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Theatre: Cabaret
"There was a cabaret, and there was a master of ceremonies... and there was a city called Berlin, in a country called Germany... and it was the end of the world."

Willkommen, bienvenue, welcome!
Fremde, etranger, stranger.
Glücklich zu sehen, je suis enchante,
Happy to see you, bleibe, reste, stay.
Willkommen, bienvenue, welcome,
Im Cabaret, au Cabaret, to Cabaret!
The Emcee

Cabaret is a stage musical based on a set of short stories by Christopher Isherwood (collected in Goodbye To Berlin), which in turn were based on real events and people. It also drew enormous influence from I Am A Camera (1951), a straight play based on Goodbye to Berlin. Cabaret itself was adapted into a film of the same name in 1972. No two versions of this story are the same, all starring wildly different characters, or different versions of the same characters, and following different events. Hell, even the musical itself differs somewhat in content based on what revision you're talking about.

With a sinister but attractive glint in his eye, the Emcee invites us into the decadent provocative world of the cabaret. It's 1929. Sally Bowles, a middle-class lass from Chelsea, London, is working as a singer at Berlin's Kit Kat Klub in order to live the thrilling life the city is supposed to offer. In enters Cliff Bradshaw, a young American writer who comes to Berlin seeking inspiration for his novel, and Sally soon determinedly moves to join him in his room in the boarding house run by Fraulein Schneider (played by Miss Lotte Lenya in the original cast). Their fellow lodgers include the cheerful yet promiscuous working girl, Fraulein Kost, and the gentle, aging Herr Schultz.

As the Nazi clouds gather, Sally, now with child, is still determined to show the world what a good time she is having. Defiant and brave, she either cannot or will not hear the threatening noises around her, yet the others can.

Schultz courts Fraulein Schneider with old-world courtesy and they become engaged. However, he is Jewish; when Nazi sympathizer Ernst Ludwig breaks up their engagement party, the weary landlady is obliged to let her dreams of marriage go.

Cliff finds he has been almost unwittingly smuggling Nazi funds for Ernst, and is beaten up when he refuses to continue the dangerous work. It's time to leave Berlin, but poor self-obsessed Sally can't let the party end. Back in the Kit Kat Klub, the Emcee introduces an ongoing pageant of delusional depravity, a commentary on the "mask of normalcy" people are wearing during the Nazi occupation.

The movie was directed by Bob Fosse and won eight Academy Awards, including for Fosse's direction, Liza Minelli's performance as Sally and Joel Grey's as the Emcee. It is particularly notable for dominating the awards in the year of The Godfather, though the latter's comparatively few awards (three) still included Best Picture.


This musical provides examples of:

  • Affably Evil: Ernst seems to be a very cordial person, offering Cliff work and recommending a boarding house... up until the audience sees the swastika armband.
  • Babies Make Everything Better: Cliff tries to convince Sally of this.
  • Beta Couple: Herr Schultz and Fraulein Schneider
  • Bi the Way: Cliff, in any version more recent than the original (Bowdlerised) production script.
  • Bread, Eggs, Milk, Squick: "If You Could See Her"
  • Breaking the Fourth Wall: In many productions, the Emcee will interact with those in the front-row seats.
  • Broken Bird: Sally. Detailed in "Maybe This Time".
    Sally: Everybody loves a winner
    So nobody loved me
    Lady Peaceful
    Lady Happy
    That's what I long to be!
    Well all the odds are
    They're in my favor
    Something's bound to begin!
    It's gotta happen
    Happen sometime
    Maybe this time I'll win!
  • Cheshire Cat Grin: The Emcee is frequently shown sporting one; Joel Gray's portrayal is a noteworthy example.
  • The Cover Changes The Meaning: Depending on what version you're watching; some stage productions have "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" sung by Hitler Youth boys, as in the movie. Others have the reprise sung by Nazis, but the original sung by a young, gay Cabaret boy, often a racial minority.
  • Cut Song: The straightest version is "I Don't Care Much" which was cut from the original production and added back later, but every version is missing at least a couple of songs present in other versions.
  • Dark Reprise: "Wilkommen" gets one in the finale.
  • Discussed Trope: "If this was a movie, you know what would happen?"
  • Do Not Do This Cool Thing: See Misaimed Fandom in the YMMV tab, but even if you're not a neo-Nazi, "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" is sung and filmed in such a way as to be quite stirring, especially when everyone in the park joins in.
  • Downer Ending: Cliff leaves Berlin heartbroken, Herr Shultz and Fraulein Schneider break up, Germany slides into Nazi tyranny and Sally and everyone else will quite likely suffer the consequences.
  • Dramatic Irony: Also historical irony. In possibly the only use of It Will Never Catch On for Tear Jerker effect, Herr Schultz's prediction that the rise of the Nazis will pass soon enough. Particularly tragic since he is Jewish.
  • Epic Rocking: The reprise of "Tomorrow Belongs To Me"
  • The Everyman: Played mostly straight with Cliff.
  • Fanservice: The Stripperiffic outfits for the Kit Kat Klub Girls and Boys. Justified in that it is a cabaret.
  • Fundamentally Funny Fruit: During the song "It Couldn't Please Me More", the Jewish grocer, Herr Schultz, presents Fraulein Schneider with a pineapple, which would be rationed in this time period and therefore a very valuable gift.
  • Gratuitous German, followed by Gratuitous French, followed by Gratuitous English: Many of the phrases in the opening number "Willkommen" are sung in manner.
    Emcee: Willkommen! Bienvenue! Welcome!
    Fremde! Etranger! Stranger!
    Gluklich zu sehen! Je suis enchante! Happy to see you!
    Bleibe! Reste! Stay!
    Willkommen! Bienvenue! Welcome!
    Im Cabaret! Au Cabaret! To Cabaret!
  • Greek Chorus: The Emcee, though for the most part his songs are only tied in thematically, and don't directly comment on the action.
  • Good Girls Avoid Abortion: Sally Bowles, on the other hand, doesn't.
  • Hard-Drinking Party Girl: Sally Bowles. Her drinking increases as the play goes on.
  • Hideous Hangover Cure: Prairie Oysters, which involves raw eggs and Worcestershire sauce together. Drink it from the toothpaste glass and it tastes just like peppermint!
  • "I Am" Song: "So What" for Fraulein Schneider.
  • Interactive Narrator: Played with in the Emcee.
  • Ironic Echo: All over the place in the last few scenes, which collectively comprise a darker mirror image of the first few scenes.
  • I Should Write a Book About This: Cliff's novel.
  • "I Want" Song: "Maybe This Time".
  • Last Chorus Slow Down
  • Ms. Fanservice: Sally Bowles. Just look at the image above!
  • Mr. Fanservice: The Emcee is frequently presented as such, but Alan Cumming's portrayal really stands out and tends to ramp the Emcee's sexual side Up to Eleven
  • Manic Pixie Dream Girl: Sally tries to be a Manic Pixie for Cliff, but her determined spunky optimism and unwillingness to grow up make her ignore the threat of Nazism and drive Cliff away from her.
  • Money Song: "Sitting Pretty/The Money Song"
  • Mood Whiplash: In the revival in the final song, Emcee rather suggestively starts to remove his coat, revealing a prison uniform.
    • At the very end of the reprise of "Tomorrow Belongs to Me," the Emcee moons the audience, showing he has a swastika painted on his ass. You want to laugh, but the context is so horrifying.
    • As mentioned in the Wham Line section, the end of "If You Could See Her."
  • Most Writers Are Writers
  • Movie Bonus Song / Ret Canon: "Mein Herr", "Maybe this Time" and "Money Money".
  • Musicalis Interruptus: In the scene where Fraulein Schneider considers ending her engagement with Herr Schultz and he attempts to reassure her, there is a moment when he seems to be succeeding and they start a reprise of the song they sang when he proprosed — which is interrupted after a few lines by somebody throwing a brick through Herr Schultz's window, ending the song and the engagement.
  • The Musical Musical
  • One True Threesome: "Two Ladies" is about an in-universe example between the Emcee and two of the Cabaret Girls. In some versions, it's the Emcee, a Cabaret Girl and a cross-dressing Cabaret Boy. In all versions, it's Fanservice.
  • Opening Chorus: "Wilkommen" featuring the Emcee and the Cabaret Performers.
  • Pineapple of Luxury: Fraulein Schneider treats Shultz's gift of a pineapple as more luxurious than diamonds or pearls.
  • Sidekick Song: Though Herr Schultz isn't exactly a sidekick, "Meeskite" has a lot in common with other Sidekick Songs.
  • Truck Driver's Gear Change: Happens in the majority of the songs.
  • Villain Song: "Tomorrow Belongs To Me" for the Nazis.
  • Weimar Republic
  • Wham Line: "But if you could see her through my eyes... She wouldn't look Jewish at all."
  • Window Pain: A Nazi throws a brick through Herr Schultz's shop.

The film provides examples of:

  • Adaptational Attractiveness: More of a vocal example; in the original Christopher Isherwood stories, Sally has an unremarkable, even squawky voice. Of course, that doesn't work so well for the main character of a musical...
    • In the revival, Natasha Richardson played her with a suitable voice, but with added tired inflections that managed to fit both ways. (The 2014 revival with Michelle Williams took this even further.
      • Subverted in the film's famous dance scene with Sally and the bentwood chair. Minelli and Fosse worked hard to show the typically untrained technique and stereotypical moves that an enthusiastic amateur like Sally would have used. Minelli - a trained dancer - later claimed that rehearsing these jerky, exaggerated moves seeded many of her later arthritis problems.
    • Also in the movie the elderly Beta Couple Herr Schultz and Fraulein Schneider are replaced with the much younger Fritz and Natalia.
  • Bad Guys Do the Dirty Work: Max views the Nazis as a bunch of thugs, but useful for getting rid of Communists. He remarks upon this as he, Sally, and Brian drive past a dead body covered in a prayer shawl underneath a Nazi banner.
  • Beta Couple: Fritz and Natalia
  • Book Ends: Beginss and ends with the distortion of the Master of Ceremonies, then off the Nazi audience.
  • Dramatic Irony: The movie takes place in Germany in the late 20's. Throughout the movie, we see the Nazi party becoming more and more prominent, though not all of the characters do. The end of the film is Sally blithely performing before a crowd of armband-wearing Nazis, though the audience knows even that will end in time.
  • Earn Your Happy Ending: Fritz and Natalia. Though how long it will last is not too clear...
  • Informed Judaism: both Natalia and Fritz, although in his case he was actively trying to hide it.
  • Kick the Dog: Almost literally. Some Nazis kill Natalia's dog and leave it on her front porch.
  • Large Ham: Liza Minelli's Sally Bowles.
  • Money Song: "Money Money"
  • Mood Whiplash: Within the one song. "Tomorrow Belongs to Me" starts with a simple boy with a great voice singing. But when the camera pans back to reveal his Hitler Youth uniform and everyone in the audience joins in together, it gets extremely creepy.
    • Really there are quite a few of these. There are numerous small set pieces that show the Nazis taking over Berlin that add a feeling of dread to the happy talk of the characters, like the radio with Nazi propoganda or the swastika posters. Then there are the cabaret songs which cut between the upbeat music and darker scenes, such as a man being beaten perhaps to death.
    • Another scene cuts between the MC and some of the Kit Kat Club Girls doing a jaunty dance, and a bunch of young men sneaking into Natalia's yard in order to throw her dead dog against her door, all while chanting "JUDEN!JUDEN!" It is around this time that the MC and the girls switch their hats around, which now look like soldiers' helmets, and march offstage...
  • Movie Bonus Song / Ret Canon: "Mein Herr", "Maybe this Time" and "Money Money".
  • Not-So-Harmless Villain: Nazis.
    Brian: You still think you can control them?
  • Quieter Than Silence: The credits roll in complete silence.
  • Sophisticated as Hell: "I think your paper and you party are pure crap, sir!"
  • Triang Relations: Sally/Maximillian/Brian are in a Type 8 relationship, although it's far from harmonious.

American GraffitiAFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies ( 10 th Anniversary Edition)Network
The HospitalNational Film RegistryAmerican Graffiti
The Day of the TriffidsCreator/Allied ArtistsPapillon
Bye Bye BirdieThe MusicalLa Cage aux folles
The GodfatherAcademy AwardDeliverance

alternative title(s): Cabaret
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