Literature: Philip Marlowe
is the creation of Raymond Chandler
, and an original Trope Codifier
of the Hardboiled Private Detective
archetype. While his first official appearance was in the 1939 novel The Big Sleep,
Chandler later adapted some of his short stories about similar detectives into longer novels.In a World
of dirty cops
, femme fatales
, and a whole lot of murder, he faces the seamy underbelly of Los Angeles
with nothing but a gun and his wits — and they're both pretty quick.
When he's not snarking
, he enjoys a good game of chess
or even some nice poetry.
Marlowe features in the novels The Big Sleep
(1939), Farewell, My Lovely
(1940), The High Window
(1942), The Lady in the Lake
(1943), The Little Sister
(1949), The Long Goodbye
(1953), and Playback
Besides Chandler's works (and some other authors' take on the character as well), Marlowe has appeared in no less than 10 film adaptions, even more television and radio programs, and at least one video game.
Works about Philip Marlowe with their own pages:LiteratureFilm
- 1944: Murder, My Sweet. Based on the novel Farewell, My Lovely. Marlowe is played by Dick Powell.
- 1946: The Big Sleep. This is perhaps the most famous film adaption. Marlowe is played by Humphrey Bogart.
- 1969: Marlowe. Marlowe is played by James Garner.
- 1973: The Long Goodbye. Marlowe is played by Elliott Gould. Interestingly, it is not a Period Piece, but takes place in The Seventies, when it was made.
- 1975: Farewell My Lovely. Marlowe is played by Robert Mitchum — the only actor ever to play Marlowe in two different movies.
Philip Marlowe provides examples of the following tropes:
- Accidental Truth: In one book, intending to express his lack of interest in a case, Marlowe tells a random person that he couldn't care less if they were a previously mentioned long-disappeared killer. This causes most of the book's plot as they mistakenly assume he knows their secret.
- The Alcoholic: Roger Wade and Terry Lennox of The Long Goodbye. Both are, interestingly, based on aspects of Chandler himself
- Badass Trenchcoat
- Belligerent Sexual Tension: With Vivian Sternwood in The Big Sleep, and with Linda Loring in The Long Goodbye. (The latter is only in the book.)
- Black and Grey Morality
- Cat Apult: In "Finger Man", when the villainous corrupt politician has Marlowe taken to his turf in order to threaten him, Marlowe tosses the villain's pet cat into his face and uses the distraction to grab his revolver and hold him at gunpoint.
- Comic-Book Time: While he did get older, he didn't age as much as the intervening years between installments should have allowed for.
- Deadpan Snarker: And how.
- Expy: Philip Marlowe, protagonist of Chandler's novels, is pretty much John Dalmas, protagonist of Chandler's stories for Dime Detective magazine, who is pretty much Carmady, protagonist of Chandler's stories for Black Mask magazine. To the extent that the Dalmas and Carmady stories were subsequently collected and reprinted with Marlowe's name substituted for theirs.
- Faking the Dead: At least two of the novels have one of the murders (there's always more than one) turn out to be this.
- Film Noir
- Fixup Novels: the first four Marlowe novels!
- The Forties
- Friend on the Force: Bernie Ohls, chief investigator for the DA's office. Also, Violets M'Gee.
- Gambit Pileup
- Genius Bruiser: Marlowe is tall and about as tough as they come. He's also incredibly street smart, an intelligent detective and has a classical education. He occasionally references some pretty academic subjects that usually confuse whomever he's talking to.
- Horrible Hollywood: Features prominently in The Little Sister.
- Hardboiled Detective
- I Need a Freaking Drink: In Farewell, My Lovely, Marlowe narrates:
I needed a drink, I needed a lot of life insurance, I needed a vacation, I needed a home in the country. What I had was a coat, a hat and a gun.
- In Vino Veritas: While Marlowe can certainly hold his liquor, not everyone else can. A frequent tactic of his is to get people to talk to him when they're drunk.
- Knight in Sour Armor: He gets positively acidic by the time of The Little Sister and The Long Goodbye.
- Lemony Narrator: Marlowe both unconventionally describes people and isn't above Leaning on the Fourth Wall:
(Marlowe wakes up on the floor in Farewell My Lovely
I got my chin scraped. It feels scraped. That way I know itís scraped. No, I canít see it. I donít have to see it. Itís my chin and I know whether itís scraped or not. Maybe you want to make something of it? Okay, shut up and let me think.
- Love Makes You Evil: The Little Sister.
- Mystery Fiction
- Nice Hat: Can't go wrong in a fedora.
- Official Couple: With Linda Loring, once he meets her in The Long Goodbye. Chandler specifically created the character to be the perfect match for a man like Marlowe (a sort of "Princess In Sour Dress" to his Knight in Sour Armor). Appropriately enough, she's the first woman we ever "see" Marlowe in bed with.
- Painting the Medium: Since all the Marlowe stories are narrated in the first person, Marlowe's mood and mental condition affect the tone of the writing. This is usually very subtle, but there's a passage in Farewell, My Lovely where Marlowe regains consciousness after an involuntary, days-long binge on needle drugs. The narration is downright surreal for a few chapters.
- Police Are Useless
- Posthumous Collaboration: Chandler's unfinished eighth Marlowe novel, Poodle Springs, was finished by Robert B. Parker (of Spenser fame) and published in 1989. Generally dismissed by Chandler fans.
- Private Detective
- Private Eye Monologue
- Public Domain Character
- Revolvers Are Just Better
- Screw Politeness Im A Senior: Harlan Potter in The Long Goodbye.
- Skeleton Key Card: It's mentioned in some of the stories that Marlowe carries a strip of celluloid in his wallet precisely for this purpose (this was in the days before credit cards).
- Smart People Play Chess: Several of the books show Marlowe studying chess problems during his down time. (Although he's never seen playing an actual game, because that would presuppose that he had friends to play with.)
- Smoking Is Cool: Marlowe starts out as a cigarette smoker, and switches to a pipe as he grows older and more thoughtful.
- Spirited Young Lady: Whenever Chandler gives the story a clear-cut heroine (as opposed to an ambiguous Femme Fatale or Damsel in Distress), she will be this. Most notably, Anne Riordan in Farewell, My Lovely and Linda Loring in The Long Goodbye. Anne is a noble, sweet-natured Betty to the Femme Fatale's Veronica, but is also an Intrepid Reporter and the daughter of a cop. Linda is a refined, dignified heiress who matches Marlowe's snark with some of her own, shares his Knight in Sour Armor / Princess In Sour Dress approach to the world, and helps him a little in the investigation.
- The Stoic: Though Marlowe does have his more human moments, these mainly occur when he's been truly pushed over the edge, as when, in one novel, he is kidnapped and shot full of narcotics by a quack doctor. The rest of the time, though, he manages to remain completely deadpan even as he's being beaten up by crooked cops or having guns waved in his face.
- Street Smart
- Take That: Quite a few of his insults are subtle jabs, sometimes at real people; for example, when a mook feels the need to repeat everything back at him, he starts referring to him as Hemingway:
Mook: (confused) Who is this Hemingway person at all?
Marlowe: A guy who keeps saying the same thing over and over until you begin to believe it must be good.
- Talks Like a Simile: A feature of Marlowe's narration, originally because Chandler was being paid by the word.
- Tap on the Head: Happens quite often, sometimes accompanied by a lengthy and poetic description of darkness washing over him as he loses consciousness. Did we mention Chandler was being paid by the word?
- Third-Person Person: Marlowe as narrator occasionally refers to himself as "Marlowe" rather than "I," usually when he's being cheeky.
- Trope Codifier: Of the Hardboiled Private Detective — well, one of them, at least.
- Zillion-Dollar Bill: Marlowe receives a "portrait of Madison" (a $5,000 bill) for doing a small favor at the start of The Long Goodbye. The bill causes no end of trouble.
Adaptations without their own pages provide examples of:
- Badass in a Nice Suit: The title character aside, there is Winslow Wong in the 1969 version. When Marlowe refuses his Bribe, Winslow tears apart his office with his bare hands. It helps that Wong is played by Bruce Lee prior to his Hong Kong action films.
- Genre Savvy: Marlowe knows he can't take Winslow on in a one on one fight. So his plan is to get him angry, while dodging him. Then when Winslow is too riled up, he goes for a flying kick, causing him to fall to his death.
- P.O.V. Cam: The 1947 film version of Lady in the Lake, directed by and starring Robert Montgomery, was filmed almost entirely in P.O.V. Cam to imitate the novel's first-person narration. Just so the film's Big Name Star was not totally unseen, he appears in bridging sequences and is seen whenever Marlowe looks into a mirror.