"There seemed little doubt about what was going to happen. America was going on the greatest, gaudiest spree in history and there was going to be plenty to tell about it."An "era of wonderful nonsense", as newspaper columnist Westbrook Pegler later termed it. A dizzy, giddy time of petting parties, bootleg gin, jazz and flappers. Where coffee cost a dime. The setting of many an Agatha Christie mystery, this is one era that absolutely lives up to the stereotypes and then some. The Great War was over, (most of) the Western world had never been so prosperous - time to par-tay! Style is almost exclusively Art Deco moderne, all minimalist lines and coolly fluid shapes. (Side point- Art Deco's fascination with streamlining household objects whose actual wind resistance is irrelevant proved popular because leveling incomes led for the first time to a group of people who could afford good design but not household servants. It seems that a streamlined Art Deco lamp is easier to dust than a frilly Victorian one...) Dresses are short and so is ladies' hair. Bobbed hair had actually emerged earlier, around 1915, and was popularized during the late 1910s out of convenience during the war, as well as through the earlier 1920s. Hemlines gradually rose from ankle to calf-length during the First World War and to knee-length by 1925. Despite those costumes you buy these days, most dresses were not fringed or figure-hugging, and above-the-knee hemlines were nonexistent for grown women at any time. Dresses had boxy and boyish silhouettes, dropped waists and were minimally or highly decorated depending on the occasion. Characters include gangsters and G-men, flappers and their sheiks (sort of proto-metrosexual young males), languid white movie idols and jolly black jazz singers and dancers, and lots of cheery collegiate types who wear huge fur coats and wide Oxford bags and play ukuleles while dancing the Charleston and shouting "23 skidoo!" The basic idea was to shock, amaze and amuse at all costs; there were apparently some women of the era who would greet their guests in the bath. The fun and excitement is only heightened by the fact that much of it is totally illegal, at least in the USA. There Prohibition is in full swing, so gin is made in bathtubs, smuggled by the likes of Al Capone and served only in 'speakeasies', hole-in-the-wall bars highly prone to raids by stolid, humourless cops, or an ambush by the eccentric Izzy And Moe prohibition agent team in disguise. Unless you're Treasury Agent Eliot Ness or one of his elite team of incorruptible agents, The Untouchables, be extra cautious to never insult a tough-looking Italian in a sharp suit, or you'll find yourself looking down the barrel of a Tommy Gun. However, this growth of the influence of modern life in urbanized northern states ran headlong into more conservative communities, especially in the south which tried to keep modern influences like the theory of evolution out from their schools. The state of Tennessee tried to do so with the Butler Act, which banned evolution from school curriculums. The small town of Dayton, suffering from an economic slump, took advantage of this and persuaded the local teacher, John Scopes, to be indicted under this law in order to have a big publicity trial to bring in the tourists. The plan worked perfectly, and the resulting "Monkey Trial" (as journalist and satirist H. L. Mencken famously dubbed it) proved to be one of the most dramatic and publicized of the century, with the confrontation between the noted populist leader and religious conservative William Jennings Bryan and the famed defense lawyer and noted agnostic Clarence Darrow being the highlight of the event. As it happens, the prosecution's win was never seriously in doubt, but the victory was a Pyrrhic one for religious fundamentalists, with Bryan being publicly embarrassed by Darrow's questioning that forced him to concede that a literal interpretation of the Bible was indefensible; Bryan died less than a week later. (The trial would later be immortalized, albeit with certain dramatic liberties taken, by the classic play Inherit the Wind and its subsequent film adaptations.) Meanwhile, the African American community started to finally gain its voice in American culture. Many black Southerners moved to Northern cities during the 1910's and the early part of this decade. Harlem, a neighborhood in New York City, was the most famous African American community, and so many of the most famous African American writers, artists, and musicians were based there that many historians call this period the Harlem Renaissance. Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and other famous authors wrote stories that captured the African American experience and were read by millions, and Jazz started to spread throughout the country when white people realized that Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington and the others sounded really awesome. This trend would continue in the 1930's, leading to Big Band and Swing music. Meanwhile, intellectuals of the community, such as W. E. B. Du Bois, planted the seeds of what would eventually become the Civil Rights Movement. As for entertainment, silent films became an art medium of its own with classic films like The Wind and Metropolis setting new heights for screen drama and the great silent comedians like Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd and Buster Keaton gaining enormous popularity. The fact that they didn't have sound meant that movies still hadn't killed off Vaudeville or Minstrel Shows just yet, but the advent of talkies late in the decade finished the job, however. Radio progressed quickly through the last of its experimental phases and was firmly established as a mass-market medium by the end of the decade, also changing the meaning of "popular music" and establishing the "pop idol" (Al Jolson, Ted Lewis, Rudy Vallee) in the process. Meanwhile, ultra-low-def mechanical television had brief success with early adopters (essentially beta-testing it) before The Great Depression and the advent of (relatively) high-definition all-electronic TV killed it off by the mid-'30s. During all this, of course, the relics of The Gay Nineties, now doughty dowagers and grumpy old Colonels, look on disapprovingly, from short skirts and hair, to make-up and swimming wear. One should also note that while things were just swell in America, Britain and much of Western Europe (where it was dubbed The Golden Twenties across The Pond), if you were in an area hard hit by World War I (say, Germany, Italy, Russia, Turkey or the entire Caucasus Mountains region before the Soviets annexed it) this was not a fun time. However, it doesn't mean that they didn't try, once they were able to pull themselves together again. But in Germany, there are rightwing paramilitary groups who have some very grand ambitions and there will be a few people who get a chilling feeling that one loudmouth Austrian with a toothbrush mustache is going to be very big trouble. America's booming wealth and newfound geopolitical importance meant that lots of American writers and intellectuals (many of them disaffected by what they saw as the country's political complacency, puritanical moralism, and empty materialism) spent time in Europe during this period, soaking up Europe's old culture even as European thinkers dreamed of wiping it all clean and starting over. The contrast between "naive" Americans and "decadent" Europe set a fictional pattern which has endured nearly a century. Soviet Russia (called USSR since 1922), after a devastating civil war, experienced a short period of economic growth thanks to the NEP (new economic policy), a series of reforms that allowed free enterprise and private property. A new Soviet bourgeoisie was born, with a penchant for over-the-top parties and a slavish fascination with American fashion, music and dance. The Soviet Nouveau Riche (typically called a nepman) was a stock character in 20's Russian satire. Rather funny, they left behind the most durable heritage in Soviet arts and design, as most Soviet architecture and industrial design from the 1920s to the 1970s was ludicrously similar to period American design. Often a nostalgic setting during The Forties, The Fifties, The Sixties, and well into The Seventies. This period lasted sometime after World War I till the Crash of 1929 or just before the New Deal of 1933. Understandably, there was much nostalgia for this period as soon as it ended, and a lot of 1930's movies (especially the gangster ones) were set during this decade. For the 1939 movie of the same name, click here. Also see: The Gay Nineties, The Edwardian Era, The Great Depression, The Forties, The Fifties, The Sixties, The Seventies, The Eighties, The Nineties, Turn of the Millennium, and The New Tens for more decade nostalgia.
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This ain't baloney, this is Serious Beeswax, as most words and phrases originated from this decade, so here are some examples, see?:
Works set in this time period:
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Works made in (but not necessarily set during) the twenties: