.
- Dune went in-depth examining the full social and religious implications of the Robot War long before it became the archetypal plot that it is today – and it did it without ever showing the war itself. Instead, the story takes place millennia after the war, in a universe where its aftermath led to a religious crusade against artificial intelligence... and gave rise to oppressive aristocratic governments and subcultures of power-crazed Ubermensches who manipulate the human race with mystical powers. Not to mention the struggle to control the substance that fuels said mystical powers, which ends up controlling the universe's economy and touching off centuries of ever more destructive wars. It's basically an entire Space Opera setting built around drug-dealing. Though the Robot War merely forms the background of the story, its results imply that in Real Life, even victory in such a conflict could turn out to be disastrous for humanity.
- Vera Claythorne of Agatha Christie's And Then There Were None is seemingly the originator of the Final Girl trope – in a work in which a Serial Killer preys on victims, she has the personality of The Ingenue, and is the last one standing. However, Vera plays out as a very skewed take on the trope – beneath her innocent persona, Vera is actually mentally unbalanced, and is guilty of a very evil act – in fact, the reason she is designated as final is because the killer perceived her as (one of) the most evil of the bunch – in contrast with all later versions in which the Final Girl is the most innocent. The reason she survives is because the killer wanted to punish the most guilty by letting them live longer and suffer the mental trauma, and Vera kills the last remaining character then hangs herself.
- A Clockwork Orange is one of the earlier works to feature Heel-Face Brainwashing, which is often played as a more humane way to resolve things with a bad guy than simply killing him or imprisoning him, especially as he will probably learn that Good Feels Good and turn for real. The book, however, goes straight into the Fridge Horror of the idea when it's used on Alex and ultimately condemns it as a horrific and terrible crime against humanity, as what it's essentially done is remove Alex's free will, making him less than human. Alex also doesn't learn anything about Good Feels Good while under its influence: he's beaten and terrorized by his past victims, unable to defend himself, and ends up attempting suicide to escape the horror his life has become. And at the end, after the brainwashing procedure has been reversed, he just decides to become a good person anyway, having grown up a bit.
- The original The Artful Dodger in Dickens' Oliver Twist generally fits the Lovable Rogue characterization of later adaptations/trope examples, but is still presented as The Corrupter to Oliver, and ends the book being tried for a theft, and his amusing bluster and insistence on being a victim of society does nothing to impress the judge, and he is sentenced to transportation to Australia. In fact, "subverting" this along with the related trope of Satisfied Street Rat, the narrator indicates that all of the children in Fagin's gang, except for Charley Bates, went to bad ends.
- Phileas Fogg from Around the World in Eighty Days, published in 1872, is the Trope Maker for the Clock King, but also explores all the ramifications about that trope: He is a rare case of the protagonist being a Mysterious Stranger, the readers never know any of his Back Story, and only in the very last chapters do they know if he was one of the Villains or not. In the last chapters the reader realizes that Fogg’s extreme reserve was not an Evil Brit case, but only a severe case of British Stuffiness. Unlike all his imitators, Fogg is very good at Xanatos Speed Chess and the Indy Ploy, because that’s the only way he can win The Bet. Fogg’s plan didn’t work, but it didn’t work in his favor: the Universe rewards him, granting him almost an extra day. And the one obsessed with his clock was not him, but his employee, Jean Passepartout.
- The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is the originator of split personalities, but is more sophisticated than many modern versions. Jekyll is fully aware of what he does as Hyde and takes the potion willingly. Towards the end the novel becomes a character study on why he does this and what it says about his own morals. He tries to use the split as an excuse for what he does as Hyde, but the account makes clear that he is evading responsibility.
- If you read a cynical poem about the agonizing, unglamorous experience of having to paint pictures on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel for hours at a time, you would probably (naturally) assume that it was a deconstructive satire on society's rosy view of the artistic genius of the Renaissance, which Michelangelo's paint-job on the Sistine Chapel is considered the classic example of. Well, there is such a poem. And you'd be right to think that...except it was written by Michelangelo himself when he was actually in the process of painting the Sistine Chapel. Yes, it's just as hilariously self-deprecating as it sounds.
My stomach's squashed under my chin, my beard's
pointing at heaven, my brain's crushed in a casket,
my breast twists like a harpy's. My brush,
above me all the time, dribbles paint
so my face makes a fine floor for droppings!
My haunches are grinding into my guts,
my poor ass strains to work as a counterweight,
every gesture I make is blind and aimless.
- "Casey at the Bat" is likely the Trope Maker for Down to the Last Play... except mighty Casey struck out rather than drive in the winning run.
- Jorge Luis Borges' "The Library of Babel" is this for the Great Big Library of Everything trope. The library contains not only every book ever written, but every book it is possible to write, the overwhelming majority of which are complete gibberish.
- While hardly the first steampunk novel, The Difference Engine is a surprisingly early dystopian take on the genre. Many of the flaws of Victorian society – socio-economic tensions, poor understanding of medicine, police surveillance, pollution, British imperialism – are all exacerbated by London getting its hands on advanced technology way too early to be trusted with it.
- Though it arrived years later, The Diamond Age is also a striking example. All the archetypical steampunk technology is there, but Neal Stephenson doesn't waste a single opportunity to highlight the shortcomings and Values Dissonance of (neo-)Victorian society: Hackworth is a genius but socially bound to remain working-class; his wife divorces him per Victorian custom after he is kidnapped and raped by the Drummers; Nell is alienated by the rigidness and impracticality of her boarding school, and on and on.
- The Noon Universe predates many of the famous Star Trek-esque utopian future stories as well as a lot of space operas, but it also brutally deconstructs its own ideas. The future while outwardly nice is hitting a decay, the eccentric scientists are turning towards dangerous experiments out of boredom, the government is increasingly paranoid, The Precursors are manipulative asses, First Contact almost always ends in tragedy, and the Flash Gordon-style protagonists tend to do more harm than good. The Federation isn't destroyed by its own ideals, but Word of God says the only reason it didn't happen is because one of the writers died.
- Most of the limitations on invisibility were already predicted in The Invisible Man. The eponymous character even complains that the power is good for little other than assassination, as going undetected long enough to, say, eavesdrop on an important conversation was nearly impossible.
- Going way, way, back, in ''The Battle of Maldon" – one of the oldest surviving works of English literature – a earl under the Anglo-Saxon King Aethelred assembles a Ragtag Bunch of Misfits to repel some tough, well-trained Viking raiders. Both the hero and his men get slaughtered horribly, partially due to an act of Pride from the hero. What's worse is that before the battle, the Viking chief offered to leave peacefully in exchange for a tribute of silver. The hero refuses angrily, calling the offer "shameful". After the battle, King Aethelred pays the tribute. The hero accomplished nothing except getting his men killed.
Live Action TV
- Imagine an episode of The Twilight Zone where a man searches a deserted creepy town looking for any signs of life or civilization, but continues to find nothing, just signs that someone was there at one point but unable to find anyone who still is, with the implication that he may be the last man on Earth. Only for it to be revealed that it all had a fairly mundane and actually somewhat plausible explanation, the man hallucinated the whole thing while in an isolation booth as part of an Air Force experiment. Is this a later episode trying to subvert the show's standard format? No, it's the pilot episode.
- For that matter, the episode "Five Characters in Search of an Exit", with its famously chilling Twist Ending, would be a deconstruction of Toy Story if it hadn't come out three decades before it. The old question, "What happens to sentient toys when they're abandoned by their owner?" isn't just an unsettling bit of Fridge Horror—it's the entire premise. Five dolls, who aren't aware that they're dolls, wake up in a Salvation Army bin with no way of knowing where they are or how they got there, and the entire episode follows them slowly going insane as they futilely try to escape.
- The episode "Number Twelve Looks Just Like You" is an absolutely vicious take on the Unnecessary Makeover trope as a teenage girl who doesn't fit the conventional definition of beauty is repeatedly encouraged to get a surgical procedure to enhance her appearance and make her like everyone else. She repeatedly refuses and cites the importance of knowledge and character over appearance only to be kidnapped and forced into it. The episode's ending with her as an exact copy of her friend and having lost any trace of her original personality is chilling. And it was made in 1963. It's less a Deconstruction and more of a prophecy about the onset of innumerable plastic surgery shows where women are encouraged to cut apart their bodies to be considered acceptable.
- Some have noted that the whole concept of the Prime Directive in Star Trek has been reversed over the years. In the original series, the idea made a great deal more sense: Star Fleet could not interfere with internal politics of pre-warp civilizations, but exceptions could sometimes be tolerated when another warp-capable civilization like the Klingons had already interfered, and the idea of not saving innocent people from a natural disaster would have been unheard of. In later series Star Fleet regularly allows natural disasters to wipe out whole civilizations, but has no problem meddling in internal politics.
- The famous Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "Lower Decks" is both the Trope Maker and the Trope Namer for the Lower Deck Episode, but it's also a deconstruction of the Redshirt trope that's devoted to showing the audience the true perils of life as a low-ranking Starfleet crewman. The episode's four viewpoint characters spend their days constantly fighting for the main characters' respect and assisting on dangerous missions that they're kept in the dark about, and the episode even ends with the death of one of them, using the moment to show that every death on the Enterprise is a tragedy for the ship's captain.
- Star Trek is also credited with codifying the Green-Skinned Space Babe trope. However the Orions (the species that the Green Skinned Space Babes belong to) are actually rather nasty. In Orion society, males are considered slaves, and property of the females, and a large part of their "sexiness" actually comes from a pheromone secretion that the females evolved with the sole purpose of reducing the males to drooling idiots without the will power to go against the female's wishes.
- Doctor Who:
- Doctor Who did what seems like a deconstruction of what it would be like travelling to the past in its 6th story, "The Aztecs", the second historical story, where Barbara tries and fails to save Aztec civilisation by ending human sacrifice. Something similar is done in a darker manner in another First Doctor story, "The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve", where the Doctor doesn't save any of the Protestant Huguenots from the massacre, leading to a big What the Hell, Hero? from Steven.
- A commonly remarked-upon part of the Doctor Who premise is that the show is about an old, sinister, extremely powerful man who goes travelling extra-legally with naive, sexy teenage girls and holds total power over whether they come with him, get abandoned or die – and that this is played for Wish Fulfillment rather than as a really creepy variant of the Dirty Old Man. However, in the very first episode, it's clear that the reason Ian and Barbara are scared for Susan's safety is because they think her mysterious grandfather, the Doctor, is molesting her, keeping her locked up in a police box in a junkyard, and refusing to let her see the outside world. Even after they are taken into the TARDIS, they believe that her grandfather has brainwashed her into believing they are aliens in order to keep her distressed and dependent on him, and Barbara attempts to explain to her that it is a game that he is playing with her.
- "Mission to the Unknown" and its sequel "The Daleks' Master Plan" seem like a Darker and Edgier version of Captain Space, Defender of Earth!. Marc Cory of the Space Security Service is killed while investigating the Daleks, Bret Vyon comes across as a bit of a jerk from his determination to his mission, for the first time a companion of the Doctor dies, Bret is killed by another agent, his sister Sara Kingdom, who is killed with the Daleks. Also the main villain, along with the Daleks, is Guardian of the Solar System and The Quisling Mavic Chen and the Head of the SSS is also a Quisling. The story ends without a feeling of triumph, Steven reminding the Doctor of those who died and the Doctor saying "What a waste... What a terrible waste." These stories both aired in 1965 (though Master Plan ran to 1966), before Star Trek premiered.
- The third First Doctor story, "The Edge of Destruction", is an absurdly dark look at how miserable and paranoid it would be to be unworldly humans living aboard a Sapient Ship that travels semi-autonomously across time and space with a mysterious alien at the helm – by this point, Ian and Barbara's hatred of the Doctor is enough that both think the other may have tried to murder him (and they did not choose to be his companions either, instead being kidnapped by him), the Doctor hates Ian and Barbara for being human interlopers who may be trying to steal or hurt his ship, and Susan, while appearing to be The Ingenue, is in fact just as inscrutable and alien as her grandfather and has a violent mental breakdown, babbling about creatures living inside her, and attacking Ian with a pair of surgical scissors. During all of this, they are dealing with a Negative Space Wedgie, the effects of which are so unlike anything that they have seen before that they constantly wonder if this is actually a malevolent force or something the TARDIS, which has a mind of its own impossible to understand outside of its species, is doing for their sake.
- There's an ongoing joke that Daleks cannot take over the universe because their impractical design means that they can't climb stairs, even though the Daleks everyone remembers can fly. Nevertheless, the very first Dalek serial, "The Daleks", deals with this restriction seriously – not only can they not climb stairs (which is irrelevant, as they use exclusively lifts to get around their city) they die if they ever lose contact with the floor, relying on electricity channelled through metal floors to power them. The TARDIS crew kill a Dalek by blinding it and forcing it to roll over a coat, cutting off the connection and its life support system, and later the Doctor kills every Dalek in the city by shorting out the power. This story also dealt with Daleks being rather sad, pathetic beings, and even features the main cast making fun of the Daleks' monotone, distorted voices, with Susan laughing out loud when she first hears a Dalek attempt to say her name.
- "The Daleks" is the second serial and deconstructs the way that the Doctor's inquisitive nature leads him and his companions into danger. The Doctor wants to explore a city on another planet but his companions refuse. He sabotages the TARDIS, forcing them to search the city. They are captured, as usual, but almost die from radiation poisoning as the meter wasn't checked.
- The Doctor is portrayed as an Insufferable Genius which in Nu Who is played off as a cute, charming quirk, with River Song actually saying it's one of the sexiest things about him. In Classic Who, the First Doctor was shown to be almost unbearable because of this – as he mellowed out, he would occasionally lapse back into this manner of thinking, and then have a short scene afterwards where he would apologise for being rude, admitting he has No Social Skills. Not much later, Liz Shaw's reason given for quitting being the Doctor's The Watson is because she can't stand his massive ego any more, feeling he only uses her as a prop to make him look clever.
- Unintentional Deconstructive Parody – The stereotypical depiction of the Doctor Who Companion is someone pretty, with long hair, in a skirt, who is well meaning but very stupid, has Ship Tease with the Doctor that never goes anywhere, constantly talks about how clever the Doctor is, and gets into trouble and screams a lot. This is an exact description of Second Doctor companion Jamie, who is male.
- The William Hartnell serial "The Rescue" is a deconstruction of the show's whole modus operandi. The TARDIS team land on a planet where a young woman, Vicki, in a crashed spaceship is waiting to be saved by a rescue vessel, while also being kept prisoner by an alien named Coquillion who has killed the rest of the crew. Barbara murders the young woman's pet monster, assuming it was trying to eat her, and the Doctor talks to the other survivor of the crash about dealing with Coquillion, after which he points out that they have nothing to gain from doing that, as the rescue ship is already coming. This culminates in Vicki telling them all that they have no right to go around landing on other people's planets assuming they know exactly what to do when they aren't living there and have no real idea what's going on or if their attempts to fix it are just making everything worse, that she hates them, and that they should all just leave. It is all fixed in the end, but only because the Doctor had already lived on the planet for a while prior to the story, listens to Vicki's point of view while still questioning things she's too entrenched in her own ways to question herself, and because the natives of the planet eventually take matters into their own hands and deal with Coquillion.
- Steven Moffat's Series 5, 6 and 7 are often praised for deconstructing the Doctor's legend and personality, and the relationship between the Doctor and his companions. The show's first attempts at doing this were actually in Season 3, which had two stories ("The Massacre" and "The Savages") which examined these themes. "The Massacre" features a situation in which the companion sees someone who appears to be the Doctor in disguise arranging a Final Solution, assumes that the Doctor must be planning something, ends up unable to save any of the victims due to his misguided attempts to help with whatever the Doctor must be planning, and the real Doctor refuses to save anyone under his belief that history cannot be changed (leading to a What the Hell, Hero? moment and Steven even attempting to quit). "The Savages" is the first time the Doctor finds a planet that not only knows who he is but venerates him – a culture that drains life energy from an underclass to power the machines they use to watch his adventures.
- The standard hero of a Paranormal Investigation show is a brooding fanservicing Bad Ass motivated by justice or Revenge. The title character in Kolchak: The Night Stalker is bumbling, middle aged tabloid reporter with questionable taste in fashion, is uninterested in romance, usually defeats the Monster of the Week by sheer dumb luck, and is largely in it for the fame and fortune that exposing the supernatural would bring him. Kolchak: The Night Stalker was the Ur Example of this show.
- The Trollface.jpg has been used in countless comics illustrating the act of, well, trolling, yet the comic that it originated in◊ was a demonstration of how trolls want people to believe that they're driving people insane with rage while actually being met with slightly annoyed indifference.
- Many people who read Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, the book that codified free trade and capitalist economics, are often surprised to see Smith's belief that the invisible hand of the market was not applicable in all situations (such as provision of health care and education), his endorsement of unions (then illegal) as a means of preventing workers from competing against each other and thus driving down wages, and his criticism of acting purely on self-interest. Read today, The Wealth of Nations seems less like the Ayn Rand-style endorsement of laissez-faire capitalism that its reputation suggests, and more a critique of such (if not by an out-and-out Marxist, then certainly a left-leaning progressive or an old-school Tory).
- Tom Lehrer's "The Masochism Tango" did this for the Obligatory Bondage Song.
- The entire "heavy metal" style of rock music is an Unbuilt Trope for purely semantic reasons. Throughout The Seventies and The Eighties, groups that we rightly think of as heavy metal today (Black Sabbath, etc.) were disdained as "not music" or even outright ignored by the music media. (A notable exception was Judas Priest, who – at least for a time – successfully bridged the divide between "serious" metal and pop-metal.) Until The Nineties, what heavy metal really meant to most people was the "wailing guitar" music of groups like Led Zeppelin, AC/DC, Van Halen, or Bon Jovi. Good luck finding any of those groups in the "metal" section of your record store today.
- Led Zeppelin are also a good example because whilst they were very influential on metal, it's often glossed over in favor of Black Sabbath or Iron Maiden's influence. It should be noted that Robert Plant and John Bonham were actually very good friends with the members of Black Sabbath, and often exchanged ideas, and the two bands saw themselves as peers. As an example, the influence of "Communication Breakdown" on "Paranoid" should give a clue.
- Also, at the time, many groups (including Black Sabbath) didn't define the music they were making as "heavy metal", but "heavy rock", "hard rock", or other similar terms.
- Black Sabbath were subjected to a lot of Misaimed Fandom and Misaimed Hatedom from supporters and detractors alike, who assumed that they were a "Satan-worshipping" band. In truth, Ozzy and the gang considered themselves a "hippie" band, and they experimented with other styles of music besides "death rock." They were also Roman Catholics, and their music contained many Christian themes. For example, the Title Track from their Self-Titled Album features an image of Satan inspired by a nightmare of Butler's, a depiction that is very clearly evil with Ozzy screaming out to God for help. The track "After Forever" from their third album also has a very clear Christian message. Their inclusion and portrayal of the occult could be seen as a deconstruction of Satanic symbolism in later metal.
- The prime example of Black Sabbath's Misaimed Fandom among rock musicians is Type O Negative's interpretation of Black Sabbath from the Nativity In Black Cover Album, as it is from satan's perspective. However, it should be noted that Type O Negative were often trying to be funny and deconstruct gothic tropes, a fact often lost on 'serious' metal fans, this song being no exception.
- Today, most people tend to think of metal as a genre focusing on aggression and speed. While this is true for the most part, this was not the kind of music Black Sabbath played. In fact, they relied on slow tempos to create an atmosphere of fear, despair, and magic, and it can be said their music became less and less extreme with the years in that regard. The style their early albums spawned is known as Doom Metal today, which many people (falsely) assume is a reaction to more aggressive forms of metal.
- Then there's a sub-example with Venom, the coiners of the phrase "Black Metal". Musically, the only thing their first albums have in common with modern black metal is poor recording quality. Unlike later black metal bands, they were absolutely not serious about what they sang, and occult/satanic songs were alongside one or two silly songs about sex or music itself. The band are in fact very similar to Motorhead, but their satanic elements made people think of them as more metal.
- Compare Marilyn Manson, or any other modern Industrial Metal band, with an early group in the genre like Godflesh. Compare them, in turn, with a straight Industrial band of the same era – Skinny Puppy, for example. Now compare all of the above to the bands that started it all: Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, Clock DVA, SPK, NON... Confused yet? And this isn't even factoring in the "missing links" like Swans or Esplendor Géometrico.
- Listen to any Punk Rock band from the mid-seventies. They sound almost nothing like what we think of as punk music, and barely have anything in common with each other musically. At the time, Punk Rock was just music played by punks. Some particularly pedantic critics even define the rockabilly of the 1950s and the "garage rock" of the 1960s as "punk," which sounds pretty misleading until you remember that those styles of music indeed directly influenced punk (and, less directly, metal).
- For more specific examples, compare The Ramones (almost like a deconstruction of the '90s pop punk bands) and Richard Hell and the Voidoids (chaos with a loose basis in rockabilly, aka psychobilly 10 years before it happened).
- The fact that a lot of the original punk rock sound harkens back to eras earlier than the 1970s (from Phil Spector's "wall of sound" to '50s rockabilly) is that punk rock sought to rebel against the rock music conventions of the time. This was the era of big arena rock bands and prog rock bands that had overly elaborate orchestration (though punk rock pioneer Johnny Rotten was a big fan of some prog rock bands). Additionally, the most notable proto-punk band, The Stooges, played fast little rock & roll numbers with great enthusiasm and was an antidote to the hippie rock that was in the mainstream in the very early 1970s (another such band was the Velvet Underground, who was the original "indie" rock band). So those people who bitch about the original punk rock bands not sounding like an obnoxious California punk-style band are missing the point about punk rock as an idea (especially since punk rock started in New York).
- It goes without saying that early Emo has nothing in common with bands labeled it under the mainstream definition of the term. However it doesn't sound much either like later "classic" Emo bands or their successors today. Trope Makers Rites of Spring were really just a punk band with more personal and introspective lyrics and a bit more melody to their music, something that is hardly uncommon in modern day punk.
- Similarly, bands considered "screamo" before the term existed don't sound much like modern day screamo bands and weren't much different than Hardcore Punk of the time, just a bit screamier and more chaotic.
Mythology and Religion
- The Epic of Gilgamesh is Older Than Dirt, and the Ur Example (being written when Ur was still a city) of many, many tropes. However: the divine god-king is a tyrannical rapist; Enkidu, though remembered, is never avenged; and Gilgamesh's quest ends in stupidity-induced failure. An epic fail, if you will.
- Of course this comes with it being the oldest known work of written literature. However, it may be that it was simply Deconstructing older written works that haven't survived, or simply oral tradition (Gilgamesh would have obviously been an oral folk tale long before it was ever put to paper... er... clay.)
- Also, it's really unclear how much of this is Values Dissonance – the psychotic rape thing might (or might not) have simply been a demonstration of how strong and cool Gilgamesh was, to audiences of the time.
- The Shahnameh
- Similar to the Gilgamesh example above, the core character of Shahnameh is regarded as a hero; however, he suffers from moral ambiguity and mostly struggles to solve his own problems rather than the problems of his people, which is supposed to be his main duty.
- The Bible:
- The story of Samson can be retroactively seen as a deconstruction of the Messianic Archetype. He knew he was the Chosen One and abused his special status and he was overconfident with his powers leading to him getting betrayed by Delilah. In the end he pushed those pillars down and killed the Philistines out of revenge because he had nothing left to live for. For the irony-challenged, however, Samson is purely a Badass folk hero who gets a Great Way to Go.
- Delilah is often thought of as an originator of The Vamp, Honey Trap and Femme Fatale tropes, but her relationship with Samson didn't begin in deceit; the Philistines approached her when they were already together. In films, though, she is typically depicted as being sent to seduce Samson, as already having some personal fixation on him, or even as offering her services to the Philistines herself instead of the other way around. Also, the Biblical text never says whether or not her love for Samson was genuine.
- The story of Balaam is a deconstruction of the Stubborn Mule, as well as an example of Truth in Television. Balaam was hired to curse the Israelites, but was held back by his mule, who refused to cooperate. When the mule was granted to speak, she revealed that she was protecting him from the invisible angel in front of them, who would have killed Balaam had the mule cooperated. The fact that the stubbornness exhibited by donkeys and mules is really an act of self-preservation is largely overlooked in future media.
- "Jonah and the Whale." "In the belly of a whale" is often used to refer to a period in a story where the protagonist is caught in a situation with no hope. However, in the story of Jonah the whale is actually not a punishment but God's way of saving Jonah from drowning. It also represented him giving Jonah a second chance by taking him back to land. Note, though, that the Bible itself compares being in the whale as a trial, when Christ compares the three days in the whale with his upcoming three days dead before resurrection.
- The designs of the various kinds of angels are amazing. Take the seraphim: They have six wings; two covering their face, two covering their feet, and two to fly. The cherubim, no connection to the cute baby angels you might know, have "four faces and four wings, with straight feet with a sole like the sole of a calf's foot, and "hands of a man" under their wings. Each had four faces: "The face of a man, the face of a lion on the right side, the face of an ox on the left side, and the face of an eagle." If you saw that in a manga, movie, comic book or something else like that, it'd be praised for its innovativeness.
- Picture if you will a being that exists outside of space and time that can make and unmake the universe at will just with its voice, who sometimes sends messengers into the mortal world to manipulate mortals into performing seemingly insignificant actions as small parts of a very long-term plan that is inscrutable to all beings except itself, that has the power not only to destroy said people's bodies but also to lock their souls into an eternal state of And I Must Scream for failing to follow said plan, and that is so incomprehensible to human beings that the mere sight of its true form would kill them instantly and even a small fraction of its power is able to induce bowel-clenching visceral terror in even its most loyal of servants. No, it's not some Lovecraftian Eldritch Abomination; that's God Himself. And He's not out to destroy or mutate the reality He created with His sheer Eldritchy might, He's the benevolent guardian of humanity who sends a manifestation of Himself (Jesus) to show them the light, and protect them from a lesser but actually evil entity (Satan).
- The Old Testament as a whole (with a few exceptions) is this. Your society believes that it worships the supreme god, and that as long as it does so it will be completely prosperous; then a foreign superpower comes in and conquers your city and destroys the building where your god lives and sends your people away from their land where they have to compromise their cultural identity to survive. Then a bunch of you start writing about a god and a world that are a lot more complicated than "do good and get rewarded."
- The Gospel of Mark can be considered to be this in comparison to the other gospels of the New Testament, at least according to this essay. Of all four gospels, it is by far the most ambiguous concerning the nature of Jesus' feats, identity and resurrection, and it contains no references to his birth or childhood. It's also the oldest of the four gospels.
- The original Greek myths must seem like "grim 'n' gritty" reboots of romantic legends to college students who read them after encountering the "cleaned-up" versions as children. Zeus, for one, is no benevolent deity but a very self-centered and even sadistic god; Heracles, meanwhile, is a hot-tempered idiot and barely a hero at all.
- Any attempt at making Hades seem a sympathetic or tragic character as opposed to the mythological equivalent of Satan in Greek lore might seem like an attempt to re-think a traditional character or push a Sympathy for the Devil theology. However, in original myths, Hades is often portrayed as a neutral and sometimes even benevolent side-character who only lashes out against "heroes" when they break the rules or betray him.
- An interesting (and debatable) example would be the story of Orpheus. In Orpheus's tale, he enters Erebos (the underworld for humans, described as an inn in some myths) in order to find is deceased wife. Hades lets her go to follow her husband to the land of the living, but warns the Orpheus that if he turns around to look back into Erebos, then his wife will be taken back and the door to the underworld will be sealed. It appears as though Hades is being a jerk taking back Orpheus's wife, right? Well, letting anyone out of the Underworld...it just doesn't happen. At least, not often. In this case, Hades broke a rule to help Orpheus. Ironically, it is Orpheus's distrust of Hades that causes him to go against the advice previously given to him.
- Actually, that is about as Jerk Ass as the apple in the garden; giving a command not to do something within an indefinite timeframe is like telling someone not to scratch their nose. That nose is going to itch eventually, and the constraint on scratching it is only going to make the itch less ignorable and more unbearable with time. That apple was going to be in the garden for eternity, and Orpheus was walking out of terrain that was in Hades' control to alter the distance of. There's no source for the power Hades has over his realm, but if he knows it well enough, he could've easily sent down Orpheus a path long enough to overextend his determination to maintain the one condition given him, setting him up for failure.
- See Sadly Mythtaken for more.
Stand Up Comedy
- Steve Harvey, a pioneer of the White Dude, Black Dude routine, went to great lengths to show how the Black Dude was just as messed up and irrational as his white counterpart, as his antics were likely to have him end up in far worse shape than if he wasn't so focused on the 'Black' way of doing things.
- Don Giovanni has an example of Playing Cyrano that predates Cyrano de Bergerac by a century. The example is pretty complicated, but what it boils down to is that Giovanni acts as Playing Cyrano to his servant, Leporello, and Donna Elvira. The only reason he does this, though, is so that he can get Elvira out of the way; he wants to seduce her chambermaid. What's more, Leporello doesn't even want Elvira; Giovanni is forcing him to seduce her.
- Might be worth noting that Rostand, the author of Cyrano de Bergerac, wrote a Fan Sequel to Moliere's Don Juan which has substantially the same plot. While this work was written several decades after Cyrano, it could have been in his mind when writing Cyrano.
- George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion is the Trope Maker for the Pygmalion Plot, but its view of Eliza's transformation is more cynical, and, unlike in the adaptations, she has no final reconciliation with Henry Higgins.
- Although Shaw remained as the writer for both the play and film versions the 'happy' ending in the film is a case of Executive Meddling
- Karel Čapek's classic drama R.U.R. single-handedly coined the term "robot" and invented a lot of robot-related tropes in science fiction. The catch? If you've actually read the play, you know the robots are more like vat-grown Artificial Humans, not machines. The idea of robots being non-organic only appeared in some of the early stage productions of the play, and for some reason, the image stuck, even though it contradicted the original text.
- It also hit a lot of other robot tropes before they were tropes. Sapient beings created by assembly line? Check. Commentary on the dangers of science run amok? Check. Robots analogous to slaves? Check. Inevitable robot rebellion leading to the extinction of the human race? Probably the original Robot Apocalypse plot.
- At about the same time, children's novelist L. Frank Baum was spinning tales of fanciful "mechanical men" in his Oz books, so Capek's play may have gotten confused with those accounts. Or maybe people were thinking of the ambulatory metal statues that assisted the god Hephaestos in his forge in the old Greek myths. Really, automatons and mechanical men had existed in many forms in folklore and literature for a very long time, so it would have been a much more familiar concept to audiences than organic beings constructed from artificial organs.
- When robot came to imply 'mechanical', a new word android was coined for the organic kind – and Star Wars eventually adopted that word for the mechanical kind, pushing the organic concept out of the popular mind (if it ever was there). No generally-accepted word now exists for the organic Artificial Human – each work tends to invent a new one (synthoid, mutoid, neutroid) – but if one does establish itself, I suppose it too will be hijacked for clockwork.
- There is a play in which the rich, eccentric protagonist brings the plot to a screeching halt to address the real-life competition between the theater in which his show is playing, and the theater across the street. Beyond that, the play is suffused from beginning to end with theatrical metaphors, and one of the most famous sequences includes the characters onstage watching a play even as the audience is watching them. A radical new experiment in metatheater, playing now at your favorite off-Broadway location, and critiquing the excess of artificiality in contemporary theater? No – it's Hamlet, and it's been around a while.
- A story where the Bastard Bastard is portrayed as sympathetic, justifying his evil by saying how society perceives him as evil and he is being treated as The Unfavorite? Sounds like a new idea? It was done in King Lear.
- Mons started with Atlus' apocalyptic Shin Megami Tensei RPG series, 10 years before the trope codifier Pokémon even existed. In this case, your character and others recruit the services of demons, angels and gods. However, cosmic power in the hands of imperfect humans just ends up causing social collapse, mass murder and nuclear war. Furthermore, the battles aren't about a sports league, a criminal syndicate, or even Duels Decide Everything, but a struggle for survival and power in a ruined world, and the explicit goal of most games is the power to decide the fate of the world.
- Those used to the later games in the series would be surprised to learn that Team Rocket in the original Pokemon games were a ruthless, fairly compotent Mafia-like organization that are all but stated to have killed multiple Pokemon. It wasn't until later games that the series started going the The Family for the Whole Family route it's now famous for (and Team Rocket's later portrayal might also have been due to influence from the anime). Pokémon Origins comes off as heavily Darker and Edgier to those used to the newer games, but it's actually a fairly faithful adaptation of Pokémon Red and Blue.
- Utsuge started with the 1999 visual novel Kanon. However, though the game puts you in a standard plotline of All-Loving Hero trying to fix a group troubled girls, nearly every route reveals that you were the original cause of the girl in question's problems.
- Cloud wasn't the first stereotypical spiky-haired angsty JRPG hero, but he is most certainly the first one people think of. However, viewed backwards, Cloud in Final Fantasy VII is a deconstruction of that exact stereotype, in that while his serious issues are treated sympathetically, you are supposed to dislike him for his selfishness and shortsightedness, and his masculinity is constantly challenged by having him succeed in humiliating ways. His angst is frequently played for Black Comedy as well as for drama, and even his Anime Hair is criticized by the game. His quest to take down Sephiroth is alarmingly one-sided, to the point of a Stalker with a Crush-style obsession that even the other characters find disturbing. On top of all this, he's not even supposed to be The Hero; that guy (Zack) got killed, and now his sidekick (Cloud) is trying to take his place. He's literally role playing a hero to escape from his own terrible self-esteem and inability to talk to girls.
- The Karma Meter as it's understood today almost always gives players a choice to play as a Villain Protagonist, allowing or even encouraging players to Kick the Dog and do things For the Evulz willy-nilly without any real drawbacks, and as such they've often been perceived as overly shallow. However, Ultima IV, the first game to use a Karma Meter, used it to explore the consequences of the player's actions and the nature of right and wrong. Video Game Cruelty Punishment is ubiquitous, the game cannot be completed unless you max out all your virtues, the game's plot revolves around the journey to become a true hero, and the whole thing was plotted out as an experiment to see if a video game could encourage good moral values in players.
- How about an RPG where the characters are unchosen anonymous schlubs (of any race, class, or gender), where Anyone Can Die and any death (even outside of combat) can risk a Final Death? And you do not have to fight every encounter you run into, as there are actually good monsters that do not mind your company? Where you may luck into some of the best equipment early, and some of said equipment (including the Infinity+1 Sword) can break at any time? And there are no useless spells in the game? And the Final Boss does not have thousands of HP but is really a Squishy Wizard not much stronger than (and as vulnerable as) an individual member of your party? (His minions may be trouble, though.) This game is Wizardry, one of the first RPGs ever written.
- Planescape: Torment, released in 1999, featured an influence mechanic long before more mainstream role-playing games picked up on it. It also portrays such a mechanic as deeply screwed up, the result of a protagonist who bears a cursed seal, the Mark of Torment, which draws other tormented souls to him... and that's when he hasn't spent a lifetime manipulating them into following him.
- Eversion seems like the first game to trick the player into thinking that they are playing a cute little old-school game. Especially with it's evert-key that turned the world more unsettling and gruesome. Monster Party did it first, although for one level only, when you went past the haniwa. It was planned that more levels would feature this, but they didn't.
- Some of the original cast of Virtua Fighter, the first 3D fighting game, already broke the mold when the game was released. The resident Jeet Kun Do fighter, Jacky, was not a Bruce Lee Clone, but a blond American. The main character, Akira, a Japanese man in a Karate gi, did not practice karate or even another Japanese martial art, but a specific style of Chinese kung fu, Baji. On top of that, despite being the main character, he is by far the most difficult to play effectively, and is often a Mid Boss in the arcade modes.
- Many of the problems in Marble Hornets stem from the fact that the protagonist lacks discretion and publicly broadcasts all his findings, actions, and plans online in a way that anyone and everyone can see what he's up to, including his (potential) enemies and allies. It would be considered a Deconstruction of the various web series in The Slender Man Mythos if not for the fact that it's the progenitor of them and is largely what the rest all follow.
- With the use of the Ax-Crazy masked people stalking the protagonists and Totheark sending confusing and vaguely threatening video messages, it became popular in other web series to give the Slender Man proxies who acted in a similar manner. However, in Marble Hornets, it turns out the crazy masked people are those acting in direct opposition to the Operator, whereas those whom take the closest thing to its proxies are more lucid.
- The Leeroy Jenkins trope is derived from the Leeroy Jenkins Video, which has gone memetic as a descriptor of players/characters who attack impulsively without thinking. However, while the eponymous individual does display that behavior in the original video, the video also shows his teammates as fitting the opposite extreme and being overly cautious and methodical in their planning. Further, the Total Party Kill which results is in part because they stuck to their original plan despite changed circumstances. The plan itself is also completely insane, and involves intentionally sabotaging themselves at every point (pulling all the enemies at once and disabling their own casters by misusing an ability are highlights). Even though the plans was doomed to fail from the very start, Leeroy Jenkins as a trope is still synonymous with wrecking plans by being reckless.
- This may have been inevitable, since recognizing the insanity of the original plan relies on familiarity with the details of the game in question, whereas the contrast between the in-depth planning of the party and Leeroy's headlong charge relies only on our human ability to read tones of voice. Put another way: most people viewing the video only know enough to interpret one side of the equation.
- Whomp: The comic that named the trope Klingon Scientists Get No Respect has him getting overpowered at the end, despite the trope usually being playing so the people are forced to realize that they should respect all their society's jobs, because they're all essential.
- Nuzlocke Comics invented and popularized a certain Self-Imposed Challenge for Pokémon players, along with the tradition of writing a webcomic about their Trainer OC's adventure. Ruby, the writer for the original, lost his first challenge to Steven Stone, his Fire Red version challenge ended in a Pyrrhic Victory over Mewtwo, and his White version storyline has N actively murdering Ruby's Pokemon to blame it on him and his challenge.
- A lot of the fictional reviewers that arose on the internet were inspired by The Nostalgia Critic and the Angry Video Game Nerd. They tend to not notice that both reviewers are also massive deconstructions of the Caustic Critic trope. The Nerd is stuck in the past (the one time he reviewed a newer generation game, he was utterly bamboozled by it) and has major anger issues, while the Critic is a bitter jerk who's become a Caustic Critic largely because of his incredibly screwed up childhood which was plagued with parental abuse. Both are the Butt Monkey of their own show.
- Zero Punctuation, meanwhile, is probably the Trope Codifier for caustic criticism on the internet, especially in the video game community. But its causticness is almost always amped up to an absurd degree—even while implying that he actually liked the game in question—and Yahtzee frequently diverges into ranting about his own fans or himself, or rambling incoherently. The character comes off as more of an eloquent loon than a critical genius.
- Despite often being labeled as "cute and harmless", some of the classic movies from the Disney Animated Canon had several dark elements, such as Family-Unfriendly Violence, and nightmarish sequences. The first few movies of the canon, such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Pinocchio, and Bambi had pretty dark atmospheres and were more focused on drama than on comedy, being considerably more serious than most of the animated movies that came later. That's the original Disneyfication.
- The Night on Bald Mountain segment from Fantasia (another early movie from the Disney Animated Canon) was exactly the opposite of what could be normally expected from a Disney film, being darker and edgier than most of the animations produced in the same time.
- Disney's Silly Symphonies cartoons, which popularized the "cute animals in cute situations" trope that launched a thousand imitators in the 1930s, actually play out like a deconstruction of those types of shorts: characters end up in bizarre locations, there's a fair amount of fast-paced slapstick, there are fourth wall jokes that point out the ridiculousness of the situation... really, any of the shorts that aren't like this are usually experimental cartoons that are Played for Drama, like The Old Mill. Like any Follow the Leader scenario, the imitators copied only the base aesthetics of the shorts, and not the reasons why they were so popular in the first place. By the time the 1940s rolled around, and Silly Symphonies parodies became popular, all they were really doing was parodying the tropes that the imitators themselves used, and not necessarily the tropes of the series itself.
- My Little Pony was just a sugar bowl of cutesy ponies until Lauren Faust got her hands on the franchise and created My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, right? Try the original My Little Pony TV Specials where the ponies had to be brave and resourceful to deal with a monster centaur who transformed captured ponies into winged beasts to bring eternal night using the dark rainbow and later a monstrous cat junkie who wanted to turn them into slaves to make her Fantastic Drug.
- Watching The Simpsons episode, "Bart Gets an F", can be a bit of a shock for casual viewers that know Bart Simpson as a carefree hooligan with an authority problem. In that episode, Bart's poor academic performance almost leads him into an emotional breakdown when he's faced with the prospect of repeating the fourth grade, and it's suggested that his troublemaking ways are a façade that helps him cope with his massive insecurity (an idea that was further explored in many later episodes). The most shocking part? It was only the first episode of the show's second season, and it came out long before Bart's name became synonymous with "lovable troublemaker" in popular culture.