Philip Marlowe is the creation of Raymond Chandler, and an original Trope Codifier of the HardboiledPrivate Detective archetype. While his first official appearance was in the 1939 novel The Big Sleep, Chandler later adapted some of his short stories about similar detectives into longer novels.In a World of dirty cops, femme fatales, and a whole lot of murder, he faces the seamy underbelly of Los Angeles with nothing but a gun and his wits — and they're both pretty quick.When he's not snarking or smoking, he enjoys a good game of chess or even some nice poetry.Marlowe features in the novels The Big Sleep (1939), Farewell, My Lovely (1940), The High Window (1942), The Lady in the Lake (1943), The Little Sister (1949), The Long Goodbye (1953), and Playback (1958).Besides Chandler's works (and some other authors' take on the character as well), Marlowe has appeared in no less than 10 film adaptions, even more television and radio programs, and at least one video game.
1975: Farewell My Lovely. Marlowe is played by Robert Mitchum — the only actor ever to play Marlowe in two different movies.
Philip Marlowe provides examples of the following tropes:
Accidental Truth: In one book, intending to express his lack of interest in a case, Marlowe tells a random person that he couldn't care less if they were a previously mentioned long-disappeared killer. This causes most of the book's plot as they mistakenly assume he knows their secret.
The Alcoholic: Roger Wade and Terry Lennox of The Long Goodbye. Both are, interestingly, based on aspects of Chandler himself
Expy: Philip Marlowe, protagonist of Chandler's novels, is pretty much John Dalmas, protagonist of Chandler's stories for Dime Detective magazine, who is pretty much Carmady, protagonist of Chandler's stories for Black Mask magazine. To the extent that the Dalmas and Carmady stories were subsequently collected and reprinted with Marlowe's name substituted for theirs.
Genius Bruiser: Marlowe is tall and about as tough as they come. He's also incredibly street smart, an intelligent detective and has a classical education. He occasionally references some pretty academic subjects that usually confuse whomever he's talking to.
(Marlowe wakes up on the floor in Farewell My Lovely) I got my chin scraped. It feels scraped. That way I know itís scraped. No, I canít see it. I donít have to see it. Itís my chin and I know whether itís scraped or not.Maybe you want to make something of it? Okay, shut up and let me think.
Official Couple: With Linda Loring, once he meets her in The Long Goodbye. Chandler specifically created the character to be the perfect match for a man like Marlowe. Appropriately enough, she's the first woman we ever "see" Marlowe in bed with.
Painting the Medium: Since all the Marlowe stories are narrated in the first person, Marlowe's mood and mental condition affect the tone of the writing. This is usually very subtle, but there's a passage in Farewell, My Lovely where Marlowe regains consciousness after an involuntary, days-long binge on needle drugs. The narration is downright surreal for a few chapters.
Skeleton Key Card: It's mentioned in some of the stories that Marlowe carries a strip of celluloid in his wallet precisely for this purpose (this was in the days before credit cards).
Smart People Play Chess: Several of the books show Marlowe studying chess problems during his down time. (Although he's never seen playing an actual game, because that would presuppose that he had friends to play with.)
Smoking Is Cool: Marlowe starts out as a cigarette smoker, and switches to a pipe as he grows older and more thoughtful.
The Stoic: Though Marlowe does have his more human moments, these mainly occur when he's been truly pushed over the edge, as when, in one novel, he is kidnapped and shot full of narcotics by a quack doctor. The rest of the time, though, he manages to remain completely deadpan even as he's being beaten up by crooked cops or having guns waved in his face.
Take That: Quite a few of his insults are subtle jabs, sometimes at real people; for example, when a mook feels the need to repeat everything back at him, he starts referring to him as Hemingway:
Mook: (confused) Who is this Hemingway person at all? Marlowe: A guy who keeps saying the same thing over and over until you begin to believe it must be good.
Talks like a Simile: A feature of Marlowe's narration, originally because Chandler was being paid by the word.
Tap on the Head: Happens quite often, sometimes accompanied by a lengthy and poetic description of darkness washing over him as he loses consciousness. Did we mention Chandler was being paid by the word?
Third-Person Person: Marlowe as narrator occasionally refers to himself as "Marlowe" rather than "I," usually when he's being cheeky.
Zillion-Dollar Bill: Marlowe receives a "portrait of Madison" (a $5,000 bill) for doing a small favor at the start of The Long Goodbye. The bill causes no end of trouble.
Adaptations without their own pages provide examples of:
P.O.V. Cam: The 1947 film version of Lady in the Lake, directed by and starring Robert Montgomery, was filmed almost entirely in P.O.V. Cam to imitate the novel's first-person narration. Just so the film's Big Name Star was not totally unseen, he appears in bridging sequences and is seen whenever Marlowe looks into a mirror.