Radio / The Mercury Theatre on the Air
The Mercury Theatre on the Air
, created and hosted by Orson Welles
, is one of the most famous programs from the Golden Age of Radio Drama
Welles had first made a name for himself in 1936 at the ripe old age of 20 as an actor and director on the New York stage. In 1937 Welles and his partner, future Paper Chase
star John Houseman, formed their own stock company, the Mercury Theatre. This also proved very successful, especially the 1937 production of Julius Caesar
in a then-contemporary Fascist Italy
In 1938 CBS
hired Welles, already a veteran of radio acting, to perform in a summer series filling the time slot of Lux Radio Theatre
. Welles insisted that he be allowed to take his entire Mercury Theatre troupe with him, and CBS agreed. The series (originally titled First Person Singular
but renamed The Mercury Theatre on the Air
a few months later) debuted on July 11, 1938, with an adaptation of Dracula
. In addition to hosting the program, Welles wrote, directed, and played the lead in each episode. His Mercury Theatre cast included several people who would become famous when Welles brought them to Hollywood for Citizen Kane
, including Ray Collins, Agnes Moorehead, and Joseph Cotten, as well as musical director and composer Bernard Herrmann
The show might be largely forgotten today if not for the most famous broadcast in the history of American radio: The War of the Worlds
, aired on October 30, 1938. Welles chose to present his adaptation of the novel
by H. G. Wells
as a Phony Newscast
describing a Martian invasion. The next day the nation's newspapers were full of stories of mass panic caused when listeners tuned in and missed the opening announcement of the fictional program. These stories were almost certainly fabricated by newspapers wishing to discredit radio
, but they still made Orson Welles famous.
They also resulted in a Re Tool
and re-name of the program. The Mercury Theatre on the Air
had run without corporate sponsorship, but after the publicity, Campbell Soup picked up the show and it became The Campbell Playhouse
. The new show, debuting on December 11, 1938, also featured a Special Guest
star every week, typically a Hollywood actress starring opposite Welles, and veered more towards adaptations of popular movies. The trope list below is based on the original July-December 1938 run of The Mercury Theatre on the Air
Episodes of The Mercury Theatre on the Air with their own trope pages:
The other episodes use the following tropes:
- Abandon Ship: The crew of the Jeanette have to abandon ship when it is crushed by the Arctic ice (Oct. 9, 1938, adaptation of Hell on Ice, the Real Life story of the Jeanette expedition).
- Audio Adaptation: The show didn't perform original stories, instead adapting well-known novels and stage plays.
- Broadcast Live: Every episode, leading to some amusing moments. Welles seemed to be unhappy with the broadcast of Julius Caesar (Sept. 11, 1938), muttering in the background, once calling out for a cue ("I'm not running this show!"), and at one point interrupting his soliloquy as Brutus to shout "QUIET IN THE STUDIO!" before dropping right back into character and continuing his soliloquy.
- The Coconut Effect: This most famous effect of radio drama is heard in the first scene of the first episode (Dracula, July 11, 1938), when Jonathan Harker's coach makes its way to Dracula's castle.
- Extra! Extra! Read All About It!:
- "Extra special, extra special", cry the newspaper sellers in the Dracula show, carrying stories of children being attacked by a vampire that looks a lot like Lucy Westenra.
- "Extra, extra, read all about it" is how the adaptation of Around the World in 80 Days tells the audience about the robbery at the Bank of England. In the novel, it was simply described by Verne's third-person narration.
- For Doom the Bell Tolls: The adaptation of The 39 Steps (Aug. 1, 1938) starts off with the ringing of heavy, ominous church bells as Richard Hannay, a murder suspect on the run from the police and enemy secret agents, is trying to catch a train.
- Genre Anthology: A drama anthology. And specifically, the August 8, 1938 episode featured three short stories: "My Little Boy" by Carl Ewald, "The Open Window" by Saki, and "I'm a Fool" by Sherwood Anderson.
- Getting Crap Past the Radar: The broadcast of Seventeen (Oct. 16, 1938) features little Jane using "word" to substitute for what is clearly supposed to be "goddamn". She quotes a neighbor as describing her brother as "the wordest fool he ever word saw".
- The Great Politics Mess-Up: "The Affairs of Anatol" aired on Aug. 22, 1938, just five months after the Nazi takeover of Austria. In his opening narration Welles muses about how there once was a charming, cosmopolitan city called Vienna, where the story is set.
- Halloween Episode: The October 30, 1938 episode is pretty famous.
- Have a Gay Old Time:
- The captain of the Demeter in the Dracula episode describes the boxes of earth loaded onto his ship as "a queer cargo".
- The narrator of The Affairs of Anatol describes the time of his story as "a very gay winter".
- Flashback / In Medias Res: The 39 Steps starts In Medias Res, with Hannay already on the run. Later, Hannay recounts in a long flashback how things came to this.
- Mood Whiplash: The November 6, 1938 broadcast featured two stories: harrowing drama Heart of Darkness, followed by light comedy Life with Father.
- Narrating the Obvious: A near-unavoidable drawback of radio drama, with its lack of visuals. In the Dracula broadcast Van Helsing explicates how the earth from Dracula's coffin has spilled over the snow, while everyone else there is seeing the same thing.
- The adaptation of The Man Who Was Thursday (Sept. 5, 1938) is told by Syme in the first person, a device the novel does not use, likely to help with the radio exposition.
- The staging of Julius Caesar used radio commentator H.V. Kaltenborn as a narrator to fill in the action.
- Not Even Bothering with the Accent: In various dramas set in England, like Dracula, The Man Who Was Thursday, A Tale of Two Cities (July 25, 1938), and The Pickwick Papers (Nov. 20, 1938), neither Welles nor most of his cast make attempts at British accents. Averted when Welles did make a stab at an accent as Long John Silver in Treasure Island, probably because he was also playing Jim Hawkins using his own voice.
- Radio Drama
- The Remake: One of the shows that had made Welles and the Mercury famous in New York theater was their staging of Julius Caesar, in modern dress, Fascist Italy-style. For the radio series the Mercury reprised Julius Caesar, getting the same fascism vibe across over the radio with the sound of marching boots and military music.
- Special Guest: H.V. Kaltenborn, who in his day was a very well known radio commentator and news analyst, appeared as the narrator in the Mercury's broadcast of Julius Caesar.
- Sting: The Dracula episode leans on this trope heavily, with dramatic chords at dramatic moments.
- Time-Shifted Actor: Welles manages to get this effect across with only his voice when playing Edmond Dantes in the August 29, 1938 broadcast of The Count of Monte Cristo. He adopts a higher pitch when playing Edmond Dantes before he's thrown into prison, and a low, rumbling voice when Dantes emerges a couple of decades later as the Count of Monte Cristo.