The Tragedy of Macbeth is a 1606 play written by William Shakespeare. It was written at the express request of King James I/VI of England and Scotland, who asked Shakespeare to present a new play to honor his visitor, the King of Denmark.The play takes place in the Scottish Highlands. Fresh from putting down a rebellion against King Duncan, Lord Macbeth meets three witches who relate a series of prophecies, one of them being that he will rule Scotland. When one of the other seemingly unlikely predictions comes true, his scheming and heartless wife convinces him to kill Duncan and his heir. Both are driven mad with guilt; while Lady Macbeth copes by sleepwalking and then killing herself, Macbeth goes into a paranoid frenzy, killing everyone in sight in order to consolidate his power — especially after the witches predict that "No Man of Woman Born" shall slay him. After being visited by the ghost of one of his victims, Macbeth is overthrown and killed by Macduff, who was "from his mother's womb untimely ripped" — in other words, delivered via crude caesarean section from his mother's dead or dying body.Many of the inconsistencies in Macbeth come from the fact that Macbeth was a real person who was featured in Holinshead's Chronicles, a best-selling popular history of Shakespeare's time. Holinshead played fast and light with the facts in many cases, though — for instance, he includes legendary or wholly fictional characters such as Fleance, who was supposedly an ancestor of the Scottish royal family. (In the play as produced now, Fleance disappears in Act Three: in the original 1606 presentation, he was brought back on stage after the play in a "dumb show" that explained he was the ancestor of the Stuarts.) Holinshead also refers to Lady Macbeth as "burning with an unquenchable desire to bear the name of a queen". In reality he had no historical justification for this — the only thing that's actually known about Lady Macbeth is that she existed (and that her first name was Gruoch, and that Macbeth was her second husband) — but Shakespeare turned that one sentence into one of his best-known female characters.Shakespeare also takes liberties with the facts, although in his case his changes are justifiable as they improve the dramatic tension and the flow of the action; after all, he was writing a play, not a history. For instance, he makes Duncan a wise, old good king (at least superficially) instead of a young wastrel, he has Macbeth kill him while sleeping instead of in a fair fight, and he compresses the action into two seasons when the real Macbeth ruled for 17 years (and successfully).Another source of the inconsistencies is that Shakespeare wanted to get in all kinds of things that he thought King James would like — witches, ghosts, the legitimacy of the Stuart line, the divine right of kings (something James was for, to put it mildly), and the portrayal of his Scottish ancestors as noble and warrior-like. The fact that Shakespeare snuck in the trope that "power corrupts, but absolute power corrupts absolutely" — possibly a criticism of James's desire for absolute power — was not noticed until after Shakespeare had died, and may not even be noticed these days by readers looking for the blood and guts. And yet, even considering all this, the play still endures to this day.Superstitious actors refer to this as "The Scottish Play" (or, occasionally, "The Tartans"). The head role is "The King" or "Mackers" anywhere outside the play itself. And even though the script calls for it, sometimes things still happen, though they are usually less injurious. Some of the wackier ones talk about The Scottish Restaurant.
Orson Welles' 1936 Harlem stage adaptation set in Haiti with an all-black cast was considered one of the best stage productions in history.
Welles also made a film version in 1948, where he played the title role.
Roman Polanski's 1971 film version, memorable for its explicit violence (allegedly influenced by the murder of Polanski's wife and unborn child by the Manson Family) and for Lady Macbeth's nude sleepwalking scene (non-explicit). This is notable for being produced by Playboy Productions, as part of a short-lived attempt to create a mainstream film arm as well as a personal attempt by Polanski's friends to pull him out of depression.
Oddly enough, the Welles and Polanski films are pretty much the only two straight film adaptations ever made of this, one of Shakespeare's most famous plays.
From a Jack to a King- Bob Carlton musical, with a lot of Sixties songs.
It's one of the four adapted-to-modern-times stories from the 2006 BBC mini-series Shakespeare Re Told. They changed the setting to a plush Glaswegian restaurant. Duncan is the owner, who carries the laurels off the actual chef, Macbeth (played by James McAvoy).
Scotland, PA, a dark comedy also set in a restaurant, this one in 1970s Pennsylvania.
One of several Shakespeare plays adapted into a Graphic Novel recently. Available in original Shakespearean, modern text, and a paraphrased version.
Mac Homer, Rick Miller's one-man show, which casts Simpsons characters in the roles. While largely following the play's basic story, many liberties, fourth wall breaks and lampshades unsurprisingly occur for comedic effect.
A 2006 Australian film starring Sam Worthington, with a Setting Update to the Melbourne ganglands. It sticks to the play fairly well, but adds a few silent scenes, and suggests that Lady Macbeth acted out of grief of a dead child. And she's also a cocaine addict.
Punchdrunk and Emursive produced a loose adaptation of Macbeth mixed with elements of Hitchcock, styled in the late 1930s: Sleep No More. Characters are lifted from The Scottish Play and mingle with ones from Hitchcock's Rebecca. Bernard Herrmann's soundtracks are heard throughout the immersive play.
A 2007 West End stage production with a Setting Update to a vaguely 1940s-Soviet-Russia-esque setting, starring Patrick Stewart. Transferred to Broadway in 2008, and adapted into a television production in 2010.
An audio novelization by A.J. Hartley and David Hewson, narrated by Alan Cumming. It features deep analysis of several characters, portraying both Macbeth and his wife as tragic figures.
Shakespeare's Macbeth — A Tragedy in Steel, the metal album by Rebellion.
The Scottish Play provides examples of the following tropes:
Age Lift: When Patrick Stewart played the role recently, the portrayal of the character was changed into that of an aging general with a young trophy wife, rather than the vigorous thirty-something (sometimes forty-something) warrior he is portrayed as in most film and stage productions of the last century.
Ambiguous Gender: Banquo is unsure what gender the three witches are. Remember that the play was written in a time where only men were allowed to be actors, meaning that the witches were originally played by men pretending to be women, so his line that they have beards is likely an inside joke. In the recent Globe version, this caused the actors to do a rather hilarious double take.
Ambition Is Evil: At least if you have to murder your king for it. What's especially sad is that Macbeth had already gained enormous prestige and rewards for his heroism in putting down the rebellion and invasion from Norway, and the high esteem he was held in by Duncan would have given him tremendous influence even if the king had stayed alive and passed the throne on to Malcolm. At that period in Scottish history the kingship was more adoptive than hereditary, and Macbeth, as a successful general and a lord in his own right, had every reason to suppose that he might be tapped as next in line to the throne. (This is the back-story to the part about "if chance will have me king, then chance may crown me" and the reason he is so shocked when Duncan names his son Malcolm as Prince of Cumberland, i.e. heir to the throne.) In real life, Macbeth drew his support from the more conservative element in the Scots ruling class, who were horrified at the thought that supreme power might become a monopoly of one family. In that sense, he might be seen as the Darker and Edgier version of Brutus in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.
And Your Little Dog Too: Macbeth goes after his families of his numerous enemies. Banquo's son, Fleance, manages to escape, leaving Macbeth in mortal fear of some future revenge.
Arbitrary Skepticism: Witches can predict the future and cast spells, dead men can come back as ghosts, apparitions can rise from cauldrons... but trees can't move. That would be silly.
Arc Number: 3. Three witches, three murderers, twenty-seven (three cubed) scenes, et cetera.
Badass: Macbeth, if all the exposition about him is to be believed.
The Caligula: Macbeth, supposedly. We never actually see any evidence of vices from him save for, y'know, all the murder. More clearly, Malcolm describes himself this way to Macduff at first, but then admits that he is nothing of the sort, and he was merely testing Macduff. (Macduff is not amused.)
Young Seward: With my blade, I'll prove the lie thou speakest!
Macbeth pulls out a pistol and shoots him dead
The 1990s adaptation Macbeth On The Estate turns Macduff into this. He goads Macbeth into charging him, then pulls out a gun. Justified given the setting. A gun would be hard to obtain, but when taking revenge for your murdered family...
The 2006 version from Australia turns the final fight between Macduff and Macbeth into this. After their guns run out, they go at it with knives, fists, wine bottles, broken glass, and more.
Come to Gawk: Invoked, and why he's willing to fight to death.
Decapitation Presentation: Macbeth decapitated Macdonwald (after disemboweling him), then affixes the rebel's head to a Scottish battlement. In the last scene, Macduff greets Malcolm with Macbeth's severed head.
Downer Ending/Gainax Ending: The 1971 adaptation adds a silent epilogue (sometimes tacked onto the play) in which Donalbain goes to the witches' hut, presumably to do exactly what Macbeth did. It is deeply unsettling.*
Interestingly, though, it may be Truth in Television: The Other Wiki article for "Donald III of Scotland" mentions that he took the throne after his brother's death, usurping his brother's sons, and may have invaded Scotland to do so — the historical record isn't clear — and even killed one of them who tried to regain power
The Australian version has Fleance, who Banquo tried to keep out of the gang warfare, sneaking into the attack on Macbeth's home, even killing a maid in a Start of Darkness.
Driven to Suicide: Lady Macbeth. Macbeth, however rejects suicide and decides to fight to the death.
Drunk with Power: A ham-fisted coverup quickly turns into a bloodbath as Macbeth targets his potential rivals. Banquo is killed not only because of what he knows but because Macbeth respects him so highly; in fact, he is the one man Macbeth is intimidated by. So of course, Banquo has to go.
Dying For Symbolism: Banquo is more conscientious than Macbeth and tends to point out what Macbeth ought to be doing. After Macbeth Jumps Off The Slippery Slope, he has Banquo killed; this represents the loss of Macbeth's moral conscience.
Fan Sequel: Author Noah Lukeman's play The Tragedy of Macbeth Part II: Seed of Banquo continues the story about ten years after the original's conclusion, following Malcolm's reign as king, his marriage to Macbeth's daughter, and his eventual downfall at the hands of a vengeful Fleance.
Genre Savvy: Upon hearing of their father's murder, Malcolm and Donalbain immediately resolve to leave the country, realizing the murders are unlikely to stop with Duncan.
At the start of the play, the original Thane of Cawdor, who has turned traitor, is put to death for treason, and is redeemed by his bravery in death. At the end of the play, Macbeth, who had become the new Thane of Cawdor, has the same fate.
Initially, Macbeth shows more scruples/hesitancy to kill Duncan than does his wife, and she pushes him into doing it. Afterward, however, while Lady Macbeth goes increasingly mad from guilt, Macbeth's reaction to guilt is to seemingly lose all emotion and scrupple and he far surpass his wife in villainy.
The Insomniac: "Glamis hath murdered sleep, and there Cawdor/Shall sleep no more, Macbeth shall sleep no more!"
It Gets Easier: Macbeth feels a lot more guilty about murdering Duncan than about any of his later crimes. (And averted by Lady Macbeth, who basically has a nervous breakdown from the guilt, and may even beDriven to Suicide.)
It's Personal: Macduff learns that his wife, kids, and servants are all murdered.
A Man Is Not a Virgin: Averted. Malcolm pretends to be irredeemably debauched, which drives MacDuff to despair. When Malcolm reveals that this was just a test and he's really a virgin, MacDuff (and presumably the audience?) is relieved.
Mood Whiplash: Between the scene in which Duncan is murdered and the scene where his body is found, we're treated to an interlude involving a drunk doorman complaining about how he can't get an erection when liquored up.
A Real Man Is a Killer: Lady Macbeth makes this point to convince her husband to murder the king, but the rest of the play can be seen as a massive deconstruction of this trope. Also played straight in Act I Scene ii, where a minor character recites Macbeth's bloodthirsty feats of arms to universal applause. "Unseamed him from the nave to the chaps and fixed his head upon our battlements" comes pretty close to Ludicrous Gibs.
Remember the New Guy: The Third Murderer, who appears out of nowhere—Macbeth charges two Murderers with killing Banquo and Fleance, but when the time comes three show up. Given that the Third Murderer is of no importance, this is probably a continuity error due to textual corruption.
In most productions, the mysterious third murderer is usually was another previously established character in service to Macbeth, charged with being a spy on the first two. The idea adds more depth to the idea that Macbeth is pretty paranoid at this point.
Even the other murderers act this way, asking, "But who did bid thee join with us?"
Ripped from the Headlines: The Tiger, wracked at sea "Sennights nine times nine", was based off the recent story of a ship called the Tiger's Whelp. This ship had disappeared at sea and been presumed lost in 1604, but returned to port five hundred sixty-seven days later.
Sanity Slippage: An archetypal example, as gnawing guilt drives the Macbeths crazier and crazier as the story progresses. Lady Macbeth also suffers this, as she starts to have visual and aural hallucinations and eventually kills herself.
Secret Test of Character: When Macduff finds Malcolm, Malcolm claims to be a lustful, greedy son of a bitch completely unfit to rule and then asks if Macduff will still restore him to the throne. Horrified, Macduff refuses, and then Malcolm explains it was a test and he's actually Purity Personified, and knowing Macduff has scruples means he can join the righteous cause of toppling Macbeth.
Self-Made Orphan: Subverted in that Malcolm and Donalbain are suspected of murdering Duncan because they fled, although they are in fact innocent.
Setting Update: Very popular for this particular play, with the kingdom usually replaced with either a business or an organised crime syndicate. The fun part is seeing what the Witches are changed to (practitioners of Wicca, Gothic schoolgirls, Japanese forest spirit, black garbage collectors, Russian nurses...).
Shout Out: Macbeth disdains the idea of acting like a "Roman fool" who "dies on my own sword," as Brutus does in Shakespeare's own Julius Caesar.
Ungrateful Bastard: Macbeth, as Duncan rewards him for his heroism by giving him the lands and titles of Macdonwald, the rebellious thane who tried to help King Sweno of Norway conquer Scotland. He'd have probably been more than happy with this if the witches hadn't inflamed Macbeth and his wife's ambitions.
Very Loosely Based on a True Story: Shakespeare changed lots of historical details in order to please the newly crowned King James, who believed himself to be a descendant of Banquo, a friend of and probable co-conspirator with Macbeth that Macbeth eventually killed. The character of Macbeth himself was also changed dramatically. In reality, Donnchad (Duncan) failed badly at invading part of England, and so decided to pillage Mac Bethad's (Macbeth's) territory. Mac Bethad defeated him in battle, Donnchad dying, and Mac Bethad became King. He proceeded to rule for the best part of two decades and evidently felt pretty secure in his position, since it's documented that he took several months off to go to Rome and get personally blessed by the pope. The time frame of Shakespeare's play isn't entirely clear, but seems to be quite a bit shorter than the seventeen years of Mac Bethad's historical reign.
Villainous Breakdown: Macbeth has one when he hears Lady Macbeth has died. "Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day..."
Villainous BSOD: Well, sort of. Macbeth's brain sort of breaks for a while after he kills Duncan.
Written by the Winners: Or written to appeal to a descendant of the winners, to be more precise; Duncan was an ancestor of King James, and portraying him in a historically accurate way might have upset King James; he was in fact an ineffective ruler who died in an unsuccessful attack on Macbeth.