Cast in series 3-5. Clockwise from bottom right: Rimmer, Lister, Holly, Cat and Kryten
"As the days go by, we face the increasing inevitability that we are alone in a Godless, uninhabited, hostile and meaningless universe. Still, you've got to laugh, haven't you?"
— Holly, perfectly summing up the series.
Red Dwarf is a British Sci-Fi Comedy television (1988-1993; 1997-1999; 2009; 2012) and book series about an enormous interstellar mining ship (the eponymous Red Dwarf), the crew of which has been almost completely wiped out by a radiation leak.One man remains alive: a chicken-soup-machine repairman from Liverpool named David Lister. Lister was sentenced to be put in suspended animation for eighteen months as punishment for bringing a pregnant cat on board illegally.The ship's AI, Holly, sends the ship immediately out of the solar system, until the radiation reaches safe levels and Lister can be safely released from stasis three million years later. To keep Lister sane, the ship Holly creates a hologram of the despised (and now deceased) Second Technician Arnold J. Rimmer, the only person annoying enough to make Lister happy to be the last human being alive. The pair discover the Cat, the last known member of his race Felis sapiens, which evolved from the pregnant cat that got Lister put in suspended animation in the first place.Lister decides that he wants to return to Earth, despite the fact that no-one aboard knows if the human race still exists, and despite the problem that the journey back will take another three million years at sub-light speed (even turning the ship around at near lightspeed will take 4000 years according to Holly note This is later contradicted by the series 2 episode "Better than Life", where the ship has already turned around and started heading towards Earth).Despite what it sounds like, this was essentially just another British comedy about amusing characters bickering amongst themselves, similar to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, but with a fair amount of monsters, Time Travel and the like thrown in. However, it is notable for a sci-fi-based series in that the writers actively worked to avert, or at least lampshade, many tropes associated with the genre, though nearly always for comedic effect.After series VIII finished, a three-part, Post Modern, movie-length miniseries Back To Earth aired across the Easter Weekend of 2009 on digital channel Dave, putting an end to the complete lack of any new TV or book output since 1999. BtE broke digital TV viewership records at the time of airing, signalling that the show still had an audience after a decade of TV absence; not long after, Dave commissioned a full 6 episode "tenth" series entitled Red Dwarf X, which eventually aired in 2012.There are also four tie-in novels.This series has named the following tropes:
Abnormal Ammo: The heatseeker setting on the bazookoids. Also, the improvised garbage cannon in "Psirens".
Aborted Arc: Lister's pregnancy at the end of series 2 was tossed out when the writers realized they couldn't make it funny or not-sexist. It comes up in unreadably fast text in the opening crawl for "Backwards" about what happened to them.
The twins (very) rapidly aged to their late teens and (somehow) returned to their native universe.
Absent Aliens: All lifeforms encountered in the universe are ultimately Earth-derived.
The alternative is mainly used as a gag at Rimmer's expense.
Accidental Pervert: "Polymorph". When you're writhing on the floor, begging an android with a large tube attached to its crotch to pull off your underwear, it's kind of easy for people to get the wrong idea.
Actor Allusion: Back to Earth does it. The crew meet Craig Charles, who plays Lister, and Rimmer asks for his own sitcom (Chris Barrie starred in The Brittas Empire, which alluded to Brittas having a similar event occur in his past to Rimmer).
Cat's 'Do I dance?' from "Parallel Universe" might be an example. A more prominent example is the Blue Midget dance from "Back in the Red".
After the End: In a sense, since it takes place after the human race has likely gone extinct, and even if they did make it back to Earth there'd probably be nothing to find. For that matter, the setup episode is called "The End".
Holly's IQ is, purportedly, 6000. Then again, s/he is 3,000,000 years old and gone a bit... peculiar.
Pree technically should not be bad, as she bases her actions on what she predicts the highest-ranking Officer would do. Unfortunately, when she operates on Red Dwarf, that happens to be Rimmer.
Air-Vent Passageway: "Duct Soup" takes place primarily within the absurdly spacious vents of the Starbug. They're large enough for the Dwarfers to crawl around two abreast.
Aliens and Monsters: Appear somewhat frequently beginning in Series 3. Monsters do at any rate. There are no actual aliens in Red Dwarf, all the creatures they meet are mutated or genetically engineered from Earth organisms, or are mechanoids.
The Alleged Car: Red Dwarf and Starbug were run-down, poorly constructed vessels to begin with. Then 3 million years took their toll on them. Naturally, the crew frequently complain that nothing works properly.
The Alleged Computer: Holly. Despite apparently having an IQ of 3000, he (she in the later series) has gone very senile, and often blunderingly damages the people on the ship.
The crew are transported to one in the episode "Parallel Universe" and meet their female counterparts.
Ace Rimmer comes from one in "Dimension Jump".
Kochanski comes from one in "Ouroboros".
Ambiguous Clone Ending: It's unclear which Rimmer is the Rimmer we see in Back To Earth and series X (the one from Series I-VII who became Ace Rimmer or the one from Series VIII who may or may not have died during the series cliffhanger) as Series X presents evidence for both scenarios.note Series X!Rimmer talks about remembering being killed by the radiation leak, which only happened to the first Rimmer, but also mentions dealing with the chameleonic microbes, which happened with the second Rimmer.
An Arm and a Leg: Played for laughs. As Lister is infected with the Epideme virus, it localizes itself in his right hand. Kryten amputates it, but the virus moves up Lister's arm, forcing him to amputate more and more of the limb. Eventually most of it is gone, and it didn't even eliminate all of the virus.
And I Must Scream: In "Rimmerworld", Rimmer's clones turn on him for having small amounts of the un-Rimmerlike traits they believe are evil and throw him in a small prison. As he's a hologram, he doesn't die and, as everyone on the planet is an even less likeable and more treacherous copy of Rimmer, he knows they'll turn him in if he escapes. He ends up imprisoned among these reminders of what a mess of a human being he is for 557 years.
And Then I Said: Rimmer pulls this out in "Better Than Life" but can't come up with something he might have said and is forced to admit he "doesn't remember". Since it's his fantasy, his dinnermates laugh anyway.
Answers to the Name of God: In the Series X episode "Lemons", a man's name is actually Jesus. Not the famous one, but the crew manage to convince him that he is for a while.
Lister: Really? Jesus!
Man Sat Behind Him: Yes?
Antagonist Title: The series has a few of these; "Queeg", "Polymorph", "The Inquisitor", "Psirens", "Legion", "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", "Emohawk: Polymorph II", and "Epideme".
Arbitrary Skepticism: This is played with momentarily in "Back to Reality", when Andy, the "real world" game technician, claims that Lister's destiny is to "jump-start the second Big Bang," making Lister, "the ultimate atheist" (despite being a pantheist), actually God, and Rimmer, equally atheist, God's bunkmate.
Archived Army: The waxdroids in "Meltdown" form less literal versions of this.
Kryten appears in the premiere of Series 2 and becomes a regular in Series 3. (David Ross declined the opportunity to join the main cast due to his distaste for the Kryten makeup and was replaced by Robert Llewellyn. Ross would eventually return to voice Talkie Toaster in 'White Hole'.)
Kochanski appears twice in Series 1, once in Series 2 and once in Series 6 (actually a GELF in disguise) and becomes a regular in Series 7. Clare Grogan was replaced by Chloe Annett as Kochanski because Grogan had retired from acting in favor of becoming a TV host.
Captain Hollister appears but twice in Series 1 and again in "Stasis Leak" before returning as a regular in Series 8. Captain Hollister went the most time between his last appearance as a guest and his debut as a regular (11 years), his is the only case in which the actor who played him ascended as well.
It's a well known in-joke amongst the cast, during the DVD commentaries for series 8, about one of the 'extras'. A hugely built intimidating man, referred to as Chopper. It's about him starting off as simply a background extra, and allegedly persuading the producers to get some lines. To the point where each episode following, he always received some lines, almost close enough to rival Holly.
In the episode "Backwards", the crew accidentally time-travels to a version of Earth in which time runs backwards, to the effect that the natives speak backwards, walk backwards, wars are happy occasions on which millions of dead people come back to life, pub brawls end up cleaning up the pub ("Unrumble!"), food gets un-eaten, beer goes from your mouth back into the mug and from the mug back into the tap, and so on. Unfortunately, just before the Dwarfers leave, the Cat decides to take a crap in the bushes, and the other can't warn him in time... Cat appears from the bushes with a horrified expression and his hair standing on end and walks stiff-legged into the shuttlecraft, avoiding the others' eyes.
"Back in the Red" sees "Starbug" fly up the rectum of a giant rat in an enormous air vent.
In "Lemons", Cat devises a crazy golf course that ends into a medical student's practice rectum.
In "DNA", Kryten asks about how humans recharge, stating that he found what he thinks is the socket, but the plug keeps falling out.
In "Krytie TV", Rimmer alludes to have attempted this on Lister with his own guitar. Lister notes that he'd have had more success with the neck end.
Kryten: A superlative suggestion, sir, with just two minor flaws. One, we don't have any defensive shields, and two, we don't have any defensive shields. Now, I realize that, technically speaking, that's only one flaw, but I thought it was such a big one it was worth mentioning twice.
George MacIntyre has a "Welcome Back" party immediately after his funeral, and thanks the Captain for his eulogy while joking that he doesn't understand why the Captain didn't use the one MacIntyre had written.
Backported Development: Lots. For a visual example, when Series VII flashed back to shortly after Lister's revival, the H on Rimmer's head and his uniform were the ones used for Series VII rather than the one in Series I.
Back to Front: The episode "Backwards" is partly set in a universe where time runs backward, so although the story is told from front to back it has elements of the trope, particularly with respect to the injuries Lister mysteriously acquires near the beginning of the episode as a result of events near the end.
Bad Liar: Kryten has to fight his original programming to lie at all, and even then, he (usually) announces that he's switching to "Lie Mode" first.
The Cat after becoming Duane "Duke of Dork" Dibbley as part of a series of Involuntary Transformation scenes of the appropriately named "Emohawk: Polymorph II". Subverted and inverted with Rimmer; Ace is brave and selfless by contrast to normal Rimmer.
Lister is turned into a chicken, then a hamster in "DNA".
Batman Gambit: Kochanski, of all people, in "Beyond a Joke". When Kryten is kidnapped by the rogue Simulant aboard the S.S. Centauri, she instructs Cat to turn Starbug so it flies away from the Centauri at top speed. The Simulant, after realising they're not giving chase and actually fleeing, assumes they've planted a bomb on his own vessel and starts chasing after them. Cat and Lister are fooled too.
Beat: The episode "Camille", when Kryten is telling her about his crewmates:
Camille: Please, I can't meet your shipmates. Trust me. Kryten: But you don't know them! You'll like them! (beat) Well, some of them. (beat) Well, one of them. (beat) Maybe.
Be Careful What You Wish For: Rimmer spends the first few minutes of "Only the Good..." complaining that Hollister doesn't see him as officer material. He has a run-in with a vending machine which states that one day they'll meet again and it will destroy him, and Rimmer snarks that on that day, he'll be ship's captain. By the end of the episode, everyone higher ranked than him had been evacuated making him the highest ranked person on the ship, and as he tries to figure out how to save himself, the machine attacks. It's not certain how he fared.
Better Than Sex: When Rimmer copies himself and moves in together, he describes his new life of discipline as "better than sex". Of course, he's soon proven wrong when it turns out even he doesn't like himself.
Rimmer reveals in the Series 2 episode "Thanks for the Memory" that he lost his virginity to (and whose only sexual liaison while alive the first time around was with) Yvonne McGruder, the ship's boxing champion. Who seemed to be suffering from a concussion because she kept calling him "Norman". This is given a slightly less squickyRetcon in the books.
The shenanigans with the Sexual Magnetism Virus in "Back in the Red". After Rimmer takes a dose of the virus all the women at the Captain's supper find him irresistible, and one by one they all go to "get coffee" with him in the galley. Played with in that by the end of the night Rimmer has clearly had enough and is visibly in pain.
Also in "Back in the Red", Lister comments that two years in prison means two years without sex, to which Rimmer flippantly replies, "You hope.".
Also also in "Back in the Red" and related to the previous example, after the main characters are locked up in the prison Lister applies a bit of the Sexual Magnetism Virus to Rimmer. We are left to imagine the outcome, but it's clearly the reason Rimmer wasn't speaking to Lister at the start of the episode.
And "Emohawk: Polymorph II":
"Change of plan... leg it!"
Rimmer recalls in "The Last Day" that his first intimate experience was with his uncle Frank, who thought he was his mum. Paedophilia (albeit unwitting), and possibly not just one but two different permutations of incest, if Frank and Rimmer's mum were siblings. In the same scene, Rimmer also speculates that Lister's parents were brother and sister. Much, much later we find out that Lister's provenance is even weirder: thanks to a time machine not only is his mum his ex-girlfriend, but he's his own father.
Blue and Orange Morality: Primarily the Cat. Being descended from cats, he can't be properly judged by human standards. By cat standards he's a perfectly regular cat - which makes him vain, self-centered, egotistical and sex-crazed, with a tendency to jump out at things, hiss, and make yowling cat noises and dance when he just walks down corridors.
Invoked for laughs in "Rimmerworld", where the hostile reaction that Lister, Cat and Kryten get from the Rimmer clones is intensified because they do not display self-centered, malicious, Jerk Ass traits that have become the foundation of the race's moral structure.
Rimmer Guard: These three abominations stand charged on eight counts of gross deviancy. Not content with not looking like the true image, they flaunt freakish behaviour such as charm, bravery, compassion and (pauses) honour.
Rimmer Emperor: Are there no sighs of normalcy in these wretches? No cowardice or pomposity, no snideyness or smarm, not even basic honest-to-goodness double-dealing two-facedness?
Rimmer Guard: Sire, these creatures did not even attempt to sell each other out for their own freedom - they lack even the most basic natural drives.
Bolivian Army Ending: The end of "Only The Good..." where it is undetermined whether Rimmer or the rest of the crew survived for that matter.
Breaking the Fourth Wall: In "Me2", Lister brings a picture to Arnold and Arnold's quarters and reads the nameplate. 'Second Technician, Arnold J. Rimmer, and Second Technician, Arnold J. Rimmer?!' and looks at the camera in a smirking fashion before shaking his head.
Brick Joke: Used quite a few times, but is taken Up to Eleven by Back to Earth, where the ENTIRE plot is caused by the ending sequence of an episode aired well over a decade ago, well before the hiatus began! "I'm going to eat you, little fishy..."
Hilariously used in "Stoke Me a Clipper". Where the pet crocodile of a Nazi Captain that Ace used to surf out of an exploding plane winds up landing on two soldiers heads after Ace escapes a base. Was für ein Kerl indeed.
Brilliant, but Lazy - Lister. He's a complete slob, but when forced into action has demonstrated a great deal of ingenuity and resourcefulness. In Ace Rimmer's parallel universe, he's one of the top flight engineers in the Space Corps. As of Series X, he's studying to better himself.
Britain is Only Nodnol: Averted; London is never seen or even mentioned in a major way prior to Back to Earth. The only time it really gets mentioned prior to that is on a roadsign in "Backwards," and even then it's flipped, rendering the city's name as "Nodnol" — contrary to popular belief, the backwards universe stuff in that episode is actually set in the city of Retsehcnam (Manchester) rather that Nodnol, as indicated by a barely visible sign in one shot.
Grimsby is also mentioned, as are several other places.
Broken Ace: Arnold J. Rimmer is a literal example of the trope. Sucked dry of his negativity and neuroses (themselves powerful enough to destroy a Lotus-Eater Machine) by an Emotion Eater, he immediately turns into Ace Rimmer (what a guy!). Eventually, he becomes the next Ace Rimmer - as each one dies, he recruits the next, and so on, until it finally reaches Arnie himself. It is mostly his neuroses that hold him back - but luckily for him, the Red Dwarf universe has it set that pretty much every Rimmer gets redeemed. Before then, he makes an awesome Last Stand at the end of Series 6.
Broke The Rating Scale: Dave Lister frequently talks about writing Michelin Guides or similar about various settings, resulting in Legion getting a psycho rating of "four and a half chainsaws, maybe five". Rimmer suggests that the G-Tower from The Tank in series 8 probably gets "the full five slop-out buckets" in the guide to Penal Hell-Holes.
Brother-Sister Incest: Rimmer theorizes this is why Lister's parents abandoned him. His words are almost prophetic, in that that they were actually mother and son. Where he's his own father... it's weird, okay?
In "Rimmerworld", Rimmer realises that the female clone he's trying to create would technically be his sister. He decides she doesn't need to know, and follows the original plan.
In some supporting material, it's stated that the ship is 5 miles long, 4 miles wide, and 3 miles high. Which is 60 cubic miles of solid infrastructure to have adventures in.
But He Sounds Handsome: Holly appears on a recording Holly doesn't remember making (the crew's memories were erased). Initially, he comments, "Nice-looking bloke," and then when the recorded Holly tells them to pause the recording, he does so, because he "Knows what he's talking about, that dude."
Buxom Is Better: When choosing the breast size for a new female computer, Rimmer insists on choosing 36D as her breast size, as opposed to Kryten's 30A choice.
The Caligula: In "Rimmerworld", Rimmer genetically engineers an entire society made of clones of himself. He becomes The Caligula of his own society only to be overthrown by his underlings, much like the historical figure this trope is based on.
Rimmer in "Meltdown" after damage to his lightbee causes him to begin acting erratically and shift between this and a General Ripper. A waxdroid of the Trope Namer himself also appears in the same episode as part of Rimmer's army.
The news broadcast that Rimmer watches in "Better Than Life" is Groovy Channel 27, the same channel that Lister mentioned back in "Future Echoes".
Can't Get Away with Nuthin' : What lands them in the brig during Series VIII. Despite being found innocent of the original charges against them, because they used classified crew data for their own advantage, they are found guilty of a totally different crime.
Captain's Log: Holly would start the episodes of the first two series with a sort-of Captain's Log introduction. Captain Hollister also keeps a diary of some kind.
The first episode of Series 7, "Tikka to Ride", opens with Lister recording a captain's log (he even parodies the Star Trek format).
Rimmer's impressions and parroting while he malfunctions in "Queeg". Chris Barrie is a trained impersonator who had already starred in Spitting Image. Chris Barrie's lip synching and mannerisms when playing the other characters are also far more convincing than the other actors' in "Bodyswap".
Danny John-Jules is a trained dancer, and dance sequences for Cat appear in several episodes. He also got to sing in a dream sequence. The song, "Tongue Tied", became a respectable hit and was on the Top 20 in the UK.
Cat Folk: The ship's cats evolved over the eons into a species of humanoids, one of whom is a main character (and the vast majority of whom emigrated away from Red Dwarf long before.)
Cattle Punk: Second half of "Gunmen of the Apocalypse".
Censorship by Spelling: In "Parallel Universe", when the Cat meets the Dog, the Dog insists that he spell out "bath"... and then doesn't understand him when he does.
Characterisation Marches On: Rimmer is initially portrayed as utterly subservient to authority come what may. However, in "Stasis Leak", he loses his temper and assaults the captain multiple timesnote though the second time he was convinced that the captain was just a hallucination, given he was dressed as a chicken for a costume party. He also calls Todhunter "a big lig" in "The End" after the latter agrees that he's a smeghead, goes on a brief tirade about the captain after hearing the personal remarks about him in "Waiting for God", and the first assault happened because he thought Lister should have been sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for the mushroom prank. In short, he respects authority only so long as they seem to be agreeing with him.
In a Series 1 episode, Lister takes an exam to become the ship's chef just so that he will outrank Rimmer. At the end of the episode he gets the results; Rimmer asks how he did, and Lister replies: "That's 'How did you do, Mr Lister, sir!'" In the Opening Narration of the next episode, Holly simply adds: "Last week, Lister pretended he'd passed the chef's exam, but really he'd failed."
Series VI ended with the entire crew aboard Starbug as it was destroyed by their future selves. A quick gag at the beginning of Series VII reveals that this caused a paradox that hit the Reset Button.
Finally, the Series VIII finale "Only the Good..." ends with the ship doomed. Back to Earth starts with an intact ship and the words "Nine Years Later", and otherwise does not reference "Only the Good..." in any way (though Rimmer, and seemingly the entire crew minus Lister, are dead and a hologram again). This particular cop-out continues three years later in "The Beginning", with two separate discussions on how they got out of it- both are interrupted before the reveal.
In the Series X episode, "The Beginning", a rogue simulant reports to his master that they had lost the crew of Red Dwarf in an asteroid field, at which point the master, who has been described as being bred for pure malice and hatred, hands him his sword and tells him "You know what to do", at which point, the subordinate disembowels himself. The master gets annoyed and tells him he was supposed to polish it. However, in a later scene, after complaining he wants his subordinates to question his orders, another subordinate points out that the last one who did was executed, at which point the master orders him hauled away to be executed, so, he might have been intentionally messing with the guy.
In the Series III episode, "Marooned", Rimmer finding out that Lister lost his virginity aged 12 - and taking issue with the fact that this must have meant he wasn't a full member of the golf club where he lost it.
In "Entangled", Rimmer rants about the health and safety regulations being so incredibly lax, pointing to the radiation disaster that wiped out the crew as proof. Lister counters that had more to do with Rimmer's incompetence failing to repair the drive plate properly and Rimmer takes that as further proof that the higher-ups failed basic health and safety by assigning him to do the repair!
Compound Interest Time Travel Gambit: It is revealed in an episode that Dave left £17.50 in his bank account on Earth. Three million years have passed, and he now owns 98% of the world's wealth. He also left a sausage out on his table which went mouldy; now the mould covers seven-eights of the surface of the Earth. Furthermore, he left the lightbulb in his bathroom, racking up a gigantic debt to the local utility company, which has now become the ruling faction on Earth and whose battle fleet is rapidly approaching in an Attempt To Collect. It turns out to be a joke by Holly.
Mentioned in the American version. Lister's first words after being informed that he's been in suspended animation for almost three million years involve exclaiming that his baseball cards must be worth a fortune.
In the original version he also laments that he has an unreturned library book.
Rimmer (Shaking with rage): Mr. Flibble's very cross. You shouldn't have run away from him. What are we going to do with them, Mr. Flibble? (Mr. Flibble appears to whisper in Rimmer's ear) Rimmer: We can't possibly do that! (Mr Flibble tilts to look at the crew) Rimmer: Who would clean up the mess?
Contemplate Our Navels: Either played straight or as a parody of science fiction in general being wont to do this, much of the show was taken up by philosophical ideas via sci-fi trappings, i.e. the manifestation of Lister's confidence and paranoia, or the Inquisitor.
In "Parallel Universe" in the Cat's song dream sequence, our guys are wearing matching outfits. The Cat is performing the "Tongue Tied" song, and Rimmer and Lister are his backing vocals. The trio is dressed in the same red suits with frills. And they all dance!
"Quarantine": At the end of the episode, Lister, Kryten and Cat all wear red-and-white checked gingham dresses which Rimmer wore when he was insane, being infected by the holo-virus. The guys probably want to psych him out the same as he psyched out them with his madness.
Couch Gag: The final line or two of Holly's show-opening distress calls in the first two series.
Couldn't Find a Pen: In "Psirens", the crew find a message left by a man who, lacking a pen, used his own blood and intestines. They were torn as to whether he used his kidney as a full stop (period) or whether it had just "plopped out".
Cowboy Episode: The episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse" involves the characters entering a virtual Western town that serves as a metaphor for Kryten's struggles with computer virus. The episode even end with Starbug flying off into the sunset.
In the Series five episode "Demons and Angels", Lister is running for his life from the evil versions of the Red Dwarf crew, until he runs into Evil Rimmer ... wearing what is best described as a Dominatrix-type get up.
In another Series 5 episode, "Quarantine". When Rimmer contracts a holo-virus that sends him mad, he appears out of uniform, and holding MrFlibble. Also lampshaded:
[Rimmer appears in an observation window. He is NOT in uniform.]
Rimmer: Is something amiss?
Lister: [trying to disguise the tremor in his voice] Amiss? God no. What could possibly be amiss?
Rimmer: You don't think there's anything amiss? I'm sitting here wearing a red and white checked gingham dress — and army boots — and you think that's un-amiss?
Crystal Spires and Togas: In an episode where the lads got split up into a good and an evil part, the good version was portrayed like this.
Cuckoo Nest: "Back to Reality" tries to convince the crew that they were really immersed in a Red Dwarf video game, a prospect all the more demoralizing when they discover the kinds of people they "really" are and the world they inhabit.
Cut His Heart Out with a Spoon: One of the recurring jokes on the show is characters threatening very unusual and elaborate acts of violence against each other; i.e., "rip out his windpipe and beat him to death with the tonsil end," "shove my fist so far down his gob, I'll be able to pull the label off his underpants..."
Series V had much darker and creepier atmosphere than the previous series.
Back To Earth has shades of this at points, such as the Garden of Remembrance scene which is played pretty much straight down the line until Cat shows up. In fact, really any scene involving Lister and Kochanski.
The titular video game in episode "Better Than Life".
The premise of "Back to Reality".
The Series VII episode "Duct Soup" contains a scene cut from the original broadcast but restored for the extended DVD release in which Kochanski mentions spending years hooked up to a computer (the actual term "Better Than Life" is not mentioned, but the premise sounds similar) during her school years. After returning to the real world, she confesses to "going off the rails" for a while and becoming a "retro-punk".
Deflector Shields: While shields are stated to exist, they are distressingly lacking on Starbug. So much so that in "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", the simulants gave their shields an upgrade so they would be more of a challenge.
"First, I'm going to whip you within an inch of your life. Then... I'm going to have you."
Despair Event Horizon: The venom of the Suicide Squid in Back to Reality creates a hallucination designed to cause this. For Kryten the thing which pushes him over the edge is taking a human life; for Lister it's 'discovering' that his 'real' self is a brutal enforcer for a totalitarian regime; for Rimmer it's no longer being able to blame his shortcomings on his upbringing; and for Cat it's...not being cool any more.
Doing It for the Art: Back To Earth, despite its small budget, looks quite impressive for a TV production. This is because several members of the production team actually worked for free; the CG Skutter seen in part 1 was done entirely by one person for no pay, simply because he loved the show so much.
Double Vision: And how. Almost every series has an episode which utilizes this effect. "Stasis Leak" utilizes it the most impressively: The characters travel to before the accident, and concludes with three Listers and three Rimmers, plus Kochanski and the Cat bickering in Lister and Rimmer's bunk, leading that time period's Rimmer to have a complete mental breakdown:
"Three Listers! Splendid! Perhaps Lister here would like to go over to the fridge and open a bottle of wine for Lister and Lister! Rimmer here doesn't drink, because he's dead, but I wouldn't mind a glass!"
Driven to Suicide / Heroic Sacrifice: When the attempt to cure Lister of the Epideme virus by isolating it in his arm and amputating it fails, he leaves Starbug with the intention of incinerating himself and the virus along with him before he can infect the rest of the crew. However the sentient virus talks him out of it by tricking him into thinking there is still a cure. Fortunately after they discover that this was a lie Kochanski is able to outwit the virus.
Dropped a Bridge on Him: The offscreen death of Kochanski in Back to Earth is a subversion, as she is given a memorial scene in Part One, and in Part Two it is revealed she is still alive and Kryten lied about it to Lister.
Dub-Induced Plot Hole: In the Czech dub of "Future Echoes", Lister says that he's never eaten chicken vindaloo before (prawn vindaloo in the original), when in a flashback in "Balance of Power" he says that he'd dropped Rimmer's revision timetable into one (he spilled goat vindaloo on it in the original).
In fact the first two series are this entirely, largely due to the lower budget:
The mood is much darker with minimal music. Lister spends much of the time having flashbacks to the days before the disaster and playing pranks on Rimmer. Lister spends much of his time wondering how to get Kochanski back.
Holly is male, and plays a central role in the story. He would often explain to Lister what was going on. This was often handled by Kryten later on.
They almost never leave the ship - when they do it's using Blue Midget, not Starbug. For Rimmer to go outside he needs to be projected in a 'hologram cage' but he doesn't need to do this later on.
Kryten did not appear in Series 1. He was introduced and only appeared in in the first episode of Series 2, but looks, sounds, and acts very different, as he is played by David Ross as an English butler robot. At the time he was only considered a guest character. When they brought him back for Series 3, Robert Llewellyn started playing him as a Canadian robot who handled much of the exposition.
The filming style is more washed out, and Rimmer's hologram 'H' is a different shape.
Cat mostly acts like a selfish idiot and is mostly there for comic relief rather than adding to the story (in later series he would often pilot Starbug because of his sharper feline senses and reflexes).
Some of the plots are connected to the first two books Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers and Better Than Life, whereas the plots would be largely original later on.
Eldritch Location: The crew come across several 'alternate universes' where normal laws of physics and reason are skewed or don't exist at all.
The inverted gender universe in "Parallel Universe".
Kryten-2X4B-523P — apparently mechanoids consider "2X4B" to be an embarrassing middle name. But at least it's not "2Q4B"...
Arnold Judas Rimmer. "Lemons" reveals that the reason Rimmer's mother gave him the name was because she was part of the Church of Judas, who believed that he was Jesus' twin brother, who willingly sacrificed both his life and reputation to save his brother by taking his place on the cross. The ending heavily implies she was right.
Enemy Without: The crew (and ship) are split into "High" and "Low" copies in "Demons and Angels"; the Highs don't survive very long when they encounter the Lows. In "Terrorform", the entire planet is literally Rimmer's self-hatred attacking him.
Even the Guys Want Him: Cat thinks he's this - "Face it, buddy, I have a body that makes men wet!" - but no-one that isn't illusory ever shows any interest in him. Space Corps Special Service Test Pilot Arnold "Ace" Rimmer, on the other hand...
Bongo: If you're interested, I'll be in my quarters at lunchtime, covered in taramasalata.
Ace: I didn't know your bread was buttered that side, Bongo.
Bongo: It isn't. It's been happily married for 35 years. It's just, a chap like you can turn a guy's head.
Everyone Calls Him Barkeep: The Cat does not have a name, and is simply called the Cat or Cat throughout the show. The reason for this, according to the books, is that all cats think that they're the center of the universe and the idea that someone might not know who they are is beyond their comprehension.
An evil imitation of Lister shows up in "Psirens".
Evolutionary Levels: The evolution of the Cat race stopped once they reached humanoid, plus or minus a few nipples.
Justified (although not very much) in that they evolved in an environment (Red Dwarf) designed for the comfort and convenience of humans, so those who had the most human-like traits would be best adapted to that environment. For example, the first cat to develop sufficient manual dexterity to operate a can opener was unquestionably an evolutionary step ahead of the rest.
Exotic Entree: The evil future selves in "Out of Time" spend their lives traveling through time so they can eat exotic delicacies like dolphin sweetmeats and baby seal hearts with hosts such as Louis XVI and Adolf Hitler.
Explosive Instrumentation: A couple times early on, more frequent in the later series. Lister, the Cat and Kryten all die to exploding instrument panels in "Out of Time".
Explosive Overclocking: In "White Hole", the crew overclocks Holly, who's been descending deeper and deeper into computer senility, hoping to bring her intelligence back. They get her to an IQ of 12,000, but it drops her lifespan down to less than four minutes.
Exposition of Immortality: Given that the titular space vessel has been travelling away from inhabited human space for three million years, many of the remnants they encounter are at least that old or older.
The Inquisitor is a self-repairing simulant who Kryten tells of as "living until the end of time."
Many of the simulants encountered have been around since they originally rebelled against humanity, too.
Legion formed as a gestalt during a series of experiments in shared consciousness by a group of human scientists; he tells us when they died he had to hang around as a "mindless essence" for several million years until the Red Dwarf crew showed up.
Expospeak Gag: Played for laughs several times, most notably in "Stasis Leak".
Cat:(to Rimmer) What is it? Rimmer: It's a rend in the space-time continuum. Cat:(to Lister) What is it? Lister: The stasis room freezes time, you know, makes time stand still. So whenever you have a leak, it must preserve whatever it's leaked into, and it's leaked into this room. Cat:(to Rimmer) What is it? Rimmer: It's singularity, a point in the universe where the normal laws of space and time don't apply. Cat:(to Lister) What is it? Lister: It's a hole back into the past. Cat: Oh, a magic door! Well, why didn't you say?
Facepalm: Both Lister and Rimmer frequently facepalmed because of each other's insane ideas, general smeg-headedness or extreme and disgusting slobbishness.
Fee Fi Faux Pas: Rimmer's last words were "Gazpacho soup", which Lister eventually discovers is because, when he'd been with the Space Corps for 13 years, he got invited to have dinner with the Captain and, being arrogant and ignorant, he had no idea that the Gazpacho soup starter was meant to be served cold and so he demanded it be taken away and heated. He considers this perhaps the biggest reason why he never went anywhere in the ranks, going on an anguished rant about how he could have been somebody if it had ever been mentioned to him that Gazpacho soup is drunk cold while he was in training. Lister kindly refrains from pointing out that it is more likely that Rimmer never got anywhere because he is an unlikeable incompetent with more ego than skill.
The point that this incident could not possibly account for the prior 13 years of failure bears repeating.
Fictional Sport: Zero Gee Football, as followed by Dave Lister. Appears to be a form of grid-iron football played in a closed dome (Jim Bexley Speed apparently plays "roof attack", and appears on a poster over Lister's bunk looking something like the San Diego Chargers uniform.)
Fix It in Post: In a smeg-up from "Meltdown", Lister knocks on an obviously-wooden-sounding wall and says, matter-of-factly, "Stone," causing the audience to start laughing. Their laughter set off Danny John-Jules, further ruining the take, at which point Craig Charles shouted at the audience "They were gonna sort that out in the dub!"
For Want of a Nail: One little split in the destiny line created Ace Rimmer. However, it turns out that it's not getting a break and passing a test that created Ace - it's being held back a year and humiliated that made him finally fight back, which makes our Rimmer's "it's not my fault, I just had a bad childhood" line technically true.
The novel Backwards goes further and explains that the reason Lister is a top engineer in Ace Rimmer's universe is because without Rimmer for a bunkmate, Lister ended up sharing with someone who encouraged him to study and realise his full potential. No explanation for why Kryten, Cat and Holly's equivalents are human, though.
Flanderization: The Cat goes from being a rather ditzy guy who acts like a cat and likes his clothes to a guy who's obsessed with fashion and sometimes says stupid things to just being really, really stupid, having virtually no lines that don't have to do with clothes, and few to no feline tendencies at all.
On the other hand, he also goes from being completely self-absorbed (as in, he cares more about his lunch than a dying Lister) and absolutely unhelpful to being Lister's buddy who will even sometime go out of his way for him. He also becomes rather more helpful to the crew in general. While Cat's initial traits DID get exaggerated, it also came with more screentime and him becoming more than a random wandering gag.
He's also become a good pilot as of Series VI.
While Lister's song writing skills prior to Series VI were less than ideal, he was still capable of playing guitar without causing pain and suffering to those around him.
Lister also suffers despite having grown a fair bit during the first six series. Series VII sees him acting like a complete idiot, it's hard to believe this was the same guy who was 'faulted' by the clones in Rimmerworld for being brave, selfless and charismatic.
Kryten abruptly becomes something of a Mother Hen-like figure after Kochanski arrives, with several episodes of series VII being about his issues with her, and he starts nagging all the characters a lot more. Toned down in Series VIII.
Holly starts off as a fairly competent computer with the occasional moments of ditzy-ness, but it gets worse with each series (such as in "White Hole" where she can only count by hitting her head on the screen.) and By series VII and VIII he's completely out of it, offering advice and plans that don't make any sense (although with the odd moments of lucidity). This could be explained by his computer senility just getting worse, though.
The Friends Who Never Hang: Rimmer and the Cat almost never interacted in the early series: Rimmer didn't think of the Cat as a person, and the Cat, before he got more domesticated later on, had no interest in a man who couldn't feed him.
Fun with Acronyms: "The Committee for the Liberation and Integration of Terrifying Organisms and their Rehabilitation Into Society."
Rimmer jokes that Canaries is in fact an acronym for "Convict Army: Nearly All Retarded Inbred Evil Sheepshaggers" just before he's informed that he's been signed up too.
Furry Fandom: Although it was made before the Internet made the fandom famous, "DNA" has Rimmer ask incredulously if Lister is claiming to enjoy strapping on a bushy tail and naming himself 'Nutkin' when Lister, attempting to explain why he feels Kryten should change back into a Mechanoid, mentions his envy of a squirrel he saw in the botanical gardens after getting dumped by Kochanski.
Future Imperfect: The Cat race took Lister and his dream of retiring to Fiji and turned them into the Cat god Cloister the Stupid and the promised land of Fuschal. Lister, Rimmer and even Holly make historical inaccuracies, but it's tough to tell whether they're owed to widespread historical distortion or to the many varied failings of the characters.
Rimmer: They laughed at Galileo. They laughed at Edison. They laughed at Columbo! Lister: Who's Columbo? Rimmer: The man with a dirty mac who discovered America!
Judging by his reaction in "Bodyswap", either Lister has one or Rimmer has shortcomings.
In "Only the Good...", Rimmer gets one (not seen) in the universe where everything's opposite.
In "DNA", when Kryten becomes human, he hands Lister two polaroids of his 'groinal attachment' which have to be held together to get the whole thing in. Fun fact: If Craig Charles looks genuinely sicked out at that moment, it's because he was handed a Polaroid of some actual bloke's penis, which he hadn't been informed was going to happen beforehand.
Gainax Ending: Back To Earth has retroactively turned "Only the Good..." into this. The End? The smeg it was...
Holly's "android home brew" in "The Last Day" is lethal to humans, and probably to androids as well.
In "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", Sheriff Kryten asks for the stuff that guarantees you'll get your eyesight back in three days. Baxter's hooch in "Only the Good..." is "about 300% proof," according to Rimmer.
Godly Sidestep: In "White Hole", Holly gains an IQ of over 12,000 and professes to know the meaning of the universe. The only being present to ask her is a toast-obsessed kitchen appliance, and any questions it puts forward end up being about bread. Before anyone else can ask, she realises she has three minutes to live and refuses to communicate with anyone.
Averted in the novels, however, where the toaster actually does think to ask Holly about God. It's Lister. Now, ask a hard one!
God Test: Lister's comments have been misinterpreted over the years as the promises of a god, leading to this hilarious exchange:
The Despair Squid was the result of compressing 5 billion years of evolution into 3 years. It killed just about everything in the ocean.
Also Pree, a computer intended to allow people to achieve more in less time by finishing tasks for them in the manner they would finish them. On a ship with a competent crew this is a desirable thing. On Red Dwarf ... less so.
Good Angel, Bad Angel: Confidence and Paranoia in, unsurprisingly, "Confidence and Paranoia". Although it's up for debate which is which
Also the episode "Demons and Angels".
Arguably, in "Terrorform", Rimmer's resurrected self-confidence versus, well, everything else in his mind.
Rimmer does this to the Grim Reaper in "Only the Good...", has it done to him (in a way) by Lister in Back to Earth, and gets it from Petersen's arm in "Balance of Power" after he thinks he's outsmarted it. It had previously been aiming much higher.
Cat is implied to have done this to Lister (in self-defense, since Lister was being remote-controlled into strangling him) in "Demons and Angels".
And what is Cat more dismayed about? The creases in the collar of his suit, of course.
Cat: Look what you did to my neckline! This stuff never springs back!
Inverted in "The Last Day" by Hudzen 10. His promotional video shows him breaking a brick in half with his groinal attachment.
In "Entangled", Lister is fitted with a "groin exploder" to ensure he pays his debts after losing Rimmer in a game of poker.
Halfway Plot Switch: Used in quite a few episodes. "Justice" subverts this by starting off as a story about Red Dwarf finding an escape pod and needing to find out who its occupant is, then switching halfway through to being about Rimmer being put on trial for his role in the accident that killed the ship's crew, before switching back to the original plot near the end.
Lister bangs his head on the table in "Queeg" when he finds out that all he got for dinner is burnt toast and one pea. His head goes down when he loses his pea.
While Rimmer is explaining to Lister that the latter has accidentally signed himself (and, unbeknownest to Rimmer, the other main characters) into a suicide squad, partway through the explanation, Lister starts banging his head on a table.
Rimmer in "Stoke Me a Clipper" when Ace makes contact with Starbug.
Held Back In School: We learn that Rimmer almost was held back a year but just managed to avoid it. Ace Rimmer on the other hand was held back a year and it was crucial turning point in his life.
Helping Hands: Kryten's hand is able to return to the ship and get help in "Terrorform", though it scares the hell out of Lister and Cat first. We learn in series 8 that it's not Kryten's only fully-functional detachable part.
Kryten: "Well I've got to go back in time now and sacrifice myself so that we can get into this mess we're in now in the first place."
Hidden Depths: Lister and Rimmer are surprisingly complex characters, and despite their generally low positions in life, can show great competence. Averted with the Cat, who can barely be said to be a one dimensional character...a one dimensional character with a great ass!
High On Catnip: Cat comments on how the unreality pockets in "Out of Time" are worse/weirder than triple strength catnip.
Hippie Jesus: Referenced when Rimmer dismisses their "High" selves as hippies.
Kryten: Sir, you think Jesus was a hippy. Rimmer: He had long hair and didn't have a job! What more do you want?
When they meet Jesus in the episode "Lemons," he turns out to be a bit of a hippie (he's certainly a pacifist and is horrified at the amount of wars waged in his name). However, he turns out to be the wrong Jesus (he's Jesus of Caesaria, not Jesus of Nazareth).
In "Kryten", Rimmer makes several snide put-downs about the obvious lengths Lister has gone to spruce himself up when the possibility that they might be meeting women has suddenly arisen. When Lister points out that Rimmer, who is wearing a ludicrously pretentious officer's uniform complete with medals, hasn't exactly dressed down for the occasion either, Rimmer's response is to start whining about how Lister always starts putting him down whenever it looks like they might be meeting women.
Strangely averted in "Quarantine". Rimmer, who's gone completely nuts because of the holovirus, tricks the others into "admitting" they are insane when he has them in quarantine lock-up, and he sentences them to a few hours without any oxygen. It's hypocritical, but rather than coming off as two-faced it just evidences how spectacularly deranged he's gotten.
I Don't Want to Die: In Future Echoes, when Lister accepts that Rimmer's vision of his death is going to come true, Lister's still determined to fight it all the way to the end. He even rips a towel rack off the wall so he has something to whack the Grim Reaper with.
Lister: I'm going out as I came in, screaming and kicking. Rimmer: You can't just whack Death on the head! Lister: If he comes near me, I'm gonna rip his nipples off!
I Hate Past Me: The Dwarfers go back in time to meet 17 year old Lister back when he was the lead singer for Smeg and the Heads. Even the Cat thinks that Past-Lister is an idiot.
Lister. He's the child of the second Kochanski and himself.
One of Lister's other sons seems to be identical to him, or at least similar enough to fool Lister's bunkmate without trying. Logical one, perhaps, as their father is a female version of Lister. Even more likely when you consider that, since Lister is his own father (and presumably the female Lister is her own father) The twins really don't have a whole lot of a gene pool since both of their parents and half of their grandparents are the same person!
Lister: Why do we never meet anyone nice? Cat: Why do we never meet anyone who can shoot straight?
Implausible Deniability: Played for laughs in "Me^2". Lister breaks into the Rimmers' room to steal Rimmer's diary, whereupon the Cat emerges from a closet, wearing a suitably gaudy and over-the-top outfit, and turning towards the camera and shielding his face from Lister, says:
Cat: Did you see him clearly? Could you spot him in a parade? I don't think so. I could've been anybody.
Innocently Insensitive: While none of the boys (or even Kochanski) are going to win any awards for empathy, it's not usually malice that gets them into trouble with each other - Lister is too straightforward to sympathise with Rimmer's authority complex, Rimmer is so emotionally screwed up that he thinks being "empathic" is something that'll land you in quarantine, Cat has a Blue and Orange Morality that encourages him to think only of himself, and Kryten is still getting the hang of having emotions. Kochanski is just generally neurotic.
Invisible Monsters: Parodied, with a B movie titled 'Attack of the Giant, Savage, Completely Invisible Aliens'', which consists of Bad Bad Actors pointing at the sky and saying "It's the giant, savage, completely invisible aliens!"
In with the In Crowd: The android Kryten is turned into an organic human. When talking to his sentient spare heads, he gets high-and-mighty with them. After that he realizes that he's turning into a jerk.
I Surrender, Suckers: Rimmer tries this out on four simulant death ships, to keep them from killing the crew (after all, you can't fire on a surrendering ship). They ignore him. This turns out to be a rather clever Batman Gambit to trick them into shooting each other
"It" Is Dehumanizing: In the episode where Kryten was first introduced, Rimmer refers to Kryten as "it". Looks like painting a portrait of Rimmer on the toilet, pouring soup on his bed, calling him "smeg for brains" and flipping him off taught him a lesson.
Jesus Was Way Cool: In "Lemons", the crew is accidentally sent back in time and encounter Jesus in 23 AD in India, where he's a fairly nice guy who's big on pacifism. After accidentally taking him back to the future with them, he ends up reading about himself and is horrified at what the religion he starts will do to the world, so journeys back in time to trash his reputation in order to make sure that no one bases a religion around him. The Red Dwarf crew, despite being fairly a-religious, figure they should go back in time and fix this, and manage to convince Jesus that while Christianity did plenty of terrible things, he can still do good. Then they figure out that he's the wrong Jesus (he's Jesus of Caesaria, not Jesus of Nazareth) so the whole thing is moot. You do get to see someone credited as "Man Who May Be Jesus" at the very end, but it's indeterminate whether this Jesus is Way Cool or not.
Kissing Warm Up: Referenced in "Confidence and Paranoia", when Paranoia starts dredging up Lister's embarrassing adolescent memories.
Klingon Promotion: Rimmer wanted to join the crew of a hologramatic ship. The ship already had a full compliment, so the only way in was "dead man's boots", defeating an existing member of the crew in an intelligence test. The losing crew member would be switched off and Rimmer would take their place. Doesn't quite work out like that, of course.
In Series 7, Kochanski's default outfit is a tight red uniform which screams "sexy lady". In one episode, Lister gives Kochanski a beautiful red sparkly dress as a present, but she wears it only in Kryten's Imagine Spot.
Princess Bonjella in "Stoke Me a Clipper" wears long tight red dress.
Lampshade Wearing: In "The Last Day", Lister somehow wakes up wearing a traffic cone ("On a mining ship, 3 million years into deep space") after a night of drunken revelry. Cat Hand Waves it by saying "It's not a good night unless you get a traffic cone."
Kill Crazy: LET'S GO KILL SOMETHING! YEEEEEEEEAAAAAAAH!
Laser-Guided Karma: The Justice Field from "Justice", which makes any crime commmited or attempt to injure someone, be instead reflected back to the person performing it. Lister figures out how to weaponise it by goading an insane, nigh-indestructible Simulant into attacking him.
Last Name Basis: Rimmer and Lister. Only twice have they ever addressed each other by their first names (Arnold and David, respectively); once when they were drained of a negative emotion in "Polymorph" (anger for Rimmer, fear for Lister), and once near the end of the Catapult Nightmare in "Blue", which lead to the both of them sharing a kiss.
Last of His Kind: The Cat and Lister at least until the arrival of first Kochanski and later the whole crew of Red Dwarf). Of course, the cat race still exists somewhere Out There, and one of the "lost episodes" that exists only as storyboard (see the DVD extras) would have featured a visit to a planet of Cat's people, as a spoof of the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "Amok Time".
Lazy Bum: Lister is one of the ones we root for. He never does any work whatsoever, but it's not like a giant empty spaceship with no crew needs a lot of work, and he's more fun than his Control Freak nemesis. He's also self-aware of it. When asked to state his "occupation", he outright says that it's "bum".
Leeroy Jenkins: Kill Crazy, who is so trigger happy, he doesn't even make it out of the submarine because he charges into battle so eagerly, he knocks himself out. At one point, it does prove to be an advantage as a mutated creature takes one look at him and runs away.
Limb-Sensation Fascination: In "Bodyswap", Lister agrees to let the hologram Rimmer take over his body for two weeks, in return for Rimmer taking on an exercise regime to get Lister's body in shape. However, Rimmer is overwhelmed by the experience of having a physical body for the first time since his death, and goes on a two week binge of eating, drinking and smoking.
Limited Wardrobe: Averted to hell and back with the Cat, who has only worn the same outfit in more than one episode once (and even that was called attention to in-universe). According to a behind the scenes feature, he has fifteen distinct outfits in the six-episode Series III.
Locked in a Freezer: Lister and Rimmer in "Marooned", though Rimmer's in no danger. It also subverts the standard ending - Rimmer briefly gains a new appreciation for Lister's strength of character, only to discover that Lister lied to face and used his camphor wood chest for fuel rather than the guitar.
Logic Bomb: Kryten deactivates Hudzen-10 with one. Hudzen mentions a Silicon Heaven, which Kryten exclaims doesn't exist. Kryten and Holly persuade Hudzen they're telling the truth, and Hudzen, having been programmed to believe in Silicon Heaven, shuts down. Kryten did believe in Silicon Heaven, but was lying. (Strangely, Kryten was only shown learning how to lie at the beginning of the following series, though it may have had to do more with lying to organics as opposed to other robots.)
In "Fathers and Suns", Lister is able to do this to a hostile AI trying to kill the rest of the crew to make her uninstall herself.
Lots of Luggage: In the episode Future Echoes, the Cat is instructed to get together a few essentials before going into suspended animation. He arrives with a rack of suits and, when challenged by Lister, admits there are ten more racks he intends to take.
Magic Floppy Disk: On a sci-fi comedy show taking place on a futuristic mining vessel, people still use videocassettes...except they're triangular. It is explained in the 2009 Easter special that DVDs have become outdated by videos, since videos have once precious advantage—you can put them back in the box with minimal risk of breaking them.
Lister's entire mind can be stored on a dictaphone casette tape - although this is at least partly justified by Rule of Funny.
Mayor of a Ghost Town: They've got the run of the ship; with a few exceptions, they've got the run of the universe, really.
Meaningless Villain Victory: Used against the heroes in "Back in the Red". Having been imprisoned for stealing and destroying a Starbug, their attempt to escape and prove their innocence demonstrates to the captain that their story is true, exonerating them regarding the theft. But it also demonstrates that they had improperly accessed classified personnel files, a crime carrying exactly the same penalty. (The files would have revealed the Captain bribed his way up the career ladder, which explains why he was looking for the loophole.)
Misery Builds Character: Ace Rimmer is this all over. He is different to normal Rimmer because their shared timeline split off when they were children. One of them got held back a year in school, the other didn't. It turns out it's actually Ace that was held back a year, and so he suffered for it (ie by being bullied and suffering the humilation of it all), and decided to fight back, and continued to fight back ever since, building his character and becoming awesome. Normal Rimmer, on the over hand, was never held back a year, and therefore spent the rest of his life making excuses for himself.
Played with when Holly's IQ has been significantly increased (to 12000) in exchange for exponentially reducing her lifespan. When looking at her new lifespan, the screen displays 345 before she realizes "The decimal point, where's the decimal point?" She then discovers that she has 3.41 minutes left to live.
Another episode featuring Queeg, who was actually just Holly proving a point "insults" Holly's IQ in this manner.
Queeg: It has a six in it, but it's not six thousand.
Mobile Factory: Presumably Red Dwarf is supposed to be one, since it's described as a "mining ship". We never actually see it do any mining, though...
Mohs Scale of Science Fiction Hardness: Flies all over the place. The first couple of series are relatively hard (Absent Aliens, the Dwarf is powered by a Bussard ramscoop, only slower-than-light spaceships) with the odd doozy (Explosive Decompression, the Dwarf exceeds light speed simply by continuing to accelerate). However, around series 3 any pretense of scientific accuracy flies out the window, and things like photos developed with "mutated developing fluid" that you can actually climb into and affect history with and small devices that can instantly transport you half a million light years start to appear (Fridge Logic asks why the latter device wasn't used to return to Earth).
Money Fetish: "Now that's the kind of cash that opens anybody's legs."
Monster of the Week: The show goes this way after about the third series. To their credit, the crew is pretty genre-savvy about it, especially in Series 6. For example, Rimmer explains to one monster that everybody they'd met to that point has tried to kill them. It also swings the other direction in Series 7 & 8, having the storylines cover multiple episodes. (Although they are still self-contained.)
Ms. Fanservice: Kochanski in Series VII. This was largely abandoned in Series VIII, which she spent the vast majority of dressed up in the bulky prison jumpsuit and Canaries uniforms, though "Cassandra" was a notable exception.
Mundane Utility: After losing his opportunity to buy a stirmaster from an automated infomercial company in "Trojan", Lister turns the simulant that they just defeated into one.
The ludicrous temporal shenanigans of "Stasis Leak" in Series 2. Lister attempts to re-kindle a relationship with his former girlfriend and in doing so encounters a future version of himself who has already married her.
And Rimmer runs into the original him, who he went into the past to try and save, and thus runs into a future version of himself who has an unconvincing moustache.
Past Rimmer(In the process of having a mental breakdown yelling at present and future Listers, Cat, Kochanski and present Rimmer, all of whom he thinks are hallucinations brought on by a breakfast of space mushrooms. It Makes Sense in Context) : Perhaps Lister here would like to go over to the fridge and open a bottle of wine for Lister and Lister. Rimmer here doesn't drink, because he's dead, but I wouldn't mind a glass.
Future Rimmer(after appearing unexpectedly through a solid object): I don't want anyone to get into a flap here, but I'm from the Rimmer from the double double future. I'm the Rimmer who's with the Lister who married Kochanski. Now from this point on things get a liiiiiittle bit confusing.
My Hovercraft Is Full of Eels: Rimmer's increasingly poor attempts to speak Esperanto in "Kryten", especially as the Con Lang was designed to be simple to learn. Further highlighted by Lister being shown to have become semi-fluent, due to the sheer amount of times that Rimmer has watched the tapes having long-since burned the answers into his memory.
Name's the Same: "Lemons" has the dwarfers travel to the past and end up meeting a traveller named Jesus during the years little was chronicled about him...but then it turns out Jesus was a common name back then...
Nanomachines: Nanobots are responsible for rebuilding the whole of Red Dwarf, crew included, at the end of series 7.
Narcissist: Cat is absolutely in love with himself. The most telling example is when a Shapeshifting Seducer assumes the form that he desires most... himself.
Cat: So I'm the object of my own desires?
Shapeshifter!Cat: Is there anyone more deserving?
A Nazi by Any Other Name: Lister as Voter-Colonel Sebastian Doyle in "Back to Reality". "Vote Fascist for another glorious decade of total law enforcement!"
Negative Continuity: In "Stasis Leak", Rimmer marvels over the possibility of two versions of himself, hologram and human, onboard together. He forgets that the last time he had a duplicate of himself on board, the two were constantly at loggerheads.
In "The End", the Cat is present when Lister discovers he's been mistaken for a God by the Cat race, but "Waiting for God" shows the Cat being surprised when Lister explains that he's really "Cloister the Stupid".
Negative Space Wedgie: The crew have encounted their share of them, including a time hole (AKA an orange swirly thing), a white hole, a stasis leak, and a minefield of alternate reality pockets.
Never Trust a Trailer: The intro for series IV-V, that made it look like an action-heavy adventure show rather than an irreverent comedy with a sci-fi backdrop.
Nietzsche Wannabe: The Inquisitor; subverted by his attempts to populate the universe with meaningful humans.
No Budget: Dwarf is no stranger to this, but the most significant example is Back to Earth. The concept grew from short clips celebrating the show's 20th anniversary, to a full-fledged three-part production filmed in HD; unfortunately, the budget did not. The ill-fated movie also went through several rewrites based on wildly fluctuating budgets.
Lister (waking up after a night's drinking): We are three million years into deep space. Would someone please enlighten me, as to where the smeg I got a traffic cone?
Cat: Hey, it's not a good night if you don't get a traffic cone. It's the policewoman's helmet and suspenders I don't understand!
"Only the Good..." gets referenced in "The Beginning" only for the details of the solution to the virus being shushed.
Non Sequitur Thud: Happens to Kryten after he's used as a battering ram, and briefly starts calling Lister "Susan."
And also in "Quarantine" when the insane Rimmer telekinetically attacks him with a fire axe.
Nonverbal Miscommunication: In "Dear Dave", Cat attempts to convey his news to the rest of the crew through charades (because he is bored). His attempt to mime 'the mail-pod has arrived and crashed into my clothes' is construed by the others as everything from 'we're about to fly into a black hole' to 'we're being attacked by zombies'.
No Snack For You: In "Only the Good", we get a vending machine with artificial intelligence that gets angry when Rimmer uses a coin-on-a-string to get a free chocolate bar. Rimmer is unimpressed with its threats of terrible vengeance, only to get clonked on the back of the head by a flying soda can at the end of the episode.
Not in the Face!: In "Legion", circumstances force Kryton to knock out his crewmates. The Cat: "Do what you gotta, but don't mess up my hair."
No Periods, Period: Lampshaded and averted. It's briefly mentioned in "Balance of Power" when Kochanski (really (and clearly) Rimmer) claims to be "having a woman's period." In "Only the Good...", Lister explains to Kryten why the second Kochanski has said it's the wrong time of the month. Kryten is shocked that television and film have so successfully avoided this. Kryten, armed with this new knowledge of the female body, hilariously averts the trope.
Not-So-Innocent Whistle: In Back to Earth, Kryten demonstrates his "Innocent Whistle Mode" after being caught conspiring with Rimmer.
"Not Wearing Pants" Dream: In "Thanks for the Memory", Lister looks in on what Rimmer is dreaming. Rimmer is doing a tap dance in a top hat and tails, but no pants.
Oh Crap: Rimmer has this reaction in "The Inquisitor". Rimmer thinks he's found a way out of being judged by the inquisitor because of the legitimate point that he might not get a fair hearing. The Inquisitor then explains that to make the hearing as fair as possible, every person's judge will be...
[The Inquisitor opens his helmet, revealing Rimmer's face underneath]
Rimmer: Oh, smeg!
Rimmer!Inquisitor: "Oh smeg!" indeed, matey.
The Simulants in The Beginning when they realise that Rimmer has outsmarted them and they try to surrender.
Older than They Look: Kryten. In "Back in the Red: Part 1" he tells Dr McLaren that he was created in 2340. Since the events of "The End" take place at some point between the 21st and 23rd century (several episodes contradict the figure), and Lister is in stasis for around three million years, that means that when the crew first meet him in "Kryten", the eponymous character is roughly three million years old himself. Even in a show that hardly prides itself on its consistency and continuity, that's a staggering figure.
One-Man Army: Ace Rimmer. In "Stoke Me a Clipper", he downs a Luftwaffe plane, takes out a whole squad of Nazi soldiers apart from one and simultaneously rescues a princess. What a guy.
Only Child Syndrome: As far as we know, everyone except Rimmer, who has three brothers. In Lister's case this would be justified by his "unique" parentage, though conceivably you could count his and his female double's sons as his half-brothers or something. Or uncles. Or nephews. Lister's family tree exists in a few more dimensions than is normal.
One Steve Limit: Averted; there are at least five minor or unseen characters called Frank. And at least two named Gilbert.
Opposite sex dimension in "Parallel Universe". They meet their versions.
Rimmer eventually, after several failures breeds an actual opposite sex clone of himself in the episode "Rimmerworld", which even has his face.
Other Me Annoys Me: Whenever the Dwarfers meet parallel universe, alternate timeline, copied or time-displaced versions of themselves, to the point that "Stasis Leak" ends on Rimmer screaming at the various time/dimension-traveling versions of himself and his crewmates to just go away.
Pac Man Fever: Averted. Lister is seen playing a GTA clone with a steering wheel and light gun with proper sound effects. Although the Cat does assume Lister is playing a text-only adventure game when trying to communicate the fact that what appears to be a one-eyed tarantula is crawling up his leg.
Watching the black box recording in "Thanks for the Memory".
Also, in "Terrorform", when Rimmer is about to be tortured and Lister explains they can either rescue him or sit and watch, Cat asks if anyone has any opera glasses.
Parrot Expo What: The Cat does this on occasion, usually having it explained by Kryten.
Paying Their Dues: Of the four original main characters, only one was played by an experienced actor. Craig Charles (Lister) was a poet, Danny John-Jules (The Cat) was a dancer, and Norman Lovett (Holly) was a stand-up comic.
The ultimate example of this is "White Hole" where multiple planets are crashed into one another in order to plug up the Negative Space Wedgie.
Pointy-Haired Boss: Captain Frank Hollister is revealed to have only reached his rank through blackmail (from the lowly position of Doughnut Boy, no less), implying that he is only marginally more qualified than Rimmer or Lister, though clearly more clever and/or more ambitious.
Poor Man's Porn: In the extended version of Ourobouros, after donating his genetic material for Kochanski's In-Vitro tube, Lister mentions the only suitable...ahem, material on board Starbug is a record sleeve from a James Last album.
Plot Hole: Lister's attempt to make a "gift" of the memories of one his love affairs to Rimmer introduces several of these into Rimmer's life.
Rimmer: That's why I was an orphan when both my parents were still alive. That's why I had my appendix out twice.
Interestingly, Lister also had his appendix removed twice, as Legion removes his appendix when he realises it's about to kill Lister.
Last Human handwaves this by stating that by freak of nature, Lister had two appendices.
Power of Friendship: Inverted. The rest of the crew use this with Rimmer to escape the Psi-Moon in "Terrorform". Rimmer is suspicious right from the start, and even when it does work long enough to get them off the moon, Rimmer immediately realizes that it was all tot, and that they meant not a word of it. Much to his displeasure, by that point they're only too happy to confirm his suspicions.
Pre Ass Kicking One Liner: From Gunmen of the Apocalypse: "Now if you'll forgive the rather confrontational imperative, Go for yer guns, ye scum-sucking molluscs!"
From the same episode: "We're gonna cut you up so small, the worms won't even have to chew."
Rimmer gets to say 'bastard' on four occasions and "bitch" once, all of which count. The former in 'Waiting For God' arguing with Lister about the Quagaars, 'Thanks For The Memory' insulting Hollister, 'Timeslides' on going back in time to 'save' Lister, 'White Hole' on why he won't turn himself off, and 'Back In The Red pt I' when all te women start lusting after him. Lister says it in Backwards when talking about backwards Father Christmas, In 'Bodyswap' albiet in Rimmer's body after the latter, in his body, crashes Starbug and pretends he's lost an arm, and in 'Tikka To Ride' discussing Kryten's definition of a 'Giant Pizza', actually Lee Harvey Oswald after he's fallen to his death.
The show also has precisely one instance of an actual swear word (Cat says "shit" in "Emohawk: Polymorph II", and it's pretty hard to make out at that).
Depends on your definition of swear word; definitely includes Lister's infamous 'I say let's get out there and twat it!' line from Polymorph (one of the mistaken assumptions why the video release was a 15 certificate, the highest in the series), numerous uses of 'git' and variations therof, usually by Rimmer, 'arsehole' spoken by Lister in Kryten is seen as more vulgar than it's american counterpart; even it's trademark insult 'smeg' is seen as this in some circles.
The very first one in Future Echoes:
Rimmer I look (looks in the mirror) LIKE A COMPLETE AND TOTAL TIT!!!!!! (thanks to Holly giving him a 'haircut', he now possesses a Marge Simpson-esque beehive)
Precursors: Subverted: all life in the universe originated on Earth, which makes us the Precursors.
Prison Ship: Red Dwarf itself serves a secondary purpose as a prison transport ship. Apparently only a few people are aware of that floor.
Prophetic Fallacy: In "Cassandra", Cassandra predicts Rimmer will die in 20 minutes, but doesn't know who Rimmer is. Rimmer gives his jacket and nametag to Knott, who does die in 20 minutes, apparently "Rimmer" to any onlooker.
Psychic Radar: During the episode "Quarantine", both Lanstrom and Rimmer, under the effects of the Holovirus, are able to home in on the location of the rest of the crew by sensing their thoughts.
Punctuated! For! Emphasis!: In "DNA", Cat is fiddling with the DNA machine trying to get Lister out, but with little success. Lister responds with, "Do. Nothing! Press. Nothing! GET! KRYTEN!"
Pursue the Dream Job: Dave Lister's dream is to move to Fiji, buy a farm and open a Hot Dog Stand. He tries to save the money to carry out his big plan.
Put on a Bus: Holly, once in Series VI and VII, and again in the Dave specials Back to Earth (he's fine, just temporarily out of commission for the duration of the episodes). He's still absent as of Series X.
Ranked by I.Q.: The crew of the Enlightenment in "Holoship" not only use this to suggest intelligence, but seem to have a rank structure based around IQ. Given that, barring The Captain, everybody on board seems to be a Commander, this makes some kind of sense.
Also used in White Hole, where Rimmer points to Holly's IQ to explain why he thinks she, as opposed to Lister, should be in charge of their attempts to destroy the white hole.
Reading Ahead in the Script: Happens in the miniseries Back to Earth. The characters then start writing the script to make each other do humiliating slapstick routines.
Derailed by large hiatus at peak of UK popularity.
Also completely changed the course of Series VIII. Originally, it was going to end with a two-parter, culminating in the crew finally returning to Earth but obliterating civilisation as they arrive. However, circumstances meant the hour-long series opener had to become a three-parter, another episode had to become a two-parter and the series had to finish on a cliffhanger.
"Meltdown" was intended to be the opening episode of Series IV. However it was moved to the sixth and last episode because of concerns that viewers would consider it insensitive due to the Gulf War. If hostilities had continued, it might not have been shown at all.
Real Is Grey: The first two series. The interior of the Red Dwarf is almost entirely grey, to the point where Craig Charles noted that his memories of filming the first two series are of grey. An early plot point involved the paint on the walls being changed from ocean grey to military grey. Even the outside of the ship itself had far more of a reddish-grey look in the first series than it did in the others. After the Re-tool of the third series the grey palette was toned down.
Real World Episode: The premise of the Reunion Show. Unlike most examples, several of the people they run into in the "real world" fairly easily works out what they are, and don't find it especially outlandish that a group of fictional characters might pop out into the real world. Of course they ARE Science Fiction fans. As it turns out, the "real world" is a drug-induced hallucination. (Strictly, it's not the real real world; it's one where the series is still going, and is more popular than ever.)
Reality Warping Is Not a Toy: "Better Than Life": When the crew enter the Better Than Life video game, Rimmer's power to make things 'better than life' simply ends up sabotaging the game for all involved, as his subconscious won't let him be happy.
In "Timeslides", a distraught and disillusioned Lister blasts through a list of reasons he's sick of his fellow crew members — the vast majority aimed at and said to Rimmer, including, "... the fact that you always smile when you're being insulted."
In "Terrorform", Kryten gives a long, in-depth list on why Rimmer would have such a strong sense of self-loathing. Kryten goes on for over a minute, and when interrupted by Rimmer, Kryten points out that he is only halfway through. Ironically, Kryten was being polite and informative, rather than condescending.
Rimmer's worst moment came when he was being tried for the deaths of everyone aboard Red Dwarf. Kryten argued that Rimmer was not responsible, as it was his commanding office who gave such an obvious incompetent such an important job. As Kryten said, "Sir, my entire argument relies on proving that you are a dork!", and concludes that the only thing foolish enough to actually appoint Rimmer any job of import was, "Only a yogurt!" And the fact that Rimmer continuously whining "Objection!" throughout it all only helped Kryten's case had to have grated as well.
Kryten: He is only guilty of being Arnold Rimmer. That is his crime. It is also his punishment.
Rimmer gets them back in "Out of Time" when he appoints himself Morale Officer, in charge of boosting the spirits of the crewmembers. This appears to involve walking up to each of them and yelling a lengthy list of all the things about them that irritate him at them. Lister looks like he's not going to lose any sleep over it though; he's smiling and chuckling as he's being insulted, as though he sensed right away that this was just Rimmer using his self-appointed position to be petty.
Replacement Goldfish: Averted when Kryten defeats Hudzen. Referenced when Rimmer becomes the next Ace.
Reset Button: "White Hole" (although a later episode implies it wasn't quite a total reset) and the beginning of "Tikka to Ride" after everyone aboard Starbug had been killed and the craft exploded at the end of "Out of Time".
Retcon: Originally, Lister merely had an unrequited and unacted-upon crush on Kochanski; however, the writers gradually decided that his constant yearning for someone he'd never had anything meaningful with made him a little bit pathetic, and so quietly adjusted this to make Kochanski an ex-girlfriend he'd never gotten over being dumped by following a short-lived romance.
Rimmer's parents religion is 7th Day Advent Hoppists in 'The Last Day', in 'Lemons', it's completely different.
Ret Gone: What the Inquisitor does to people who fail to justify themselves.
Retool: The writers were always willing to pick quality over continuity, no matter how drastic the change.
Revisiting The Roots: Back to Earth and Series X have returned to the basic setup of the four main characters alone on Red Dwarf, last seen in Series V.
Revival: Series VII was broadcast after a four-year hiatus, and the three-part Back to Earth was broadcast after a ten-year hiatus. Series X, the first full series since 1999, aired three years later.
Re Write: Too many to count. The creators always maintained that if altering the Back Story could improve the show, then they should alter it. Some of it makes sense. Whose idea was it to give Rimmer a job that could endanger the entire crew? Then they used Rule of Funny and rewrote the Re Write, implying that the job was so easy that anyone that could mess it up must have the brains the size of a newt's testicle.
Robo Family: Kryten has a brother, Able, who was created by the same woman.
Robot Hair: Kryten (previously bald) dons a toupée in the last episode of VI.
Robotic Reveal: In "Out of Time", Lister gets his arm cut, revealing mechanical parts. Not only mechanical, but of a model inferior to Kryten, which means Kryten technically outranks him! The whole thing is then beautifully subverted when it turns out that Lister's mechanical "nature" is the result of Starbug having hit an "unreality pocket", turning Kryten briefly into a gibbering idiot as he attempts to apologize for his mis-step.
Robot Religion: The Electronic Bible (with version numbers) and Silicon Heaven, concepts created by humanity and installed in every artificially intelligent device that could possibly pose a threat if it Turned Against Its Masters in order to keep them under control with a belief that if they accept a lifetime of slavery they will get their eternal reward in the next life.
Rule of Funny: Other than applying to the show's entire premise and pretty much every episode ever made, the writers also have no problem tossing aside the show's established conventions if they can get a better laugh without them. Notable examples include Kryten's lies; they normally had to be preceded by Kryten declaring himself to be in "Lie Mode" (obviously undermining the believability of his lie), except when they didn't.
Kryten: You won't feel a thing. I'll render you unconcious using the Ionian nerve grip.
Rimmer closes his eyes and braces himself as Kryten grabs his neck... and then breaks a vase over his head.
Rimmer: That's not an Ionian nerve grip! That's smashing me over the head with a vase!
Kryten: There's no such thing as an Ionian nerve grip. Now stand still while I hit you.
One of Red Dwarf's strategies seems to be finding Refuge in Audacity. The sheer amount the show uses is perfectly exemplified in the famous introduction scene of Ace Rimmer, where he, for starters, dislocates his shoulders to escape from ropes (yet retains full control of his arms for the remainder of the scene), and shrugs off bullets with mild annoyance at his clothes being ruined, along with many, many other things. note Really, it's probably easiest if you just watch it. (What a guy!)
Rules Lawyer: When Rimmer finally gets his hands on the Space Corps Directives manual in "Quarantine", he gleefully plays by the book and uses the rules to his advantage in order to make the lives of the other crewmembers a living hell!
Running Gag: Many in the later series, including Rimmer's inability to correctly quote Space Corps directives, Cat's repeated bemoaning that "we're deader than (insert bygone fashion trend here)!", Kryten describing Cat's (typically ridiculous) plans as "excellent, with just two minor drawbacks", and exchanges like these regarding Starbug's performance:
Lister: The Centauri can travel at speeds that we can only dream of!
Cat: Most ice cream vans can travel at speeds we can only dream of!
Kryten: Sir, a class A enforcement orb can easily outrun us.
Lister: Kryten, the Eastbourne Zimmer frame relay team can easily outrun us.
Kryten: It's impossible to tell at this range, whatever it is, they clearly have a technology way in advance of our own.
Lister: So do the Albanian state washing machine company.
Sacred Scripture: The Cat race writes its holy scriptures in smells on blank paper. Lister finds a copy, and discovers that he is the Cats' god.
Sacrificial Lamb: The Red Dwarf crew in "The End". Several of them reappeared in flashbacks, and the entire crew were resurrected for series 8.
Save the Princess: In the Ace Rimmer segment which opens "Stoke Me a Clipper", this is what he does. While fighting the Nazis. And an alligator.
Sawed-Off Shotgun: Lister wields one in The Last Day. Lampshaded in the series 3 documentary by Craig Charles, who stated he'd never seen it before or since. Then again, against Hudzen 10, it's completely useless.
Scaled Up: The first Polymorph turns into a snake, but not for combat reasons - being an Emotion Eater, it drives Lister to the height of his fear (as Lister is scared of snakes, according to this episode), before sucking it out.
"Better Than Life" from Series 2, and at least one novel. By the end of the series, it's impossible to tell whether they've really escaped the game, or the game just lets them think they have. (It does explain a lot of the self-admittedimplausible science.) The episode plays it almost entirely for laughs. The book version was much darker. The show version was basically the Holodeck driven by whatever your surface wish was; no mistaking it for reality. The book lets us go a good while thinking the cast has fully made it home. Over much of the rest of the book they manage to escape, and find that things were still a little too good to be true. When they escape for real, a message left by the creator of the game appears to congratulate them, and they finally return to the real world. Hopefully. Apparently, they wanted to do it this way all along in the show but budget or something didn't allow - in "Future Echoes," elderly Lister has "U=BTL" etched into his arm. No attention is called to it at the time (or ever, in the show. In the book, we see this happen in book 1 and Lister notices. Better than Life is book 2.)
"Back to Reality", the series 5 finale. The crew dies, only to see the "Game Over" text appear and shortly afterwards wake up in VR-game chairs... The series continued after that episode, of course. It plays the concept very seriously. Not only did this sort of go hand in hand with the series "growing up" over time, it also helped create multiple levels of mindscrew.
At the end of series VI in "Out of Time." Just before the cataclysmic ending, Starbug hits a "reality mine" — a pocket of alternate history space. Followed immediately by Rimmer deliberately triggering a strange sort of Grandfather Paradox. Followed immediately by the future Dwarfers triggering anotherGrandfather Paradox. How many layers of unreality can two minutes of airtime possibly layer ... ?
Part 3 of seriex VIII's "Back in the Red", when they return to the reconstructed Red Dwarf, courtesy of the Nanites, and are placed in the brig after signing agreements to participate in a trial involving psychotropic drugs that will cause them to hallucinate. They engineer a daring escape before the trial and make it out into space, at which point they realize that the entire escape attempt has been a hallucination. They enlist the aid of the reconstructed Rimmer and break out again... and realize that, once again, they've all been duped. When they finally make it out of their hallucinated trial, Rimmer asks, "Is this reality? But how can we be sure?" Cat poignantly states, "Why do we care? Nothing makes any sense no matter where we are!"
Sci-Fi Bob Haircut: Hilly wears her hair bobbed, and Holly in the female form as well, at least at first. She later has somewhat longer hair.
Screw Yourself: Dave Lister has drunken sex with his gender opposite, Deb Lister, in the Opposite Sex dimension, which leads to him actually getting pregnant despite his protestations of "But I can't be pregnant! I'm a guy! I don't have the... equipment!" Cat plans to have sex with himself (the only person he could ever love), but his opposite is actually a male dog. Arlene Rimmer also comes on to Arnold rather strongly, despite the mutual Rimmers' apparent disgust towards Deb and Dave doing the deed, but then hypocrisy is hardly out of character for Rimmer.
Second Face Smoke: Lister and Rimmer are in the movie theater, all alone, and Rimmer insists that Lister, who is smoking, move three seats over to be in the smoking section. Lister blows smoke right through Rimmer's face.
Second Law My Ass: Abel. Even though he comes from the same model as Kryten, who is logical, intelligent and usually doing the cleaning, Abel's addicted to Otrazone, lives in squalor, and doesn't appear to have enough brain left to tell right from wrong.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Cassandra claims that a character will die of a heart attack after being told he's going to die of a heart attack. Similarly, she prophesies that she will be killed by one Dave Lister; Lister's conscious attempt not to harm her leads to her accidental demise.
In "Future Echoes", Rimmer sees an echo of Dave dying at a computer console. To prove the future isn't set in stone, he tries to prevent another echo, Cat breaking a tooth. Bet you can't guess what happens next.
Lister: Hey, it hasn't happened, has it? It has 'will have going to have happened' happened, but it hasn't actually 'happened' happened yet, actually.
Rimmer: Poppycock! It will be happened; it shall be going to be happening; it will be was an event that could will have been taken place in the future. Simple as that. Your bucket's been kicked, baby.
Sequel Hook: At the end of the "Polymorph", after the crew defeats the eponymous creature, it is revealed that a second one has made it on board. Subverted in the remastered version, in which on-screen text reveals that this one, much less intelligent than the first, took up residence harmlessly in Lister's underwear drawer and eventually died of old age. Doubly subverted by "Emohawk: Polymorph II" three series later in which they meet another one.
Camille in the episode of the same name. She's a GELF (genetically engineered lifeform) who automatically shapes herself to the desires of others. She appears to the mechanoid Kryten as a female mechanoid, to the hologram Rimmer as a shy and awkward hologram, to Lister as a low-dressed vagrant, and to the Cat as... himself. Her real form is a green blob with stick eyes, which Kryten has no problem with, and goes on a date with her like that.
The gang also runs into Enthralling Sirens in the first episode of Series 6, who lure space crews to them so they could snack on their brains. When Lister comes face to face with one, it turns itself into a woman Dave lusted after when he was young. He tries to resist, but eventually falls for her charms. Unfortunately these Sirens are of the Master of Illusion rather than body shapeshifting type, so we're soon treated to a shot of Lister making out with an 8-foot alien bug.
Share the Male Pain: Referenced and explained in the episode "Legion", where the titular Legion explains that any pain he feels is conveyed to the rest of the crew. He stabs his hand to show them, and then...
Legion: "The next hint of insurrection, and the scalpel ends up... here."
Kryten: That kind of tough talk doesn't scare us.
Lister, Rimmer and Cat:Yes it does!
Shirtless Scene: Three of the four main cast (even Kryten), except, oddly, for the Cat, who is supposed to be the most sexy. May have to do with the fact that the Cat mentions he perms his leg hair and that he once mentioned six of his nipples tingling.
Lister: You perm your leg hairs?!
Cat: Only as an aid to the natural curl!
Shoot the Bullet: The Riviera Kid demonstrates this ability in the VR episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse".
Shoot the Shaggy Dog: The entire Felix Sapien (Felis sapiens) Civil Wars. They fought over the colour the hats should be (red or blue). Not only would Lister not have approved, but they both were wrong (he wanted green). Leads into Silly Reason for War.
Show Stopper: Usually unplanned, as the actors have to stand awkwardly in place waiting for the laughs to die down so they can continue.
On one occasion the laugh was so long it had to be edited down.
Inverted for Series VII, which was not shot in front of a live audience, but the episodes were later played for an audience and their recorded responses dubbed over the episodes for broadcast. This resulted in some jokes and lines of dialogue being submerged under the laughter, since the cast would not know to pause for laughter. Some DVD and VHS releases of the series have the laugh track removed.
Shrine to the Fallen: Back To Earth implies that an extra bit of the ship has been built (or at least cleaned up specially, which is a pretty big deal for Lister) just to house a commemorative gravestone to Kochanski.
Shoo Out the New Guy: Averted with Kryten, who fit into the main cast perfectly; it felt like he'd been in it all along. The ill-fated Americanization put him in the first (only) episode.
Shout-Out: The first two series' title music is very reminiscent of Also Sprach Zarathustra, and the sequence is in line with scenes from 2001: A Space Odyssey that utilise said music. The name Holly is a Shout-Out to 2001's HAL, too, as is the fact that Holly, or "Hol" as Lister sometimes calls him, refers to David Lister as "Dave." (In the radio sketch series Dave Hollins, Space Cadet on which the series is based, the computer was known as 'Hab'.)
Speaking of music, Ace "What a guy!" Rimmer's theme in Dimension Jump could very well be a shout out to "Take My Breath Away" from Top Gun. A different theme was used in Stoke Me A Clipper.
Sibling Rivalry: Referenced many times with Rimmer and his brothers, all of whom were said to have climbed far higher into the ranks of the Space Corps. than Rimmer himself ever would. In the series X episode "Trojan", it turns out that Howard was actually a lowly repairman like Arnold.
Silly Reason for War: The conflict which almost wiped out the Cat race was fought over their different interpretations of Lister's favourite colour for the hats at the hot dog and donut stand in Fiji. They were both wrong.
Sleeper Starship: The Red Dwarf has a couple of stasis pods that freeze time while Starbugs have more conventional suspended animation booths.
Geeky genius-Rimmer wears glasses after his mind patching in "Holoship".
In "Polymorph", after the chameleonic lifeform has drained away all of Rimmer's anger, he turns into an ultra-pacifist liberal sporting hornrimmed glasses and a goatee and proposes to hit the monster with "a major leaflet campaign".
Snapback: Episodes frequently end with the crew in weird situations (trapped in a parallel universe, trapped in virtual reality, menaced by a shapeshifting monster, etc.) that have been tacitly resolved by the beginning of the next episode. One exception is the final episode of the first series, which picks up where the previous episode ended, pretty much just because the writers had been able to think of an episode's worth of more jokes to get out of the closing gag.
Sorry I Fell on Your Fist: The "Good" or "High" version of the crew members from "Demons and Angels". With knives and bullets from the "Low" Dwarfers.
"I appear to have stained your knife-end with my blood. Forgive me, brother." *dies*
"He has just shot me four times in the chest! Oh, how I love him!"
"Brother; there is a grievous fault with thine weapon. It keepeth shooting people." *blam* "You see? There it goes again!"
Another example is from "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", when Kryten (as the sheriff in an AI simulation dream), confronted by an outlaw who tripped him up, apologized and said 'sorry I tripped on your boot.'
Sound to Screen Adaptation: Red Dwarf was born as a short serial in the radio comedy show Son of Cliché, also written by Grant/Naylor. The parent "series" on radio was called Dave Hollis: Space Cadet and contained sketches and ideas later recycled for the TV series.
Spaceship Girl: Holly starts off as a male AI interface, but undergoes a sex change after the second series.
Sparse List of Rules: The Space Core Directives that Kryten would often quote. Rimmer ended up quoting directives back but always being wrong. In one episode we see the book of directives and it's rather small despite the high numbers mentioned complete with multiple subcategories for each one, and rules for every situation including performing oral sex in a zero-g environment.
Spiritual Successor: To Dave Hollins: Space Cadet, a radio series written as a parody of 2001: A Space Odyssey. HAB was renamed Holly in order to change the character from a HAL expy and Dave Hollins became Dave Lister, as there was a footballer by the name of Dave Hollins at the time. Rimmer and the Cat were added and the rest is history.
Spot the Imposter: In "Psirens". The real Lister couldn't play guitar to save his life, but since he thinks he can play guitar like a pro, the Psiren that had taken Lister's form read his mind and played guitar accordingly. And was promptly shot.
Stealing from the Hotel: In the episode "Justice", Lister reveals that he used to steal the furniture from hotel rooms. Including the bed.
Stealth Parody: Kryten and the whole 4000 series of mechanoids are a parody of Prof. Mamet's fiancee. None of the 4000s know this until they are given the code to unlock the file.
Stop Trick: For the purpose of grabbing hologrammatic items from the air.
Strapped to a Bomb: The episode "Entangled" has Lister attached to a machine that will blow up his groin if he does not pay the debt he owes a group of aliens after losing a poker game to them.
Rimmer, after having his anger sucked out by a polymorph that feeds on human emotions, suggests that they defeat the creature by hitting it "hard and fast" with a "major leaflet campaign...And if that's not enough, then I'm sorry, it's time for the t-shirts".
And in "The Beginning", Rimmer starts writing a strongly worded letter to Geneva complaining that the simulants are violating Treaty 5 as said simulants are launching a barrage of photon mutilators at the Starbug.
Studio Audience: Had one until the end of series 8 and from series 10. More special effects heavy episodes ("Backwards", "Bodyswap") and the more filmic seventh series had the audience response to a preview tape rather than a Laugh Track. Back to Earth, the "ninth" series, was completely absent of studio laughter.
Table Space: The guys once discover they can use old photos like time machine. Lister becomes filthily rich and has huge mansion. He and his attractive young lady-friend are sitting at opposite sides of a very long table when the two of them are having dinner.
Take a Moment to Catch Your Death: Rimmer manages to somehow return to life in "Timeslides". In celebration, he goes around feeling objects, something he was unable to do for three million years. Unfortunately, he accidentally strikes some volatile explosives.
"The Cat's looking so geeky he couldn't get into a science fiction convention!"
Done in a much more direct manner in the Smeg Ups and Smeg Outs videos, where Kryten reads out fan mail criticising the continuity and logic errors in the show, and then berates the people who wrote the letters, accusing them of having no life.
Also in "Backwards", there's a speech given in reverse that insults anyone sad enough to play it backwards so they can understand it.
Lister is the son of his future self and the alternate Kochanski. The whole thing is neatly sewn up by the word "Ouroboros", implying it's a cycle, a temporal loop.
Also, the battle between Starbug and future Starbug in "Out of Time". The evil crew win with their advanced weapons systems, but because they destroyed their previous selves, they didn't exist to fight Starbug. Lister, in the next episode, tried to explain why they weren't dead, but the camera he was talking to exploded.
Terraform: "Terrorform" somewhat, "Back to Reality", "Rimmerworld".
Technology Marches On: Lampshaded in Back to Earth when Kryten and Lister discuss how 21st century DVDs were later replaced by "superior" technology — video tapes — because those were too large to lose, whereas it was scientifically proven that humans are incapable of putting DVDs back into their box... neatly explaining why the early series has the characters using VHS tapes despite the series being set in the future.
Teeth Flying: Happens backwards in the bar room brawl in "Backwards".
Lister: Here, have your tooth back. (punches a guy in the mouth, who is then revealed to have regained a front tooth)
This Explains So Much: The crew's reaction when Queeg reveals that Holly's astronavigational charts are really a children's astronomy book.
Also, the revelation that Rimmer's father is actually the man who Rimmer thought was his dad's gardener
From "Trojan", after Rimmer has suffered a system crash due to an overload of resentment:
Rimmer: Are you saying I'm resentful? I really resent that!
The Tape Knew You Would Say That: The episode "Fathers and Suns" has Dave making messages to himself (then getting very drunk so he can forget he made them) in order to have a fatherandson chat with himself. Each message ends with him leaving instructions for himself to do before moving onto the next one. And each one begins with him shouting at himself for not following instructions.
Culminating in Tape!Lister threatening to chuck his guitar out of the airlock if he skipped ahead again! Seeing his guitar is still there, he ignores it, skipping ahead to find Tape!Lister happily congratulating him for finally listening to his advice, telling him to go play a song as a reward. Turns out, the guitar in the room was just a cardboard copy and the real one is now floating half-a-lightyear behind them.
They Would Cut You Up: Sort of the catalyst for the whole series. In the first episode, the Captain tells Lister his cat will be cut up and have tests run on it, prompting the response, "Would you put it back together when you were done?"
Hollister: Lister, the cat would be dead. Lister: Well, with respect, sir, what's in it for the cat?
In "Marooned"; "This is not a drill. This is a drill." [sound of a jackhammer]
And in a later episode when Holly's grammar chip is damaged... "Abandon shop! This is not a daffodil. Repeat, this is not a daffodil!"
"Oh Gawd, now the sirens bust! Awoogah! Awoogah! Abandon Ship!"
Three Laws Compliant: Most androids are programmed with something pretty close. Mechanoid characters can take "Asimov's Law" as a flaw in the RPG.
Time Travel: "Stasis Leak", "Backwards", "Timeslides", "Out of Time", "Tikka to Ride" and probably more.
Particularly hilarious towards the middle of "Out of Time", where they come into possession of a "time drive" and play with it a bit before realizing it's completely, utterly useless while they're still physically located 3 million years away from Earth. It doesn't do space, just time. But they did get to experience the heady medieval atmosphere of pre-Renaissance deep-space.
Kryten: Actually sir, we don't ever have existed here anymore, but this is hardly the time to be conjugating temporal verbs in the past impossible never tense!
Truth in Television — The tenses were so difficult that Robert Llewellyn, playing Kryten, kept flubbing the line and eventually had to have a cue-card held up out of shot... and then the line was cut anyway. It only resurfaced as they showed the final correct take after all the bloopers in the Smeg Ups collection.
Also parodied in "Out of Time" with "robo"-Lister.
Rimmer, Captain Hollister and the rest of the Red Dwarf crew who died in the first episode get resurrected as clones in Series VIII, completely unaware at first that they are all clones and confused why they are millions of years in Deep Space.
Too Soon: The running order of Series IV was changed because of the Gulf War.
Tracking Chip: In "Epideme", Kryten uses a scanning device to identify the dead body of an ex-JMC employee. He mentions that it is attempting to locate her microchip, since JMC employees are implanted with them.
Translation By Volume: When Lister and the Cat find themselves on a parallel Earth and for some reason believe they are in Bulgaria. They attempt to get by by speaking slowly and clearly and appending "-ski" to all their words, combining it with Bulgarian flavoured El Spanish O.
Trash of the Titans: Lister's room frequently qualifies. His lack of hygiene is natural for him, and he exaggerates it to annoy Rimmer.
Treacherous Spirit Chase: "Psirens" is one long exploration of this trope: the Psirens are able to read the minds of their prey and create a personalized hallucination to lure them to their doom. Lister, for instance, sees an image of his beloved Kochanski and their two sons in mortal danger on the planetoid below. Kryten recognizes the Psiren as such but is unable to disobey his programming when the Psiren imitates his creator and orders him to climb into the waste disposal unit.
True Companions: The crew aren't the closest-knit bunch, but this gets them out of the trap of Rimmer's mind in "Terrorform". Once they're safe, they immediately and unanimously confirm to Rimmer that they didn't mean any of it.
Tyrant Takes the Helm: Queeg taking over from Holly. Holly plays out the trope, pretending to be Queeg to make the crew appreciate him.
In one episode, there was a throwaway gag about Rimmer teaching the service robots to play Hammond organ. The closing theme for the episode is rendered on the Hammond organ, with Rimmer giving instructions in voiceover.
For the "cowboys" episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse", the theme is given a Western makeover on honky-tonk pianny and The Good, the Bad and the Ugly-esque ocarina.
"Future Echoes": A vending machine has a lisp malfunction, which has been reported. When Lister orders breakfast and black coffee, he gets him a pair of boots. When the machine tries just for the coffee, he produces a bucket. However, he was being really nice and trying to be helpful.
In "Only The Good", Rimmer cheats a vending machine out of its money by attaching it to a string and yanking it out after receiving what he ordered from it. Later in the episode, the machine blasts a can at Rimmer in anger, knocking him over while he's trying to escape from a raging fire.
Rimmer was in charge of vending machines aboard the Red Dwarf. When they hold a funeral for Rimmer's hologram and say their eulogies in "Stoke Me a Clipper", Lister mentions that with him when you ordered coke, it would never happen for you to get soup or orange juice on his shift. Except it happened all the time, but Lister was trying to say something nice.
"Queeg": No food machines work. However, this time it's not the machines being malicious, but it was their new computer Queeg who claims the crew have spent their credit. They have to start working, and real hard. When Lister has dinner, all he got was only burnt toast and one pea.
Villain Song: "Blue"'s Rimmer could perhaps be a subversion. It's not actually Rimmer (it's a simulation created from Rimmer's logbook). Although he's not technically a villain, it proves to Lister that Rimmer was an antagonist.
Lister: Yeah, well, everyone dies. You're born, and you die. The bit in the middle's called life, and that's still to come!
The holographic (and dead) Rimmer travels back in time to warn his living counterpart:
Rimmer: I've come to warn you, in three million years you'll be dead!
Past Rimmer: Will I really?
Weapon for Intimidation: In "Rimmerworld", the characters have a bazookoid they can't actually fire, because it'd damage the ship and cause it to fall apart. It's for psychological purposes only.
Well-Intentioned Extremist: The Inquisitor; he travels throughout history, erasing from history people who have, by his standards, wasted their lives, and replacing them with alternates who never got a chance to live; as Kryten puts it, 'The eggs that were never fertilised or the sperm that never made it.'.
Wig, Dress, Accent: Rimmer disguises himself as Ace in "Stoke Me a Clipper" using this technique. Only Lister is in on the act; it works on the others. In fact, this is essentially how Aces are made.
Wimp Fight: Subverted in "Lemons". Jesus takes a few laughable swings at Lister, who, being the experienced brawler he is, then proceeds to put him in a headlock.
Wine Is Classy: Discussed when Lister complains about "total smegheads" who always drink wine. "It's never beer, is it? It's always wine. 'What do you want on your cornflakes, darling?' Oh, I'll have some WINE, please!"
Lister:With all due respect sir, what's in it for the cat?
Rimmer:With respect, sir, you've got your head right up your big fat arse.
Worrying for the Wrong Reason: Played with when the captain of the ship charges the main character with crimes they are innocent of. In the process of clearing their names, they commit other crimes, the punishment for which works out to be exactly the same.
You Didn't Ask: In Bodyswap, this exchange followed a self-destruct scare:
Holly: We haven't got a bomb... I got rid of it ages ago. Rimmer: Why didn't you tell us? Holly: You never asked!
You Look Familiar: Tony Hawks, who plays the in-game guide to Better than Life later appears in "Backwards", introducing the Sensational Reverse Brothers. He had also previously been the voice of the vending machines in the first series and later played Caligula in the fourth. He reprised the vending machine role in "Only The Good..." The cast referred to him as "The Fifth Dwarfer" during the first two series. The show also contains a deliberate example; between Series II and III, the change in actor for Holly is explained away as him having fallen in love with his mirror universe counterpart Hilly, to the extent that he decided he wanted to become her.
Actually, the vending machine in "Only The Good..." was Tony Slattery, another recurring guest from the early days.
Robert Llewellyn, in addition to Kryten, played Jim Reaper, a sales executive for Diva Droid, Bongo, Ace's commanding officer, Able, a zoned-out mechanoid and the Data Doctor, a computer program used to reset Kryten's personality.
You Need to Get Laid: Kochanski's response to Rimmer's detailed and carefully-thought-out proposal for revising the official Space Corps salute:
Kochanski: ...Rimmer? Rimmer: Yes, ma'am? Kochanski: Have sex with someone, and that's an order. Rimmer: Yes, ma'am. Right away, ma'am. Lister: (hands Rimmer a business card) Here — ring this number, say I sent you. Tell them it's an emergency.
Your Size May Vary: In its earlier appearances, Starbug is implied to be a fairly small landing craft whose interior consists largely of a cockpit and an adjacent bridge. When the main action starts taking place on board it, between Series VI-VII, it is revealed to be very extensive, with bedrooms, a virtual reality chamber and an absurdly spacious ventilation system. The storage area created by a time paradox at the beginning of Series VII seems to be the size of a cathedral. In Series VI this is Hand Waved with dialogue suggesting that Kryten has been engaging in upgrades and conversions while the other crew members are in stasis.
Zeerust: Videotapes seen throughout the earlier pre-DVD series. Back to Earth lampshades this saying that videos replaced DVDs, since people were incapable of putting them back in their boxes. An explanation that continues for the Series X, with a series of video messages shown to be on a videotape.
Zero-G Spot: Implied by Lister's "Pop-up Kama Sutra, Zero-Gravity Version", if not seen.
"It's cold outside, there's no kind of atmosphere..."