Creator / Orson Welles

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Everybody denies I am a genius, but nobody ever called me one.

"You know, I always loved Hollywood. It was just never reciprocated."

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915–October 10, 1985) was an actor, writer, director, producer, artist, young genius, avant-garde innovator in the three mediums of theatre, radio and cinema, Child Prodigy, Stage Magician, patron saint of Large Hams, and Trope Codifier of Insufferable Genius and Enfant Terrible in popular culture. When movie scholars are polled for the greatest directors ever, the top position is usually either him, John Ford, Alfred Hitchcock, Jean Renoir, Ingmar Bergman, or Yasujiro Ozu.

Born to a cultured Midwestern family, Welles was regarded from his youth as highly intelligent, precocious and charismatic. A boy who never lacked for confidence and charm. He attended the experimental Todd School of Boys and mentored by headmaster Richard Hill (who was Welles' lifelong friend), he became ambitious and restless. In The Thirties, he traveled to Ireland and Europe to become a painter and ended up working in the Abbey Theatre instead. He returned to America in the middle of the Great Depression, and cemented himself as a great maverick of the American stage with a series of daring productions, originally funded by the Federal Theatre of the WPA program of the New Deal but eventually produced by his own pioneering Mercury Theatre company which in addition to working on the stage also worked on the radio and later in his first two films. Before he made his film debut, Welles made a name for himself in the American performance arts for his ambitious theatre productions that often featured daring Setting Update such as Voodoo Macbeth, and the anti-fascist Julius Caesar. Alongside this he worked in radio, (The Mercury Theatre on the Air) with his regular troupe. The event that made him into a household name across America is the 1938 nationwide broadcast of The War of the Worlds, which was so convincing that people actually believed aliens had landed in New Jersey. (This story, albeit true, is often highly exaggerated. There were thousands of phone calls to police and radio stations, some people did leave their homes, but no riots.)

All this, before he turned 25. At that age, he made his first movie for RKO Pictures: Citizen Kane on a then unprecedented contract that provided him complete artistic control, a privilege that established professionals never got leave alone an upstart who never worked in the movie business before. Citizen Kane was a groundbreaking film, technically and narratively inventive, controversial in its time and afterwards. Admired and debated for the next few decades until it became recognized and celebrated in The '60s onwards as "the greatest film ever made". It was however commercially unsuccessful in its time, even if it confirmed Welles' talent within the industry since the film's groundbreaking black-and-white cinematography and other technical feats would inspire film-makers for the next two decades. The film was Overshadowed by Controversy in its time, but it was admired enough that it received quite a few Oscar nominations and Welles won his only competitive award for writing the screenplay of Kane, which he shared with Herman Mankiewicz.

Kane cemented Welles' reputation as the Enfant Terrible of Hollywood and from there, as he put it himself later in his life, having started at the top, he would work his way to the bottom. The Magnificent Ambersons suffered actual Executive Meddling (which his Auteur License contract no longer covered) and with the exception of The Stranger, no Welles feature would ever achieve commercial success. Welles eventually dropped out of the mainstream of American cinema entirely by the end of the decade. The one brief exception was 1958's Touch of Evil which again, led to Executive Meddling. He would never quite enjoy the budget and freedom of Kane, and would resort to making movies (very cheaply) in Europe by getting funding from multiple sources as well as his own acting fees. This ad-hoc means of production however created numerous rights issues in later decades which played a part in making many of them rare and hard-to-see. Welles also resorted to using his fees as an actor to fund his films. The most famous of these parts and with the exception of his own directorial ventures, the greatest film he appeared in, was his performance as Harry Lime in The Third Man, whose famous speech was improvised by Welles himself.

The majority of Welles' life was spent in an itinerant manner, planning several productions, writing several scripts and doing many projects at once. Much of this was unfinished, most never went past concept, and the films that were made (while critically acclaimed, technically and narratively inventive, and visually gorgeous) were even more obscure than Citizen Kane, whose belated re-evaluation paradoxically lent Welles the taint of being a One-Book Author, and an artist who peaked early. On the other hand, Welles remained a major public figure and global celebrity, in demand for talk shows, commercials, voice-over work, character actor and villain roles. Some of the activities from this time endures in popular culture, most notably a frozen peas commercial. His tagline in commercials for the Paul Masson winery, "We will sell no wine... before its time," became a meme in The '70s. He also became overweight in his later years, leading to many jokes relating to the fact that his final role would be that of a planet. which is both sad and funny, because his last role really was a planet. He died five days after finishing recording the voice of Unicron for the 1986 Transformers: The Movie.note  As such, Welles is a popular Historical-Domain Character and a favorite for impressionists. Maurice LaMarche is often called to do impressions of him. Has also been played by actors Vincent D'Onofrio in Ed Wood (with the voice dubbed over by LaMarche), Angus Angus MacFadyen in Cradle Will Rock and Christian McKay in the Richard Linklater film Me and Orson Welles. In The Night That Panicked America, a 1970s recreation of the War of the Worlds broadcast, he's played by Paul Shenar.

As an artist and a film-maker however, Welles codified the concept of the film-maker as artist, transforming the idea of cinema as factory product, and the profession of a film director, inspiring pretty much every post-war film-maker across the world. Despite being quintessentially American (born in Wisconsin and culturally Midwestern), he became an international icon, who had a far better reputation outside his home country.It was only By the end of the 1950s Kane was "rediscovered" as a masterpiece, and in the 1962 Sight & Sound poll critics voted it the greatest movie ever made for the very first time, a feat it maintained for the next six decades until 2012note  Today, scholars and cinephiles now recognize that his second career in Europe also includes very strong work. Thanks to later reappraisals, the revival and rediscovery of later films like Touch of Evil and F For Fake, Welles is today seen and celebrated as one of the most daring, artistic and ambitious film-makers to have ever worked in the medium.


Movies Directed by Welles:

  • Too Much Johnson (1938) - Based on an 1893 comedic play by William Gillette and shot as a Silent Movie seemingly from 20 years earlier (complete with straw hats, suffragettes, and orthochromatic makeup although the director's influence was still clear), Welles intended it to be shown in between the acts of a live performance of the play to expand on the action; unfortunately, he found out too late that the theater it was meant to be shown in couldn't accommodate a movie screen, so it was never exhibited as intended. It was thought to have become a Lost Episode when Welles's personal copy burnt up in a fire in 1970, but a work print turned up in Italy in 2009. It was first aired publicly in 2013, was shown on Turner Classic Movies in May 2015, and can be seen online here.
  • Citizen Kane (1941) - Greatest movie ever made, yada yada yada.
  • The Magnificent Ambersons (1942) - The follow-up, with much of Kane's cast returning. The only one where Welles does not play any role, but he does narrate. The studio butchered it. Despite this, much like Kane, it is considered to be one of the greatest films ever made.
  • The Stranger (1946) - A Film Noir thriller he made to prove his movies can make money.
  • The Lady from Shanghai (1947) - A really, really weird noir thriller with a famous climax in a hall of mirrors.
  • Macbeth (1948) - Low-budget adaptation of the Shakespeare play. The entire thing was dubbed over when audiences found the cast's Scottish accents laughable, but the original has also been released.
  • The Tragedy of Othello (1952) - Adaptation of the Shakespeare play. Welles famously filmed this on-and-off over a few years, taking small roles in other pictures to raise funds for this movie. (One of them was The Third Man.) Won the Palme d'Or at Cannes, sharing it with the now completely-forgotten Two Cents Worth of Hope.
  • Mr. Arkadin (1955) - Imagine what Kane would have been like if Charles Foster Kane was still alive, he was asking other people to search for his memory, and all of it wrapped in a spy thriller package, and you have a rough idea of what this is like.
  • Touch of Evil (1958) - The last movie he made for Hollywood, and one of the most acclaimed noirs ever made. There's a famous joke about this given by the Welles stand-in in Tim Burton's Ed Wood.
  • The Trial (1962) - Adaptation of the Franz Kafka book. Very odd stuff.
  • Chimes at Midnight (1965) - Combines material from five William Shakespeare plays centering around the boisterous but cowardly knight Falstaff, played by Welles himself. He called it his best movie.
  • The Immortal Story (1968) - His most obscure movie. Set in 19th century Macao. Available on The Criterion Collection from 2016.
  • F for Fake (1973) - Kind of a documentary about falsehood and illusions. Pay very close attention to what he says and try not to get fooled.

See also,


Welles as an actor only:


His career provides examples of:

  • Achievements in Ignorance: The innovative style and special effects achieved in Citizen Kane partly stemmed from Welles' lack of knowledge of Hollywood production standards, which allowed him to Take a Third Option that others had long neglected.
  • Aging Tropes: A common theme in all of Welles' films is the passing of time, and growing old and how people look back on their lives and the time they have left.
    "You ain't got a future, Hank. Your future is all used up!" - Marlene Dietrich, Touch of Evil
  • Auteur License: Among film-makers around the world, Orson Welles is highly regarded for being the first director to be explicitly given this by a major studio. He was given an exclusive two picture contract for a certain period of time(which expired during the middle of the production of The Magnificent Ambersons hence leaving him vulnerable) to produce, write, direct and act on any subject of his choice. This then unheard of initiative, given to an industry outsider, at the age of 25, over experienced professionals created a wave of jealousy and gossip which in a way fed to the backlash against Citizen Kane even in the year of its release. That said Welles had the support of old hands like John Ford, King Vidor and William Wyler.
    • The directors of the New Hollywood generation as well as the French New Wave, recognized Welles as The Pioneer for their kind of films, the goal being that every young director should make a film before they are 25, "just like Orson Welles."
      "All of us will always owe him everything." - Jean-Luc Godard.
  • Backhanded Apology: When he apologized for War of the Worlds, he said he was stunned that people believed it was true. He basically called them stupid. In the actual program, the show is clearly presented as fictional, the level to which he copied the style of the news program was just that convincing.
  • Badass Baritone: One of the most famous deep voices in Hollywood history, if not the most famous.
  • The Bard on Board: Made his name in the 1930s with memorable stage adaptations of Julius Caesar and Macbeth. After going into Hollywood he made similarly well-regarded films of Othello and Macbeth as well as Chimes at Midnight, a reworking of the Henry IV plays or specifically a Deconstruction of the same, foregrounding Falstaff as the major character rather than Prince Hal.
  • Bavarian Fire Drill: As detailed in F for Fake, Welles's first professional acting job was when he was touring Europe at age 16 and ran out of money in Dublin. He then entered the famous Gate Theatre and demanded a part, claiming to be a famous American Broadway star. He got one. However, Michael MacLiammoir, one of the managers of the theater noted in his autobiography that the Gate Theatre knew he was lying but was so impressed with his spirit that they took him on anyway.
  • Berserk Button: He wouldn't stand for Ted Turner's attempt to ruin his film noir masterpiece Citizen Kane with Turnerization: "Keep Ted Turner and his goddamned Crayolas away from my movie."
  • Big Badass Battle Sequence: The Battle of Shrewsbury in Chimes At Midnight is considered by the people who have seen it, to be one of the greatest and most original of its kind. Shot on a low budget, it uses a cinema-verite approach rather than the epic long shots of the Epic Movie to show how in-your-face and gritty medieval battle was. This sequence inspired Kenneth Branagh's Henry V and Spielberg's Saving Private Ryan.
  • Big Eater: Legendarily so. His average dinner consisted of two steaks cooked rare and a pint of scotch, and at one time he ate 18 hot dogs in one sitting at a Los Angeles hot dog stand. This undoubtedly led to his later obesity and was a common source of jokes at his expense, including from himself:
    "My doctor told me to stop having intimate dinners for four. Unless there are three other people."
  • Chiaroscuro : His films are famous for featuring this, and also different gradations, moving from subtle (The Magnificent Ambersons) to expressionistic (Touch of Evil) to the almost hallucinogenic visuals of The Trial.
  • Clock Tower: The Stranger.
  • Crying Wolf: A few years after The War of the Worlds broadcast, Welles was hosting a patriotic radio concert featuring poetry and music that was then interrupted with news that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor. Nobody listening believed it until too late.
  • Dead Artists Are Better: Welles predicted this would happen to him. Noting that people will love him after his death while in his life he had to constantly hustle and scheme to get movies made. Some also note about Welles that on account of the number of films he left incomplete or had shelved because of rights issues, he's one of the few film-directors who releases new works after his death, with some citing the Reconstruction of Touch of Evil and the upcoming The Other Side of the Wind as examples.
  • Deliberately Monochrome : Orson Welles preferred black and white to color. And with the exception of two films (F For Fake and The Immortal Story) all his films are in that form. He said that black-and-white made audiences put more focus on the actor's performance, especially the actor's eyes.
  • Despair Event Horizon: In one of his last interviews, Welles had a bleak assessment of his career:
    "I have wasted the greater part of my life looking for money and trying to get along, trying to make my work from this terribly expensive paint-box, which is a movie. And I've spent too much energy on things that have nothing to do with making a movie. It's about two percent movie-making and ninety-eight percent hustling. It's no way to spend a life."
  • Downer Ending : Welles' refusal to pay even token fealty to The Hays Code and its insistence on happy endings was a problem on The Magnificent Ambersons. His films are generally pessimistic and dark, but done with such style that they are entertaining nevertheless. The only truly happy movie of his, is F for Fake.
    "If you want a happy ending, that depends, of course, on where you stop your story."
  • Et Tu, Brute? : A theme that Welles returned to in his films is friendship that after a time leads to inevitable betrayal. Charles Kane and Leland, Othello and Iago, Hank Quinlan and Menzies, and Prince Hal and Falstaff. On account of pure coincidence, this theme is also present in The Third Man, with the same two actors from Kane, playing more or less the same relationship.
    • On a more literal note, Welles' theatre production of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar featured him as Brutus.
  • The Film of the Book: The Magnificent Ambersons, The Lady from Shanghai, Touch of Evil, The Trial.
  • Film Noir: The Stranger, The Lady from Shanghai, and Touch of Evil. Although not a film noir, Citizen Kane greatly inspired the photography standards of what became film noir, being endlessly studied and imitated by DPs and film directors even in the 40s.
    • Although not a straight-up noir, his adaptation of The Trial still makes use of much of the mainstays of the genre, especially in terms of visuals and character archetypes.
    • Touch of Evil is regarded as the end of the Classic Film Noir period, since its visual style, and genre busting story completely broke away with so many genre and censorship limitations that the category was no longer necessary.
  • Franz Kafka: The Trial. Still probably the best adaptation of a Kafka work. Welles himself claimed that the film was among his favorites, calling it a hilarious comedy, though the film's ending has a Take That! to the general bleakness of Kafka's works because of the Reality Subtext of post-WWII.
  • Genre-Busting: Orson Welles never did a straight genre piece (except The Stranger), taking any genre from the inside out and sometimes creating new genres.
    • Genre Turning Point:
    • It can be hard to appreciate how innovative Citizen Kane is. For one thing it was a film that used the best of Hollywood production facilities and craftsmanship to achieve powerful visual storytelling and use of sound, to suggest multiple layers of storytelling and psychological complexity. The narrative itself was highly complex for the time, generally avoiding neat solutions and not backing away from Downer Ending and criticizing America's idea of success. But more specifically it did this with ideas and conceits that was only possible with cinema. Visually and technically, it pioneered the use of Deep Focus cinematography which allowed action in the foreground and the background to be seen clearly, with the framing often creating a contrast between the same.
    • Likewise F for Fake completely turned traditional ideas of documentary around, becoming the Trope Codifier for a genre that some critics call an "essay film" in that it somehow takes a general subject but digresses to other areas and interests and somehow still fitting into the context. And its all true.
    • Some critics consider Touch of Evil a Genre-Killer, the end of the classic Film Noir.
    • His Shakespeare adaptations, both on stage and film, were incredibly radical and ahead of their time in the way it magnified the subtext of the plays rather than a straight, safe, adaptation. Moreover his films are cinematic versions of Shakespeare, placing the bard's texts in scenes and images that are worthy of it, all through editing, set design and shot selection and never changing a word of the text.
  • Grammar Nazi: His mounting rage when a commercial director kept trying to make him read some awful, awful copy has achieved immortality as an Internet audio file.
  • Golden Age / End of an Age : A frequent theme in his films. Welles stated that the idea of a "Golden Age" was one of the great triumphs of human civilization and believed that the past was the one treasure everyone shared.
    Orson Welles: Even if the good old days never existed, the fact that we can concieve of such a world is, in fact, an affirmation of the human spirit. That the imagination of man is capable of creating the myth of a more open, more generous time is not a sign of our folly.
    • Specifically, The Magnificent Ambersons which was essentially the landscape of Welles' midwestern childhood, encroached on by the coming of the 20th Century. The sense of loss of the good old days was a bitter theme at the coming of World War II, where other films like Meet Me In St. Louis celebrated the past with Nostalgia Filter. This was one reason why the film fell to Executive Meddling.
    • Likewise, Chimes At Midnight, identified Falstaff as The Remnant of what Welles called "Merrie England", an age of freedom and zest typified by The Middle Ages which ends in the film, when Mistress Quickly notes that Falstaff lies in "Arthur's bosom."
    • This also led to his fascination and identification with Don Quixote which deals with the same theme.
  • Hall of Mirrors: The memorable climax to The Lady from Shanghai.
  • Hilariously Drunken Outtakes: "AAAHH..!... the... Ff-f-rencchampagne..."
  • Hitler Cam: Used this constantly to quickly show corrupt men in positions of power.
  • I Love Lucy: Welles guest starred on an episode helpfully titled "Lucy Meets Orson Welles", which among other things referenced his love of magic and his infamous The War of the Worlds radio broadcast. Welles was also contracted to a Desilu pilot which ended in creative differences between himself and Desi Arnaz.
    • In addition to this, Welles planned to launch his own TV show for which he directed a pilot, The Fountain of Youth which was produced by Desilu but it didn't catch on. The pilot is considered a cult title by aficionados for its formal inventiveness.
  • Ink-Suit Actor: Teamed up (as himself!) with Superman in Superman #62 (1950). Also appeared as his famous characters, Charles Foster Kane and Harry Lime in Alan Moore and Kevin O'Neill's The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In the The Spirit story "UFO", first published September 28, 1947, he appears as Awsome Bells, who's approached by a real Martian asking his help with an upcoming invasion. Bells at first thinks it's just another actor-producer trying to get publicity, then when he's convinced it's true everyone thinks this of him, of course.
  • Large Ham: more in his later years as a character actor. Welles in his interviews with Peter Bogdanovich admitted that he took roles that were lesser than his abilities to fund his directorial efforts, he preferred that over directing commercial assignments like The Stranger which he felt was more trouble, for him, than it was worth.
  • Man of a Thousand Voices: Despite having a gifted, recognizable voice, Welles was an incredible mimic and impersonator. On some of his European films, when dubbing was expensive or sound was unavailable, Welles would dub his co-stars himself. Anthony Perkins on seeing The Trial couldn't tell the difference between the dialogue he recorded and the parts which Welles dubbed in.
  • The Mentor : As a young man, Welles' school principal Richard Hill encouraged his young prodigy who even then showed uncanny talent in his stage productions of Shakespeare at 15!
    • Gregg Toland, the cinematographer for Citizen Kane served as this for Welles. He had seen Welles' theater work and volunteered to work on Kane because he was himself an innovative artist and felt that Welles would try out new ideas that he long wanted to do. On the set, when the crew tried to explain to Welles that he was breaking normal protocol. Toland told them to back down because he felt that on his first film, it was more important that Welles preserve his instincts, leaving a professional like him to watch his back. For this Welles gave Toland a shared credit on the screen, something that was rare at the time.
    • Welles always regretted Toland's absence on The Magnificent Ambersons, the DP Stanley Cortez (who did shoot The Night of the Hunter, and Shock Corridor later) was also talented but far slower and the lack of rapport between him and Welles delayed the production, a factor that led to the famous crisis of its post-production.
    • Welles himself served as The Mentor for Robert Wise (who started as editor on his first two films, and would go on to have a long Hollywood career as director), Cy Endfield, and in his later years to the likes of Henry Jaglom and Peter Bogdanovich.
  • Mockumentary: The Trope Maker, with his famous radio dramatization of The War of the Worlds.
    • His F For Fake is a documentary with fictional elements and conceits which specifically deconstructs the claim and pretence of objectivity that the documentary form inherently grants its premise, insisting that anything edited, shot and scored to music has a subjective perspective. This aspect is present in the newsreel opening of Citizen Kane where RKO's own newsreel department helped in making the convincing, fake cheery ebullience of old-time newsreels.
  • Narrator: Welles in The Magnificent Ambersons and F for Fake. Also applies to many of the jobs he did for money.
  • The Oner: Two in Citizen Kane—the long shot into Susan's nightclub and the tracking shot up the ladder as Susan is singing—a four minute take in The Stranger that starts on a dirt road and follows Kindler and Meineke into the woods, and most famously the opening shot of Touch of Evil, a three minute, thirty second continuous take.
    • The Magnificent Ambersons has a famous ballroom sequence that remains incredibly breathtaking, for the variety of actors moving in the frame, the multiple layers in which the action takes place and the use of the sets and space for emotional effect, all in one long continuous take, a display of impeccable craftsmanship and meticulous planning and creative vision.
    • Macbeth likewise had the record for the longest take possible for a 35mm film magazine(which can go up to 10 minutes before needing to be changed) which contains an entire act of the play, the murder of Duncan, complete with dialogue and scenery, unaltered from the play, and the action takes place over multiple layers in the same frame with perfect synchonicity between the actors.
    • While the opening of 'Touch of Evil is famous, the scene Welles prized in the film as one of his best, is a long take where Quinlan in the course of a single take misdirects Charlton Heston's Vargas and plants evidence right under his very nose. Remarkable for the blocking (the movement of actors and positions) and the amount of action conveyed in a single take. Also the first scene shot for the film.
  • Only Known by Their Nickname: His first name is "George". According to him, even he didn't know this until he was in elementary school.
  • Platonic Life Partners: With Marlene Dietrich, with whom he often performed his magic show (and later cast in Touch of Evil).
  • Pop-Cultural Osmosis: For people who never saw his movies he is forever associated with Citizen Kane and being an obese cigar smoking bearded man who spoke in a powerful voice and did wine commercials, as well as the guy who fooled New Jersey into believing that an alien invasion was imminent.
  • Posthumous Collaboration: Welles performed magic on stage with David Copperfield over a decade after his death. see for yourself
  • Pretty Fly (For a White Guy): Interesting aversion; his production of Macbeth, set in a Hatian court invoking Voodoo and with an all-black cast, put him on the map as a theatrical prodigy. Welles was a progressive for his time however, and made the production with the intention of giving employment to talented African-American artists. Writer James Baldwin wrote in his memoirs that the production had a big impact on him.
    • Welles also provoked controversy when he discussed on radio the case of Isaac Woodard, an African American war veteran who was beaten a few hours after being discharged from service. Welles' stance led to his effigies being burnt in the South and years later he cited this experience for his anti-Racist Touch of Evil where he played the racist police officer Hank Quinlan who hated Mexicans.
  • Re-Cut: A "director's cut" of Touch of Evil based on a contemporary Welles memo of how he wanted the film to be is now available on video.
    • Similarly, there are at least five cuts of Mr. Arkadin floating around out there, three of which are included in the Criterion DVD release.
  • Star Trek: The Motion Picture: Narrated the original trailers for the film.
  • The Shadow: Welles played the voice of Lamont Cranston and the Shadow from 1937 until 1938.
  • Romanticism Versus Enlightenment: Welles ran a middle-ground. On the one hand he was sentimental about the past, admired the concept of the Golden Age and the iea of a dream-like past, but on the other hand he refused to write off progress altogether, and generally presented a Gray and Grey Morality version of the conflict.
  • Teen Genius / Child Prodigy : Welles is the definitive example of this in film history. He made Citizen Kane at the age of 25, and spent years before that changing the landscape of American theatre and radio with his innovative productions and was a workaholic of epic proportions. The failure of Kane at the box-office and the disappointment of The Magnificent Ambersons post-release halted this flow. In F For Fake he lamented:
    "I guess you could say that I started at the top and worked my way to the bottom."
  • Sophisticated as Hell: Welles admitted that he loved highbrow culture and lowbrow culture but hated middlebrow culture.
  • Those Wacky Nazis: The Stranger, in which actor/director Welles plays a Nazi war criminal hiding out in America under a fake identity. Although unlike most portrayals, this one pays considerable attention to the atrocities committed by the Nazis, notably being the first fictional feature film to show newsreel footage of the liberation of the concentration camps.
  • Tragedy : All his films are essentially this. His protagonists are either Tragic Hero, Tragic Villain, haunted by a Dark and Troubled Past, or burdened by a Tragic Dream.
    • It's tempting to many observers to apply this to Welles' own life.
  • Unreliable Narrator: Welles was notorious for making up tall tales about his own life and background. Even the book This Is Orson Welles, a compilation of interviews between him and Peter Bogdanovich, had interludes and exchanges that were inserted by Welles for dramatic effect.
  • Video Credits: Citizen Kane and The Magnficent Ambersons.

"We know a remote farm in Lincolnshire where Mrs. Buckley lives. Every July, peas grow there..."
"Don't you think you really want to say "July" over the snow? Isn't that the fun of it?"


http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Creator/OrsonWelles