"You need cops, venetian blinds, lots of smoking, hats, sweat, dead-end streets, guys who know all the angles except for the one that ends up sticking out of their backs. Sirens of the automotive and female kind."
For added effect, play this
, or this
while reading the article.
Film Noir (literally "black film" in French) is a genre of stylish crime dramas, difficult to define, but the 1940s
were the classic period. Whether works since then can be accurately classed as Noir is a subject of much debate among film critics. Film Noir, and the literature from which it is drawn, is clearly the progenitor of later genres, particularly cyberpunk
. Common plots of noir films include murder investigations, heists
, con games
, and (mostly) innocent men or women Wrongly Accused
of crime. The double-cross
and cigarette smoking
are mandatory. Complicated plots
are further convoluted by Flashbacks
and Flash Forwards
— the narration
tying everything together, assuming we can trust him
, in the classic and stylistic sense, is visually darker than your average gangster picture, playing with light and long, deep shadows
instead of bright, documentary-styled camera work. This visual motif is so iconic that homages and parodies are almost universally Deliberately Monochrome
, using a transition between colour and black and white
where necessary. Scenes are often filmed on location, and night scenes are shot at night. Camera angles are often very creative and unusual, heightening the viewers sense of unease, adding to the atmosphere. The contrast between light and dark is sometimes used in the cinematography to reflect the difference between the villain
and the protagonist(s). It rains most every night
in Film Noir
; filmmakers admit that this is entirely because at night wet pavement looks cooler than dry.
Also, the rain makes it plausible that no one else is around.
Film Noir is not really a genre in any sense, rather it reflects a tendency in certain American films of the 40s and 50s where crime and gangster stories are infused with an excessive visual style, a modern urban sensibility and a powerful sense of moral ambiguity. These movies differed from the crime movies of the 30s, the Depression Gangster films such as The Public Enemy
or the original Scarface
in that criminal behaviour is no longer relegated to gangsters or ethnic ghettos, the plots don't usually revolve around turf wars or police clampdowns. Protagonists in films noir are often normal people who get involved in crime, and the motivations are no longer just social or circumstantial but psychological and personal. As a style and sensibility, Film Noir was flexible to include hybrids such as the Western-Film Noir (The 1947 film Pursued
with flashbacks, Dark and Troubled Past
, high contrast black and white lighting and weird Freudian themes), and even the film-noir musical (The Man I Love, Love Me and Leave Me
) and in the case of Leave Her to Heaven
a Film Noir in technicolor.
Trying to explain Film Noir is hard, since its kind of a mix of European cynicism and post-war American angst. The clash between crude pulp fiction narratives and complex storytelling and characterization, derived from emerging psychology, research in criminal behaviour as well as wider influences in modern art and literature. The term was first used by French critics (hence the name) and it derives from "Serie Noir" the label of French translations of American pulp fiction, and French imitations, which was highly popular in France at the time
. The French critics looked at the American crime films from their
perspective of post-Occupation France. To some extent they over-exaggerated the doom and gloom of American films by projecting their experiences in their writings of these films. Later, American writers when translating these articles into English brought this into Pop-Cultural Osmosis
. The mix of European cynicism with American landscape is also borne out in the fact that several directors of films noir - Billy Wilder
(who lost his mother in Auschwitz), Robert Siodmak, Fritz Lang
, Otto Preminger
- were refugees, exiles and emigres from Nazi Germany, being quite active in 20s Berlin which in many ways was the closest a real-life city came to being the exaggerated City Noir
landscape. The lighting in Film Noir
was also strongly influenced by European trends, especially German Expressionism
but later after the war, the Italian neorealist films of Roberto Rossellini
also influenced it greatly. The period became especially fertile during the post-war years. The subtext of many of these films often dealt with the trauma of the returning Shell-Shocked Veteran
(most notably, Act of Violence
) and the rising Red Scare
and The Hollywood Blacklist
which made the working climate in Hollywood highly paranoid and hostile, and this infused the films made in the late 40s.
The standard Noir landscape is a large, oppressive city (filmed in dark and dusky conditions to create a moody atmosphere)
. Familiar haunts include dimly-lit bars, nightclubs filled with questionable clientele
(including, the Gayngster
) whom the lead may intimidate for information, gambling dens, juke joints and the ubiquitous seedy waterfront warehouse
. At night in the big city, you can bet the streets are slick with rain, reflecting streetlights like a Hopper painting. Most of the characters (including the lead) are cynical, misanthropical and hopeless
all the way through the film, and never find true redemption
. It is important to note that the term "Film Noir" was not available to the people who made them in the 40s and 50s. As Robert Mitchum famously stated, "We called them B-Movies." It comes from later audiences and critics who rediscovered these films in revival theaters and clubs and picked up the subtext, visual clues and other Hidden Depths
. Many historians feel that the classic Film Noir genre died when it became self-conscious. Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumenton cite the MGM musical The Band Wagon
(made in 1952) where the final number featured a technicolor parody of a Mickey Spillane crime setting, with Fred Astaire and Cyd Charisse playing the detective and femme fatale in an obvious send-up. Others feel that Orson Welles
' Touch of Evil
was the real end since it was made by the director of Citizen Kane
(which while not a Noir influenced the lighting and style of several other films noir) and the genre conventions were pretty much stretched inside and outside. They also argue that Noir only worked in a climate of censorship since the crime genre often falling Beneath Suspicion
allowed writers and directors more chances to subvert cliches. Once censorship eroded, Film Noir had pretty much served its purpose and achieved its goals.
Attempts to revive this style leads to Neo-Noir, which with some exceptions, tends to Flanderization
- The tone and outlook must
, and pessimistic
— it always suggests
a sliminess beyond what it can show
. Nobody gets what they want, and everyone gets what's coming to them
. Characters are often armed — revolvers
, Colt 1911s
, and if they need More Dakka
, tommy guns. They'll probably wear a Fedora or trilby hat
with a trench coat
. Frequently the ending will be low-key
and leave no one character happy or fulfilled
. Commonly, there is also a great deal of sexual tension
between the hero and the female lead; Noir stories are quite risqué. The original Film Noir era followed the Hays Code
, so the odds of a female lead removing her clothing are minimal. This applies to modern versions; gratuitous nudity
or scenes of excessive violence are hinted at rather than portrayed.
It is often what is not
seen that adds to the mystery and suspense.
Film Noir usually features the Anti-Hero
, Villain Protagonist
, the ambiguity often rests on questions of trust, leading to an atmosphere of paranoia where Poor Communication Kills
regularly. The conclusion may or many not tie up all the loose ends, with the major mystery being the morally ambiguous theme
of the story. These factors contribute to the widely-held opinion that Film Noir works are among the best artistic works of all time
and contributed greatly to the maturity of cinema as an artform.
Not to be confused with the religious conspiracy anime Noir
, nor with a certain carapacian Archagent
Characters associated with Film Noir:
Other tropes associated with Film Noir:
A common form of Something Completely Different
is the Noir Episode
— a work spends a single episode homaging
or parodying Film Noir
style (or just has everyone wearing trilbies and talking about the rain, in black and white
). Fantastic Noir
is a sub-genre with fantastic
or Science Fiction
elements. See also our Write A Film Noir
Examples (the first three subcategories contain Film, Literature and Western Animation) :
open/close all folders
- The Mysteries of Paris by Eugene Sue pretty much started the whole modern Urban Crime/Mystery/Adventure genre
- The Vampire Countess by Paul Féval, is ambiguous about its supernatural elements: the title character may just be a Manipulative Bitch con woman and a Femme Fatale. Also has a Noir style Anti-Hero who knocks up a teenage girl that falls in love with him but is then seduced by The Femme Fatale. And it in general depicts the seedy underworld of 1804 Paris.
- John Devil by the same author, while not as Noir like in general, does anticipate the classic Femme Fatale in the Detective's office scene.
- Some of the darker Arsène Lupin stories, particularly 813
- The Hardboiled genre of crime and detective fiction, by authors like:
- Little Caesar (1931), a crime drama depicting the rise and fall of an organized crime leader.
- M (1931), a German Expressionistic movie called , starring Peter Lorre as a peculiarly sympathetic Serial Killer. Not quite noir, but getting there.
- The Public Enemy (1931). Following the exploits of a hoodlum from entry-level crimes, to his rise in the crime ranks, and to his eventual demise. A Depression Gangster film where the tensions are related to the hoodlum and his "good family" who complain about his lifestyle.
- Freaks (1932), a horror film. Excluding all the slice-of-life scenes that take up the majority of it, the actual plot is pretty noirish.
- I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang (1932). A random man is caught up in a robbery and the legal system never ceases to hunt him down. An anti-establishment film with a famous finale.
- Das Testament des Doktor Mabuse (1933). A sequel to an earlier film and a story where the eponymous Diabolical Mastermind seems to control an entire gang while incarcerated.
- The Thin Man (1934). A Mystery Fiction film based on a Dashiel Hammett novel. While more light-hearted than proper noirs, it is still considered one of the best adaptations of the hard-boiled literary genre.
- Angels with Dirty Faces (1938). Crime film which famously uses the Had to Come to Prison to Be a Crook plot. A child criminal is caught for a petty crime and send to reform school. He stays in the system for life, going in and out of prison through his adulthood and eventually executed. A fellow child criminal who was never caught became a priest.
- The Roaring Twenties (1939). Crime thriller covering the Prohibition era.
Frequently Referenced "Classic" Noirs
- Rebecca (1940). A mystery thriller with Gothic Horror elements. A number of film critics, such as Patrick Brion, regard it as "the first true film noir" and others term it a "gothic noir".
- Stranger On The Third Floor (1940). Often cited as "the first true film noir" due to including many of the relevant tropes and cinematographic techniques. A B-Movie and a box office flop at the time of release , it was re-appraised decades later. It is now considered groundbreaking.
- Citizen Kane (1941). While often excluded from lists, its visual style and "voice-over driven narrative structure" are widely cited as extremely influential to the genre.
- High Sierra (1941). Considered as a transition film between the 1930s gangster films and the 1940s films noir. First leading role and Star-Making Role for Humphrey Bogart, who had already made a career of playing gangsters in crime films.
- The Maltese Falcon (1941). The third film adaptation of the same Dashiell Hammett novel, the second leading role for Humphrey Bogart, and the directorial debut of John Huston. An iconic depiction of the Hardboiled Detective and a major hit for the film noir genre.
- Cat People (1942) is a film noir disguised as a horror film. It inspired the film noir style that would dominate RKO Pictures during the 1940s.
- This Gun For Hire (1942). Based on a Graham Greene novel, though with some material reworked for wartime-propaganda reasons. Professional Killer Philip Raven completes an assignment and is then double-crossed by his latest employer. He sets out to get revenge. Meanwhile, Nightclub Singer Ellen Graham is recruited by the federal authorities to spy on her current boss, who is suspected to be a fifth columnist. Raven and Graham are unknowingly Working the Same Case and their paths cross. A major hit for the film noir genre, and the film which turned Alan Ladd and Veronica Lake into "reliable box office draws".
- Casablanca (1943). Wartime drama which has been listed as another major influence on the genre. The lighting and visuals were similar but darker to those of The Maltese Falcon. The setting in a shady and exotic bar of Morocco, the cynical and world-weary protagonist, the adulterous undertones of the main Love Triangle, a narrative populated by gangsters, black marketeers, con-artists, corrupt cops, and fleeing refugees willing to make deals to save their skins all add to the general mood of melancholy and pessimism. Casablanca as depicted here is a City Noir. Or in the words of Sheri Chinen Biesen, "a cramped, crowded, where an underworld climate and abundant dubious nocturnal activity proliferate".
- Double Indemnity (1944). A successful but bored insurance salesman falls for a woman in an unhappy marriage, and the two conspire to commit The Perfect Crime by getting her husband to buy an accident insurance policy, and then making sure he meets an untimely end. A film notorious for pushing the envelope on The Hays Code restrictions to its limits. Despite an activist campaign "imploring the public to stay away on moral grounds", the film was a major critical and box office hit. It paved the way for further dark, controversial films and directly inspired imitators. Often seen as the Trope Codifier for films noir.
- Laura (1944). Advertising executive Laura Hunt is seemingly murdered within her own apartment. A police detective investigating the case becomes intrigued with her life and personality. An interest which becomes obsessive. Somewhat atypical for the genre in shifting focus from the criminal underworld to the privileged classes of New York City and their own shady side. A stylish depiction of glamour, obsession, and suggestive sexuality.
- Murder, My Sweet (1944). The first film adaptation of a Philip Marlowe novel and one of the highly-regarded depictions of the Hardboiled Detective in cinema. The so-called "standard private eye formula" (of seeking a missing person and ending up personally involved in a bizarre case) tends to follow the lead of this film.
- The Woman in the Window (1944). A married, middle-aged man falls for a Femme Fatale, and is involved in a fight with her current boyfriend. He kills the man in self-defense and soon discovers that he can not get away with it. On the surface a conservative parable on acting on repressed desires and paying a price for it. It has been argued however that director Fritz Lang aimed to depict the thin line between respectability and immorality, and how an ordinary person can be caught in a web of murder and intrigue. Another key theme to the film noir genre.
- Detour (1945). A so-called "Poverty Row" production (a term used for low-budget films by lesser-tier studios) which is now hailed as a major critical hit in the genre and the masterpiece of director Edgar G. Ulmer. Al Roberts, a New York pianist, impulsively decides to hitch-hike his way to California, where he hopes to reunite with a former lover. He is eventually picked-up by professional gambler Charles Haskell, Jr. who is also heading to California in hopes of "a big payoff". Haskell actually wanted a second driver in the car, to allow himself some much-needed sleep. He keeps popping pills during their journey through the Arizona desert, and does not survive it. He dies in his sleep, the cause of death never specified. Roberts decides to claim the identity and property of the dead man for himself. He knows nothing, however, about the loose ends in the real Haskell's life and complications soon arise. The film is often described as a deconstruction of the phrase "Go West, young man", and the idea of heading West in search of a better life. There are four important characters in the film who head West in pursuit of their dreams. All end up either dead or with their dreams thoroughly crushed.
- Mildred Pierce (1945). The film opens with the murder of Monte Beragon. His widow Mildred then narrates her story. A story which starts with the end of a previous marriage in a divorce, her winning custody over her daughters, and her efforts to financially support them. Unfortunately, elder daughter Veda is a Fille Fatale and the mother-daughter relationship is not a particularly healthy one. The prevailing mood of "pessimism and paranoia", the visual style, and the convoluted narrative have earned the film a place among the better known entries of the genre. Though an entry where the two main female characters dominate the narrative and family relationships take center stage.
- The Big Sleep (1946). A Philip Marlowe film, particularly noted for its "labyrinthine" complexity and enigmatic ambiguity.
- The Blue Dahlia (1946). A Navy officer returns from war service to discover that his son is dead (due to a traffic accident) and his wife unfaithful. When said wife is found murdered, the widower becomes one of several suspects in this murder case. The film is noted for its jaded view of what awaits the returning veterans of World War II, broken homes and nothing to return to. The protagonist himself has violent tendencies which are not particularly helping him adjust to civilian life even before the mystery begins.
- Gilda (1946). A film set in the decadent atmosphere of post-war Buenos Aires. At its heart is a love-hate relationship between the male lead (and narrator) Johnny Farrell and female lead Gilda. A relationship with what critics call "dark and disturbing sadomasochistic sexual currents" which takes over the plot.
- The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946). An adaptation of a James M. Cain novel. A male drifter and the female manager of a rural diner have a passionate affair. But there is still the problem of her loveless marriage to a much older man, who actually owns the diner. They decide to murder him and fulfill their dreams. But the dream soon turns into a living nightmare for them.
- The Strange Love Of Martha Ivers (1946). The film opens in the 1920s. The eponymous young girl is the only living relative and heiress of a wealthy, domineering woman. She is miserable while under the control of the aunt, and one night tries to run away with the help of a (male) childhood friend. She fails to escape undetected, struggles with the aunt over a flight of stairs, and accidentally kills her. Worse, there is a witness to her crime. So she is blackmailed into marrying the witness, while someone else is blamed for the "murder" and executed. Her old friend seems to vanish. The plot moves to the 1940s. Martha is fabulously wealthy, and has financed a political career for her husband, who has grown to genuinely love her. They wield "tremendous power" in their community. When her long-missing friend drifts back into their lives, the couple is convinced that he knows all about what happened that long-ago night and aims to blackmail them. They try to silence him in various ways, unaware that he actually had no idea what happened that night. He is simply in town because he took a Wrong Turn while driving. The film is one of the better known films noir of Barbara Stanwyck and Lizabeth Scott, who were both major stars in the genre.
- The Killers (1946) A life insurance investigator takes a closer look at a murder case, and finds out that the victim is linked to a past robbery and $250,000 in cash.
- Dark Passage (1947). A bleak adaptation of a David Goodis novel. A man wrongly convicted of murdering his own wife escapes prison. He hopes to Clear His Name but the goal remains out of reach for most of the film. The film was one of the earliest to extensively use subjective camera angles to hide the face of the protagonist. This obscuring technique is used for about 1/3 of its duration. It was also notable for defying Hays Code standards in its finale. The actual murderer commits suicide. The protagonist never clears his name and remains the main suspect of an additional murder. Instead of a stereotypical "justice prevails" ending, the man will remain a fugitive for life. The film originally received mixed reviews, but has since gained a pretty good reputation.
- Dead Reckoning (1947). Two paratroopers return from World War II and learn they are about to receive medals for their honorable service. Johnny Drake seems terrified of the notion that his picture will appear in the press and attempts to disappear. His incinerated corpse is later discovered, though his death is deemed accidental. His surviving friend Warren Murdock is not convinced. He wants to know what caused his friend to disappear and why the man was killed. Murdock soon finds himself framed for murder and caught in a web of intrigue, dating to the years before the War. Coral "Dusty" Chandler, the Femme Fatale of the film, is considered among the most notable examples in the genre, and is often discussed in reviews of misogynistic elements in films noir. Several film critics insist there is a Homoerotic Subtext in the relationship between Drake and Murdoch, which gets the film frequently included in reviews of gender identity in film noir.
- Kiss of Death (1947 version). The film begins with family man Nick Bianco in dire financial straights. His status as an ex-convict leaves him unemployable, despite his decision to live an honest life. His inability to provide for his daughters causes him to join a criminal gang, and take part in a jewel heist. When an alarm is set off and the police arrives, Nick is injured and captured. He decides to protect the identities of his associates and take the fall for them. He does so with the understanding that his gang will take care of his wife and underage daughters. A couple of years later, Nick learns that the gang eventually abandoned his family. His broke wife committed suicide, and his daughters have become wards of an orphanage. He decides to co-operate with the authorities to earn a parole, a decision which will endanger his life. Noted for its realistic, almost documentary style, depiction of New York City. The film is currently mostly mentioned for a memorable secondary character: Tommy Udo. Udo is a Psycho for Hire with a distinctive laugh (a "high-pitched falchetto), best used when disposing victims in sadistic ways. A character often compared to The Joker.
- The Lady from Shanghai (1947). An Orson Welles entry in the genre. While in Central Park, seaman Michael O'Hara chances on a beautiful woman being assaulted. He rescues Elsa Bannister and is then offered a job on the yacht of her husband. Then a partner of said husband offers Michael a substantial sum of money, in exchange for helping him to fake his death. By taking this deal, Michael is caught in a trap. Just about every character seems to have his own agenda, in a film noted for its complex narrative, multiple agendas, and groundbreaking cinematography.
- Nightmare Alley (1947). Stanton Carlisle works at a Crappy Carnival but has ambitions to improve his life. He seduces an older woman, has-been Fortune Teller Mademoiselle Zeena, to learn the secrets that had once made her a star. Then abandons her to start a lucrative career as a Phony Psychic and Con Man. An alliance with amoral psychologist Lilith Ritter will help him prey on her wealthy patients. But then his greatest scheme backfires. His guild-ridden wife Molly exposes him to their latest victim, effectively ending his career. Lilith cheats him out of his share for their schemes and financially ruins him. A flop at the time of release, currently listed among the classics of the genre.
- Out of the Past (1947). In a small town of California, retired Private Detective Jeff Bailey romances local girl Ann Miller. When a figure from his past arrives and invites him to a meeting, Jeff accepts and takes Ann with him. He narrates to her a convoluted tale from his Dark and Troubled Past, including his former infatuation with Femme Fatale Kathie Moffat, and involvement with various shady characters. In the present, Kathie and several of these characters are also in California. The plots and schemes from his tale are still ongoing, and he still has a role to play in them. A film notorious for its complex script and ambiguity concerning the motivations and thought processes of every character, Jeff included.
- Key Largo (1948) Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall square off against Edward G. Robinson, who plays a mob boss who's long past his prime (in a send-up of the role that made him famous).
- The Third Man (1949)
- White Heat (1949) James Cagney stars in this complex, psychological take on his typical gangster persona. Famous for his final line.
- The Asphalt Jungle (1950) One of the quintessential heist films, with a nice Retroactive Recognition role for Marilyn Monroe.
- In a Lonely Place (1950)
- Sunset Boulevard (1950) Satire of Hollywood and the passing nature of fame, especially for silent-era stars.
- Dead On Arrival (1950)(Source of the above picture) A man walks into a police station to report a murder...his murder. He goes on to tell his story. You may know its modern-day incarnation: Crank.
- Night and the City (1950)
- Pickup on South Street (1953) Samuel Fuller-directed film about a hoodlum who is given a chance to redeem himself by fighting against a Communist ring.
- The Big Combo (1955)
- Kiss Me Deadly (1955) Adaptation of Mickey Spillane's novel, with a heavily rewritten narrative involving nuclear secrets.
- The Killing (1956) Stanley Kubrick heist film famous for its non-linear plot and for sort-of providing inspiration for Reservoir Dogs.
- Sweet Smell of Success (1957)
- The Wrong Man (1957) Alfred Hitchcock film starring Henry Fonda as a man falsely accused of murder because he happens to look like the real deal.
- Touch of Evil (1958) Usually cited as the last film of the "classic noir" era. Orson Welles and Charlton Heston star in a dark tale of police corruption and moral ambiguity on the Mexican-American border.
- Odds Against Tomorrow (1959) Often cited as the last film of the "classic noir" era. A heist film with a heavy dose of social commentary about racism. Stars Harry Belafonte in a non-musical role.
Post-Classic & Neo-Noir
- Breathless (1960)
- Shoot The Piano Player (1960)
- Brainstorm (1965)
- Mirage (1965)
- Le Samourai (1967). Anything directed by Jean-Pierre Melville.
- Taggart (according to the French)
- Point Blank (1967)
- Bullitt (1968)
- Pretty Poison (1968)
- Klute (1971)
- The Long Goodbye (1973)
- Chinatown (1974)
- Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1974) A rare noir taking place in sunny, but still craptastic Mexico
- The Drowning Pool (1975)
- Night Moves (1975)
- Taxi Driver (1976).
- Apocalypse Now (1979). Although not immediately obvious, this movie is actually a very sneaky case of Genre-Busting, following a typical Film Noir plot structure with Kurtz's crime being the mystery to be solved.
- Body Heat (1981). A loose remake of Double Indemnity, with all the limits of the Code removed.
- Blade Runner (1982), one of the most influential examples of Cyberpunk showing its Noir pedigree.
- Dead Men Dont Wear Plaid (1983) is an Affectionate Parody of Noir.
- The Element of Crime (1984) is simultaneously a Homage and a Deconstruction of the genre.
- Blood Simple (1985)
- Blue Velvet (1986) is a Noir by David Lynch. Has the trademark Lynch weirdness, but it's surprisingly downplayed and the plot is one of his most comprehensible.
- Angel Heart (1987) combines Noir with horror to stunning effect.
- Fatal Attraction (1987) has a famous spin on the Femme Fatal archetype.
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) Don't let the 'Toons fool you. This has a very noir plot.
- Miller's Crossing (1990), loosely based off of the Dashiell Hammett novel The Glass Key.
- Batman: The Animated Series (1992) and Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993)
- Man Bites Dog (1992)
- Red Rock West (1992)
- Reservoir Dogs (1992) is Quentin Tarantino's non-linear spin on the "heist film" subgenre.
- Disclosure (1994)
- The Last Seduction (1994)
- In the Mouth of Madness (1995)
- Se7en (1995)
- The Usual Suspects (1995), whose title comes from a famous line in Casablanca.
- Heat (1995)
- Clive Barker's Lord of Illusions (1995) combines noir elements with Lovecraftian body horror.
- Bound (1996)
- Mulholland Falls (1996)
- L.A. Confidential (1997)
- Lost Highway (1997)
- The Bloody Olive (1997)
- The Big Lebowski (1998) is a simultaneous homage to and parody of Film Noir specific tropes.
- This is known as "Parody of Reaffirmation", like Weird Al parodying music, but at the same time is making music, or Scream parodying horror movies, all the while being a horror movie.
- Following (1998) The directorial debut of Christopher Nolan is the British (somewhat subverted) version of the Film Noir standard. Since then, with the notable exception of Interstellar, his films will as a rule have at least a noir-ish "vibe" to them.
- Dark City (1998) is a clever twist on the City Noir and "always night" tropes, along with an interesting foreshadow-by-a-year of The Matrix.
- Fight Club (1999) has many elements of noir pop up amid all the craziness....
- The Matrix (1999) hardly pure noir but has strong elements of it. The sequels, much less so.
- The Thirteenth Floor (1999) is noir through and through, right down to the music and the dress styles.
- Payback (1999)
- The Man Who Wasn't There (2001)
- Mulholland Dr. (2001)
- The Bourne Series (2002-2007) has a heavy neo-noir feel in many scenes
- Femme Fatale (2002), as the name implies. Brian De Palma's Deconstruction of the Femme Fatale archetype, by putting such a character through the ringer.
- Road to Perdition (2002)
- Collateral (2004)
- Brick (2005), which is interestingly set in a High School. It also uses 1930s slang so thick you might need a translator.
- Sin City (2005), which is the genre's conventions turned Up to Eleven.
- Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (2005) throws in a heavy dose of comedy.
- The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo—both the Sweedish trilogy (2005) and the David Fincher remake (2011).
- Renaissance (2006) (Black & white CG movie set in Paris, IN THE FUTURE)
- The Empire State Building Murders (2006) uses Talking Heads and film noir clips to tell its own noir story.
- The Black Dahlia. Brian De Palma-directed try at "the ultimate film noir". Known for its super-stylization and very complicated plot.
- The Spirit (2008). Oh man, The Spirit.
- Public Enemies (2009)
- Give 'Em Hell, Malone (2009)
- Winter's Bone (2010) is an example of Neo-Realist Noir, setting a missing persons case in the isolated and meth-ravaged communities of the Ozarks.
- Drive (2011)
- Looper (2012)
- Universal Soldier: Day of Reckoning (2012) is essentially a neo-noir movie with martial arts action and homages to other movies such as Apocalypse Now.
- A Walk Among The Tombstones (2014)
- Inherent Vice, something of a mix of homage and parody that combines the Film Noir with the Stoner Flick, as a perpetually high private detective gets involved in several intricate criminal conspiracies.
Anime and Manga
- One Hundred Bullets
- Sin City
- Batman - many stories are noir at their core. Gotham City is obviously a very noirish setting.
- The Question. Bonus points for his fedora and trench coat.
- Dogby Walks Alone - parodied by being placed in a Theme Park setting.
- The Marvel Noir line. Changes to Wolverine, for example, include his signature claws actually being handheld Japanese weapons. Naturally, there's a different version of Logan on the X-Men. In normal Marvel continuity, such street-level heroes as Daredevil, Moon Knight and the Punisher have all had runs or story arcs that followed many noir conventions.
- Blacksad - An anthropomorphic detective series, that follows the stories of John Blacksad.
- The Damned - A detective cursed to never die working for demonic(literally demons) gang bosses in the midst of a war with a rival organization.
- The third series of X-Factor features Jamie Madrox's attempt at a noir mutant detective agency.
- Criminal by Ed Brubaker.
- Sleeper by Ed Brubaker.
- Incognito by Ed Brubaker.
- Fatale by Ed Brubaker
- The Fade out by Ed Brubaker (in fact when Ed Brubaker works with Sean Philips expect it to be film noir)
- Brian Michael Bendis's Alias.
- Also by Bendis, SamAndTwich, a spin-off from the Spawn series
- Watchmen contains significant noir elements.
- The Spirit, particularly the newspaper strip.
- Stray Bullets
- Most of Lawrence Block's work, Bernie Rhodenbarr mysteries in particular.
- The Garrett, P.I. novels by Glen Cook, Nero Wolfe in a gritty fantasy world.
- The novels of Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, James M. Cain, and Jim Thompson.
- The Dresden Files, which is Noir meets Urban Fantasy.
- And The Automatic Detective is Noir meets Raygun Gothic.
- Felidae is a Film Noir WITH CATS.
- The Coruscant Nights series of Star Wars novels contains a lot of film noir homages. They are, in fact, an official Coruscant Noir.
- All the Wrong Questions, a prequel series to A Series of Unfortunate Events, is a big homage to noir and stars a young Lemony Snicket as a Kid Detective.
- Nightside combines Film Noir with Urban Fantasy spiced with (un)healthy dose of Rule of Cool, everything turned Up to Eleven.
- The Millennium Trilogy (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo and its sequels), along with its movie adaptations, is noir set in modern-day Sweeden, with heavy emphasis on computer technology.
Live Action TV
- Veronica Mars somehow effectively used this style in a San Diego high school setting. And gender swapped.
- Charmed had an episode based around a book taking them to a place with this style.
- An episode of Moonlighting did this well.
- Smallville had a Jimmy centric episode set in a noir dream sequence.
- Other than the Hawaii setting and heavy doses of comedy, Magnum, P.I. tends toward this as well, complete with Private Eye Monologue.
- Kamen Rider Double is based on Noir.
- Bored to Death
- Lost Girl has the chiaroscuro lighting and grand but decaying settings. Interesting twist though that the Femme Fatale also happens to be the Anti-Hero-Private Detective.
- The BBC two part Drama "Exile"
- Peter Gunn
- The Shadow Line is heavily inspired by Film Noir, borrowing many plot elements and a very dark and cynical tone.
- Season 5, episode 10 of Monk, "Mr. Monk and the Leper," was filmed as a noir, and there are both color and black and white versions, which were shown back-to-back when the episode premiered (the B&W version aired first).
- Angel was heavily influenced by Film Noir, mostly up to about half way through the third season, but it retained certain Film Noir traits until the very end, such as the moral abiguity. The final scene of the show is in the classic Film Noir setting of rainy alleyway.
- The Castle season 4 episode "The Blue Butterfly" has Castle find the diary of a private eye from 1948, which results in a number of Film Noir-style flashbacks with the regulars taking on various roles in the story - Castle as the detective, Beckett as a nightclub singer, Esposito and Ryan as gangsters and Alexis (!) as a Femme Fatale. We also get Castle doing the monologue and at one point inadvertently swapping the name of the singer for Kate... which results in a Record Needle Scratch drop out of flashback as Beckett looks at him funny.
- A 2014 episode of Pretty Little Liars in which Spencer goes into hallucination mode uses this setting.
- It's in color, but Gotham has a very Noir feel to it with corrupt police, a seedy underworld that can only hint at the real level of nastiness, corrupt and shady politicians, and a brewing mob war.
Spoofs and Parodies
- Dead Men Dont Wear Plaid (1982)
- Play It Again, Sam (1972), a Woody Allen film that matches up Allen's "neurotic Jew" character with Humphrey Bogart. Hilarity Ensues.
- Problem Sleuth, at least setting-wise, plays with the genre and its tropes in part. The bulk of the work is an incredibly silly take on the Eastern RPG, but it's decidedly within a Film Noir framework. And when it does noir, oh, it does noir◊.
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit — underneath the cartoonish action, there is a very straight Film Noir in there.
- Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, an Affectionate Parody with a surprisingly happy ending.
- The Tracer Bullet stories in Calvin and Hobbes.
- Sam & Max: Freelance Police, especially with the character Flint Paper.
- Less spoof than reference, but Tyrell Badd of Ace Attorney Investigations is a blatant noir detective down to the stubble, trenchcoat, and tragic past.
- Godot counts as well, from his slow, sweet, jazzy leitmotif even in it's in-game sound, to his coffeenese and coffee-oriented metaphors, tragic and mysterious backstory, and his style of dress which looks like a Hard Boiled Detective without his trenchcoat. His "worried" animation on first glance makes it look like he's smoking, though the "cigarette" is actually his ring and the smoke is off his mask.
- The Black Bird is a film spoof of The Maltese Falcon without much originality.
- Rock Slyde (2009) is a modern film-noir parody starring Patrick Warburton as "Rock Slyde", private-eye and former homosexual-pirate musical-pornstar.
- One of the scenarios in the Artificial Reality machine in Red Dwarf is a film noir setting, complete with monochrome, a Femme Fatale, Al Capone-style outfits and a car from the 30s.
- Swiss claymation film "Pas de cercueil pour les pantins" ("No coffin for puppets"). Partly hommage, partly parody, all 4th wall. At the final shootout, the private-eye-turned-killer crashes into the requisites set and realizes he is a clay figure. Everyone else would have Gone Mad From The Revelation, but a noir dude can take anything...
- Tex Murphy (1996)
- Grim Fandango (1998)
- The Black Dahlia (1998) - correct setting, period clothes and corny dialogue to boot.
- Discworld Noir (1999) - Exactly What It Says on the Tin
- Max Payne (2001) - Also a movie
- Its sequel even used the tagline "A Film Noir Love Story". Which is somewhat ironic, given that the protagonist is much less cynical jaded in the sequel than in the original.
- Deja Vu
- Jack Orlando
- Dead Head Fred
- Gabriel Knight Sins of The Fathers Combines Noir with horror much the same way as the film Angel Heart.
- The Thief series.
- Hotel Dusk: Room 215 (2006) and it's sequel, Last Window (2010)
- Heavy Rain (2010) Shelby's character is homage to Noir while Jayden is homage to its more modern counterparts.
- The later Hitman games start to veer into this territory by virtue of Growing the Beard and aiming for a more Darker and Edgier feel. Several missions in the third and fourth game (Contracts and Blood Money) have a genuinely noir tone.
- L.A. Noire (2011) fittingly enough.
- Wadjet Eye Games loves this genre, with most of their games so far either belonging fully to this genre or using parts of it. These include:
- The Shivah, with a Rabbi who's losing faith in the goodness of God as the protagonist.
- Emerald City Confidential was described by the producer as follows: "Harsh city streets, grey rainy skies, femmes fatales, tough guys, trenchcoats, fedoras and plot twists. It's Oz, seen through the eyes of Raymond Chandler."
- The Blackwell Series uses some elements of noir (one of the protagonists is a Deadpan Snarker ghost from the 30's).
- Deus Ex: Human Revolution which is Cyberpunk so Noir is bound to be there.
- Deus Ex also heavily borrows from the noir aesthetics and narrative structure. Technically, this is a noir game with government agent and conspirators replacing more common private dick and crooks.
- Halo 3: ODST was developed to evoke a Film Noir atmosphere as a lone soldier investigates an alien-occupied city.
- By virtue of evoking late 80s scifi movies, Mass Effect 2 evokes this in parts, especially on Omega, Ilium and the Citadel. Thane and Samara's loyalty missions are even investigations with much less action than the rest of the game (oddly enough, both characters are stoic badasses with philosophical sides).
- Blade Runner (1997) follows the movie with its distinctive noir feeling mixed with s-f settings.
- Carte Blanche: For a Fistful of Teeth. Bonus points for black-and-white graphics.
- Gunpoint plays many of the tropes of Film Noir fairly straight despite it's more humorous atmosphere and incredibly snarky protagonist.
- TimeSplitters 2 (2002) the Chicago level has this in spades, from the opening monologue to the soundtrack for the level.
- The Witcher (2009) and its sequel are very noir, even though they're set in a fantasy world replete with witches and golems. It has corrupt, drunken authorities, the drug trade, a conspiracy, several femme fatales, and a jaded, sarcastic anti-hero who's primarily concerned with his own goals.
- The Wolf Among Us is a murder mystery set in 1986 New York, and starring Sheriff Bigby Wolf, a Deadpan Snarker/Hard Boiled Detective type investigating Fairytale characters in a noir setting.
- Weekend Pussy Hunt, a cartoon parody of the genre made by John Kricfalusi during the late 90's, animated in Adobe Flash.
- The Deadliest Tag and Deadliest Tag Chapter Two on Vlog Tag.
- Perri Rhoades' web serial Spectral Shadows has a peculiar planet, Cygnus, that's populated by lots of half-human half animal creatures, with each town having an Intellectual Property Religion (literally — even if sometimes the religion doesn't correctly match the source material). The town of Noire tries its best to fit this trope, even going so far as to use fossil fuels for vehicles while the rest of the world uses solar power — because in the gangster movies, they didn't have solar power.
- Game Grumps: Parodied in the "Mycaruba" T-shirt ad, complete with Danny as Detective N.S. Grump and Arin as... um... just watch it.