Creator: Alfred Hitchcock

“People believe that the cinema has to, by necessity, be horizontal in its form. That is, go to a great many places and locales. That is not so. It should be possible to make an interesting film in a closet with the door shut. The idea is to reveal human nature and behavior with your camera moves. This presupposes, of course, an interesting story and characters worth revealing.”
Alfred Hitchcock

The acknowledged master of cinematic suspense, Alfred Joseph Hitchcock (August 13, 1899 – April 29, 1980) is one of the most famous directors of all time, if not the most famous. Most people have probably seen at least one of his films at some time or another.

He also produced and hosted the television anthology series Alfred Hitchcock Presents from 1955 to 1965, although he actually only directed a handful of the show's episodes. Many of his films are adaptations of novels or short stories.

Although "Hitch" is now considered one of the greatest directors of all time, for much of his life he was regarded as a mere entertainer rather than a serious artist. The French New Wave critics, especially François Truffaut, played a major role in correcting this by propounding the "auteur theory", which holds up the director (rather than the producer, screenwriter, actors, etc.) as the key artist on a film. Hitchcock was regarded as the major exemplar as this.

Most people consider either Vertigo or Psycho to be his Magnum Opus, although Hitchcock himself regarded Shadow of a Doubt as his personal favorite. North by Northwest, Rear Window, and The Birds are also frequently cited as favorites among fans. Rear Window in particular is often used as a plot template in other media.

The Hitchcock style went on to typify a certain kind of thriller, one which was copied by others over time. The Stanley Donen-directed Charade, for instance, was referred to by one reviewer as "the best Hitchcock film that Hitchcock never made". Also, the Italian Giallo film movement essentially stemmed from the Hickcockian style. Hitchcock was also known for his frequent use of the 'MacGuffin' (a term he popularized) in his films.

Hitchcock was knighted a brief four months prior to his death. He's also somewhat well known for making the shortest-ever acceptance speech at the Academy Awards (on receiving the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award in 1968): "Thank you very much, indeed."

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  • Pleasure Garden (1925) – His feature debut. About two chorus girls whose husbands leave for the colonies and how all of them react to being away from each other.
  • The Mountain Eagle (1926) – Set in Kentucky. A shop keeper tries to marry a schoolteacher, but she marries a hermit and Tragedy ensues. A lost film.
  • The Lodger (1927) – His first thriller. About a Jack the Ripper-esque murder spree in London and how one man is accused of being the murderer. Also has Hitchcock’s first cameo.
  • The Ring (1927) – A love triangle between a boxer, his girlfriend, and another fighter. The only movie where the writing is credited entirely to Hitchcock himself.
  • Downhill (1927) – A schoolboy takes the blame for a friend’s theft, and his life falls apart after he is expelled.
  • The Farmer’s Wife (1928) – An old farmer tries to marry again with the help of his housekeeper, who's secretly in love with him.
  • Easy Virtue (1928) – Loosely adapted from the Noël Coward play of the same name. A divorced woman tries to hide her past from her husband and his family.
  • Champagne (1928) – A comedy about a spoiled young woman trying to find work after her father lies to her and says he has no more money left.
  • The Manxman (1929) – Two childhood friends, a fisherman and a lawyer, fall in love with the same girl.
  • Blackmail (1929) – The first sound feature ever made in the UK. In fact, it was already in production as a silent movie when the producers decided to make it a sound picture. So there are two versions available. A young woman kills an attempted rapist in self defense, and a petty thief discovers evidence that suggests it was murder. He tries to blackmail her, but unwittingly winds up implicating himself.
  • Juno and the Paycock (1929) – In Revolution-era Ireland, a family finds out that they will earn a huge inheritance and quickly forget their old values.
  • Murder! (1930) – When an actress is convicted for killing her friend, one of the jury members is determined to prove her innocence.
  • Elstree Calling (1930) – Hitchcock was one of multiple directors working on this. About the television broadcast of a musical revue.
  • The Skin Game (1931) – About the feud between two rival families, one old wealth and one new wealth.
  • Mary (1931) – German-language remake of Murder! .
  • Rich and Strange (1931) – A poor young couple receive a big inheritance and go on a cruise, but the money starts to destroy their relationship.
  • Number Seventeen (1932) – Jewel thieves hide an expensive necklace in an old abandoned house, but a detective is hot on their trails and the neighbors find out about their plot. Hilarity Ensues.
  • Waltzes from Vienna (1934) – A musical about Strauss writing The Blue Danube. Hitchcock only made it for money and called it the low-point of his career.
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1934) – His first spy thriller. A British couple learn about an assassination plot, and the assassins kidnap their daughter to keep them quiet. Hitchcock’s breakthrough movie internationally, it was his first big hit in America. (Later remade in color by Hitch himself; see below.)
  • The 39 Steps (1935) – A Canadian man in London is wrongfully accused of murdering a female spy who was killed in his house, and he is chased across the country by police while he tries to piece together the clues she left him. Eventually, he is apprehended and handcuffed to a woman he met earlier, but he escapes while he is still handcuffed to her. Often called the best of his British movies, and one of his first movies that balances humor and thrills equally.
  • Secret Agent (1936) – A famous British writer fakes his death during World War I and is sent by the British intelligence to kill a German agent.
  • Sabotage (1936) – An American woman in London suspects her husband, a foreigner who runs a local cinema, is part of a bombing plot. Roiled audiences with its aversion of Infant Immortality. Includes a piece of the Silly Symphony short Who Killed Cock Robin?. A clip from this was briefly shown in the scene in Inglourious Basterds where the narrator explains how easy it was for old film to cause fires.
  • Young and Innocent (1937) – A famous movie star is killed by her husband for having several affairs. One of her boyfriends finds the body but gets arrested on suspicions of being the murderer. He escapes with a police constable’s daughter to try to prove his innocence. Has a famous tracking shot.
  • The Lady Vanishes (1938) – A young playgirl befriends an old woman on a train in an unnamed country on the continent. However, she wakes up from a long nap to find the old woman missing, and all of the other passengers all swear that the woman was never there. She is determined to prove they are lying, and eventually uncovers a massive conspiracy plot.
  • Jamaica Inn (1939) – A pirate drama, of all things. Stars Charles Laughton. Hitch himself confided to François Truffaut that he considered the film one of his lesser works....
  • Rebecca (1940) – His first American movie. Producer David O. Selznick (of Gone With The Wind fame) convinced Hitchcock to move to America because Hollywood offered more money and better production values. Based off the famous book of the same name. A naïve young woman (Joan Fontaine) marries a wealthy widower (Laurence Olivier), but the legacy of his former wife, Rebecca, haunts everyone, including her. The only Hitchcock movie to win Best Picture at the Oscars. Best Director nomination.
  • Foreign Correspondent (1940) – A journalist is sent to Europe on the eve of World War II and becomes involved in international espionage. A very funny thriller that has some great set pieces, including an assassination in the rain. Nominated for Best Picture, but lost to Rebecca.
  • Mr. & Mrs. Smith (1941) – A Screwball Comedy (his first American attempt at a pure comedy) about a couple learning their marriage wasn't valid. Earlier that day, the husband confessed that, if given the chance again, he wouldn’t have married her. After finding out, he changed his mind… but so has she. Not to be confused with the 2005 Brad Pitt-Angelina Jolie film.
  • Suspicion (1941) – A woman (Joan Fontaine) suspects that her new husband is planning to murder her. The first of four Hitchcock films starring Cary Grant. Nominated for Best Picture, and Joan Fontaine won Best Actress.
  • Saboteur (1942) – A Nazi starts a fire at a plane factory and an innocent man gets framed. Imagine a World War II-era combination of The 39 Steps and North by Northwest, and you have a good fuzzy concept of what this is like. It ends with a set piece on the Statue of Liberty.
  • Shadow of a Doubt (1943) – The first time Hitchcock really indulged in his love of psychologically examining criminals. An intelligent murderer (Joseph Cotten) flees from the police and hides with his family in a small California town. He charms everyone, but his teenaged niece begins to suspect that something is up. This was Hitchcock’s favorite out of all of his movies.
  • Lifeboat (1944) – Hitchcock’s first experiment with what is known as a “limited set.” After a battle between an Allied ship and a German U-Boat, the nine survivors (including one German) cling to a small lifeboat and tensions start to develop between all of them. Based on a novella by John Steinbeck. Has one of his most creative cameos. Bombed at the box office because the positive portrayal of the German was considered Too Soon. Nominated for Best Director.
  • Spellbound (1945) – Ingrid Bergman plays a psychiatrist who falls in love with her hospital’s new director, Gregory Peck, but it turns out that he has a few secrets of his own. Has a famous dream sequence designed by Salvador Dalí. Nominated for Best Picture and Best Director.
  • Notorious (1946) – A convicted Nazi's American daughter is recruited by government agents to spy on his old friends who are hiding in Brazil. Noted for having what is called “the longest kiss scene in movie history.” One scene where the camera swoops through a crowded party to a close-up of a key is one of his most famous shots. With Ingrid Bergman and Cary Grant.
  • The Paradine Case (1947) – An English barrister (Gregory Peck) falls in love with the defendant in a murder trial.
  • Rope (1948) – Another one of his “limited set” movies, and his first movie in color. This one is set almost entirely in a small apartment, and is shot to look like it was filmed in one continuous take. Two young men murder a friend, hide his body in a trunk, and have a party in their apartment while the body is there the entire time. Based on the infamous real-life Leopold and Loeb murder. Has grown in esteem over the years. The first of four movies he made with Jimmy Stewart.
  • Under Capricorn (1949) – A Costume Drama with tragic undertones. Set in 1831-1832 Australia. Stars Ingrid Bergman.
  • Stage Fright (1950) – Charlotte Inwood (Marlene Dietrich), a well-known actress and singer, loses her husband to a murder. Suspicion falls on her supposed lover Jonathan Cooper. Eve Gill, an acting student, sets out to prove his innocence and find out whether Charlotte herself performed the murder. But everything is not what it seems. His first British movie since he moved to America.
  • Strangers on a Train (1951) – Two strangers on a train strike up a conversation about the people in their lives they want dead. One suggests that they trade murders so they won't get caught. The other one laughs it off. The first guy was serious. Stars his own daughter, Patricia Hitchcock, in a supporting role.
  • I Confess (1953) – A priest (Montgomery Clift) hears a confession of murder from one of his church workers and is then accused of the crime himself. He refuses to say what he knows because of his religious convictions, but can he prove his innocence by other means?
  • Dial M for Murder (1954) – A man hires a hitman to bump off his cheating wife (Grace Kelly, in her first of three Hitchcock films). However, the hitman ends up being killed by the wife in self-defense, so the man decides to kill her through the judicial system and frames her for murder. Based on a play, it's one of Hitch's best known and an example of a movie Bottle Episode.
  • Rear Window (1954) – His last “limited set” movie. Jimmy Stewart plays a photographer with a broken leg and nothing better to do but spy on his neighbors... and do some amateur sleuthing (with the help of Grace Kelly) when he suspects one of them of murder. All of it is shot either in his apartment or from his point of view when he looks out his window. Nominated for Best Director.
  • To Catch a Thief (1955) – A reformed Gentleman Thief has to clear his name when he's framed for a new spate of burglaries. Stars the French Riviera, with Cary Grant and Grace Kelly in supporting roles.
  • The Trouble with Harry (1955) – His second attempt at a pure comedy after he moved to America. A man dies in a Vermont forest. We discover just how many times you can bury and dig up the same corpse when all of the villagers each have different plans for his body.
  • The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) – A remake of the original. This time stars Jimmy Stewart and Doris Day, who sings the hit song “Que Sera, Sera. “ Hitchcock considered this to be better than the original.
  • The Wrong Man (1956) – A musician (Henry Fonda) gets falsely accused of robbery, and the stress of the case affects him and his family very badly as they try to prove his innocence. Based on a true story. Critic-turned-director Jean-Luc Godard wrote his longest piece of criticism about this movie.
  • Vertigo (1958) – A San Francisco policeman (Jimmy Stewart) who is afraid of heights is asked by an old college buddy to watch the man's wife, who is just not herself lately... and finds himself falling, in ways other than the one he fears. Widely panned when it came out, it is now considered one of the greatest movies ever made and maybe even Hitchcock’s masterpiece.
  • North by Northwest (1959) – A spy thriller involving a man who doesn't exist, a crop duster, a murder in the UN, and a climax on top of Mount Rushmore. And, once again, Cary Grant, playing, once again, an innocent man wrongfully accused. Was a huge influence on the James Bond movies, which started production a few years later.
  • Psycho (1960) – Janet Leigh tries to steal some money and winds up having a fatal encounter in a shower. Anthony Perkins steals the show as a troubled mama’s boy. Famous for having two very, VERY shocking plot twists that audiences did not see coming, but have today fallen to spoilers. Or at least one of them has. Nominated for Best Director.
  • The Birds (1963) – Impossible to describe without it sounding like a B horror film, especially since its premise is one of the classic B horror plots, but it's okay, because everyone already knows what it is about. Basically, it starts off pretending to be a romantic comedy before it turns out to be about killer birds attacking a village on the California coast. MUCH better than it sounds. It also introduced Tippi Hedren as the last of the iconic "Hitchcock blondes".
  • Marnie (1964) – A psychological thriller starring Tippi Hedren as the kleptomaniacal title character and Sean Connery (who filmed this the same time he was filming Goldfinger) as her husband. After a string of huge hits, this was Hitchcock's first outright bomb at the box office in a while. Has been re-evaluated by modern critics and is now considered by many to be one of his most complex movies.
  • Torn Curtain (1966) – Michael Armstrong (Paul Newman), an esteemed American rocket scientist, defects to East Germany. Sarah Sherman (Julie Andrews), his assistant and fiancée, reluctantly follows him. Armstrong is actually a Fake Defector, but the Stasi is determined to keep him within the East German borders. Has a scene that realistically proves how difficult it actually is to murder someone.
  • Topaz (1969) – In Copenhagen, a high-ranking Soviet intelligence officer defects to the West with his wife and daughter. He informs the CIA that the Soviets are positioning missiles in Cuba. André Devereaux, a French agent, is assigned to further investigate the matter. His mission leads him first to New York City, then to Cuba. While events lead up to the Cuban Missile Crisis, Devereaux' personal life takes several turns for the worse.
  • Frenzy (1972) – One of the most graphic of Hitch's films, this involves a man being framed for a series of sex murders. Meanwhile, the real murderer targets the man’s girlfriend. His first British movie since Stage Fright.
  • Family Plot (1976) – A dark comedy about a phony medium and her boyfriend getting hired to find an elderly woman’s long-lost nephew, who was given up for adoption. It turns out he’s a diamond smuggler now. Features William Devane (Secretary Heller from 24). Contains loads of references to many of his previous movies.

Works featuring fictional portrayals of Alfred Hitchcock

Tropes in the films of Alfred Hitchcock:

  • Absurd Phobia: According to interviews, he was afraid of eggs.
    "I’m frightened of eggs, worse than frightened, they revolt me. That white round thing without any holes [...] have you ever seen anything more revolting than an egg yolk breaking and spilling its yellow liquid? Blood is jolly, red. But egg yolk is yellow, revolting. I've never tasted it."
  • Action Survivor: There is a Hitchcockian pattern of an ordinary man or woman, through one bad turn, falling into extraordinary circumstances and fighting his or her way out: Shadow of a Doubt, Strangers on a Train, The Wrong Man, Vertigo, North by Northwest, The Man Who Knew Too Much.
  • All There in the Manual: The book-length interviews Francois Truffaut did with Hitchcock, generally known as Hitchcock/Truffaut was the first in-depth study on a film-maker pertaining to craft and technique and style. Several critics and film-makers like Steven Soderbergh consider it among the greatest books on films. It remains the starting point for all kinds of Hitchcock information, though later generations have tried to correct some of Hitchcock's tendencies for obfuscation.
  • Ambiguously Gay: Numerous villains, henchmen, thugs, goons and mooks in his films fall into this category, bearing in mind that these films were made in a different era of Hollywood and American culture. Cases in point: Rope, North by Northwest, Strangers on a Train.
  • Auteur License: Hitchcock was one of the few who achieved this in The Golden Age of Hollywood, though he had to struggle for it in his early years. Even in England, The Lodger had its ending change because of its dark story. In America, Suspicion where he hoped to cast Cary Grant in an unconventional role resulted in Executive Meddling. From Notorious onwards, Hitchcock served as his own producer even if he never actually took credit as producer, always favoring Directed by Alfred Hitchcock as his mantle.
  • Author Appeal: Most female main characters will be blondes, though this feature only comes in his 50s-60s films, where earlier actresses like Joan Fontaine, Teresa Wright, Ingrid Bergman, Sylvia Sidney tending to be Brainy Brunette. Hitchcock himself pointed out that his films were subversions and critique of the Dumb Blonde stereotype popular in the 50s, actresses like Grace Kelly, Eva Marie Saint, Janet Leigh and Tippi Hedren had vastly more complex motivations and Hidden Depths than other films of that time.
  • Black Comedy: Lots of darkly comic moments among the blood. Hitchcock himself considered Psycho a comedy.
  • Claustrophobia: Lifeboat, Rope.
  • Creator Cameo: He appears in every film in a nonspeaking role. This habit became so famous that he confined his appearances to the first fifteen minutes of his films so that audiences would not be distracted watching for him among the extras. In The Wrong Man, he appears personally in silhouette and introduces the film, apparently because it was based on a true story. In Lifeboat, since it's set entirely within the titular lifeboat, he appears in a weight-loss advert in a newspaper - he had recently lost a substantial amount of weight and was the model for both the before and after shots. In Family Plot, his last film, he isn't (technically) on screen at all - only his silhouette appears, cast on frosted glass, in a fashion reminiscent of the opening of Presents.
  • Depraved Homosexual: Mrs. Danvers in Rebecca, the Leopold and Loeb stand-ins in Rope, Bruno in Strangers on a Train, and Martin Landau's character in North by Northwest.
  • Dramatic Irony: He was the master of "suspense", this was his chief weapon in capturing and keeping the attention of the audience. Almost all of his films contain a situation where the viewer knows more than (some of) the characters, or can see something or someone coming that a character is unaware of. He also stated in interviews that he generally did not like "plot twists" (Psycho being one of the exceptions) and he regretted some of the gimmicks like the "lying flashback" in Stage Fright'' which he felt rested on fooling and deceiving the audience, and as such tended to get dated very fast
    • Rope for example is real time evening of an entire dinner party, held in the same room where there is a dead body in a cupboard. The guests are completely oblivious. Only the viewers and the two men who murdered him (their hosts) know it, which makes the seemingly normal conversation that takes place meaningful for us and them.
    • Hitchcock explained this trope during an filmed interview by describing a situation where he and the interviewer are talking about baseball while the audience can see that there is a bomb hidden beneath the table.
  • Enforced Method Acting: Ironic because Hitchcock actually disliked Method Acting or what was then known as Method Acting. He made more than fifty films over several decades, and generally did not make this a practice but some examples stand out.
    • In the attic scene in The Birds, Hitchcock had crew guys hurling real gulls and crows at Tippi Hedren...for five straight days of shooting. As a result, she was plagued by dreams of flapping wings. The birds themselves had been fed whiskey to make them more aggressive. Needless to say, this was long before the No Animals Were Harmed certificates.
    • The story of Rebecca called for Joan Fontaine to be nervous around the other actors, so Hitchcock told her that no one else on set liked her. Laurence Olivier did hate her, repeatedly telling Hitch, "She can't act, old boy!". This was more because of Joan Fontaine's inexperience at the time than anything else. For Suspicion, for which she won an Oscar for Best Actress, he relied on her more. Fontaine enjoyed working with Hitchcock on the whole.
    • For Vertigo, Kim Novak was not his first choice, and most of the costumes were selected for Vera Miles(she appeared in The Wrong Man and played Marion Crane's sister later in Psycho). So Kim Novak's stiffness and discomfort as Madeleine emphasized by costumes for another actress actually helped her in that role.
    • Hitchcock was a notorious practical joker and was never tired of making jokes and shocking his cast and crew. When filming The 39 Steps he needed a shocked reaction from Madeline Carroll. He achieved this by pretending to pull his cock out.
  • Freudian Excuse: Hitchcock was heavily influenced by Freud and probably defined a lot of popular conceptions about it. His films abound in visual gags and cues that are incredible, vulgar, Freudian jokes. That said, his genuine interest in psychoanalysis was sparked by his conversations with Joseph Stefano, the screenwriter of Psycho, who had undergone analysis and who later collaborated on Marnie one of the most sophisticated and interesting explorations of psychoanalysis in film history and truer to the source than most movies.
  • Getting Crap Past the Radar: Examples are too numerous to list.
  • Info Dump: Some of his American films, since it still labored under The Hays Code was filled with heavy exposition scenes. Most famously, the psychologist's monologue at the end of Psycho.
  • MacGuffin: He was the Trope Namer and Trope Codifier. According to him, the screenwriter Angus MacPhail coined the term. He said in interviews that a MacGuffin was any object of interest all parties wanted but are actually not all that important to the characters. Some examples are The 39 Steps, Psycho (the money stolen from the office which becomes a nonissue midway into the film) and The Man Who Knew Too Much.
    • North by Northwest was regarded by Hitchcock as the ultimate MacGuffin. The hero is accused to be a spy by the villains but it turns out that not only is the hero not the spy but the spy does not exist but is in fact the product of a government disinformation campaign, and that the entire plot is fought for a pile of nothing.note 
  • Missing Episode:
    • Hitchcock's first film, a 1923 release called The White Shadow, was thought lost for more than 80 years—until its first three reels were found as part of a private collection in New Zealand.
    • 1927's The Mountain Eagle is not known to survive in any form, despite exhaustive searches of film archives. Check your attic. In his interviews with Truffaut, Hitchcock was dismissive of the film, insisting that it was not a very good film and that the succeeding film, The Lodger was his first major work.
  • My Beloved Smother: A common theme among his bad guys (and sometimes his heroes as well) is highly domineering mothers. Taken up to eleven in Psycho which defined this trope for all time.
  • The Oner: Notorious, Rope, Young And Innocent.
  • The Peeping Tom: The Lodger, Notorious, Rear Window, Vertigo, Psycho.
  • Pigeonholed Director: Perhaps the most famous tone, even today he is associated with the suspense thriller genre and all its tropes. This was a problem on some of the few films which departed on the formula. Under Capricorn was a 19th Century romance set in Australia (albeit filled with dark passion and emotional trauma), starring Ingrid Bergman, The Wrong Man was a Ripped from the Headlines story about a real case and was more a working class drama, while The Trouble With Harry was a genuine comedy (with some macabre and grotesque touches). All these films were box-office failures.
    "I'm a typed director. If I made Cinderella, the audience would immediately be looking for a body in the coach."
  • Police Are Useless: A traumatic childhood incident when his father used the local police to teach him a lesson worthy of J. Walter Wetherman caused him to enact revenge in all his films. Though Dial M for Murder and Frenzy are notable exceptions.
  • Production Posse: Amassed a sizable one over his long career.
    • His wife Alma Reville served as script supervisor on his first film and played a key role in all his films,
    • Joan Harrison was another important producer and was in charge of Alfred Hitchcock Presents.
    • Robert Boyle was his preferred Production Designer
    • Robert Burks was his most common cinematographer (certainly in the 1950s)
    • George Tomassini was his editor until he died after Marnie
    • Most famously Bernard Herrmann and Saul Bass.
    • Actors to appear frequently in his films include James Stewart, Cary Grant, Ingrid Bergman, Grace Kelly and several other actors of course.
    • Several of the actors had Undying Loyalty to Hitchcock. A prime example of this is actor Norman Lloyd, who later went on to play Dr. Daniel Auschlander on St. Elsewhere and Dr. Isaac Mentnor on Seven Days, who worked for Hitchcock as an associate producer and director on Alfred Hitchcock Presents. At the time, Hitchcock was the only person willing to give him any type of gainful employment. Other than that, he had been blacklisted in the entertainment industry for refusing to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee and identify suspected communists and as a result, had been branded as a communist himself.
    • Screenwriter Angus Mac Phail (who he credited for coining the McGuffin) had trouble with alcoholism and Hitchcock arranged him to work on The Wrong Man to help his friend out.
  • Scenery Porn:
  • Signature Style: No film director has a more recognizable and identifiable style than Hitchcock. His films were so unique that it was said you could tell it even if you missed the credits and promos.
  • Silence Is Golden: Even movies Hitchcock directed after the silent era occasionally manage to create drama without dialogue. Hitchcock was a painter and was very interested in visuals, almost to the point of expressing disdain for acting and dialogue.
  • That's What She Said: Yes, even Hitch wasn't above them. Possibly has the first FILMED instance of a "That's What She Said" joke.
  • Trope Namer: MacGuffin (via one of his screenwriters) and helped popularize "Fridge Logic" when describing a scene in Vertigo. note 
  • Vertigo Effect: He basically invented the Tracking Zoom technique.
  • Wrongly Accused: The Wrong Man. Also The Lodger, The 39 Steps, Strangers on a Train, I Confess, Dial M for Murder, To Catch a Thief, North by Northwest, and Frenzy. Subverted in Stage Fright and averted in Shadow of a Doubt.