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Philippines (Filipino:Pilipinas), officially known as The Republic of the Philippines (Filipino:Republika ng Pilipinas), is essentially what happens if you plunk a Latin American country on the wrong side of the Pacific Ocean and give it strong Malay, Chinese and American flavors. Not exactly an accurate description, but close enough.
Made up of 7,107 islands (divided between Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao regions), the Philippines is the fourth-largest Asian Anglophone country, much of its population having Austronesian roots. The capital is Manila (which is actually a combination of 17 cities and towns, all centered around the eponymous Spanish-era city). Owing to its position at the crossroads of several foreign trade routes, the country has earned a vast diversity of cultures and religions, of which Christianity predominates, a legacy of over 300 years under the Spanish Empire and 40 under the United States (in fact, the Philippines is the largest Christian-majority country in Asia and, until East Timor's independence, the only one), with Islam a distant second and Buddhists, animists and others filling the gaps.
Still a developing country, the Philippines has been experiencing political instability, poverty, and a population growing at an extremely fast rate. On the other hand, it is one of the world's most bountiful countries in terms of flora and fauna, has many urbanized cities with progressive socioeconomic growth, has deep, rich cultures of both ancient and contemporary, and both Time and Reader's Digest discussed survey results that Filipinos are happier in comparison to people of developed countries.
It is well-known that besides a booming export market and local corporate businesses, the Philippines' economy heavily relies on foreign remittances from overseas workers. That's right, one of the country's biggest exports is its people, who make up a major proportion of overseas workers from all over the world. It helps that most of these workers speak Surprisingly Good English, a legacy of the nation's colonial past.
The islands were settled as early as 67,000 years ago, evidenced by the metatarsal of a man found in Cagayan valley in 2007. The earliest settlement routes, however, remain subject to debate, with the two more plausible routes coming from either Java or Taiwan. By the first millennium CE, the various isolated communities of the islands evolved into important trade posts attracting various merchants from as far as India and China, and by the 1300s Islam made its headway, starting with the islands to the southwest, reaching as far as Manila.
Amidst this background Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan discovered the islands in 1521 and claimed them on behalf of the Kingdom of Spain. Magellan would never live to see his fleet complete the world's first circumnavigation, however — he was killed in Cebu during a feud between two datus, one of which was aligned with him. After a long hiatus, Spanish colonization began in earnest in 1565 from Cebu under Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, before conquering Panay and finally Manila in 1571, where they established their capital of the Spanish East Indies, which includes what is now Guam, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau. It was also part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain with Mexico, during which time Manila and Acapulco became the ports-of-call for galleon fleets which bring migrants, food and missionaries, thus contributing to the Philippines' Latin American flavor. The Spanish East Indies, however, also saw many a threat from within (local insurgents and Muslim warlords in Mindanao) and without (Chinese pirates and fellow colonists from the Netherlands and Portugal), including a three-year occupation by the British as part of the Seven Years' War (1762-1764).
After Mexico declared independence in 1821, Madrid directly took control of the Spanish East Indies, opening up Manila to international trade, bringing in a wave of immigrants from Latin America and mainland Spain, while wealthy indigenous Filipinos and insulares (Spaniards born in the islands) studied abroad, some of which bringing home with them nationalist ideals, which sometimes aroused the suspicion of the peninsulare (Spain-born) leaders of the islands, being understandably wary in light of Napoleon's exploits decades ago. Things come to a head after a failed mutiny of insulares in Cavite led to the execution of three indigenous priests on charges of inciting the mutiny, leading to the establishment of the Propaganda Movement, a group of émigrés lobbying for increased awareness and reforms. That, too, met with resistance from Madrid, and by the time one of the movement's leaders, José Rizal, was executed on December 30, 1896, calls for reform gave way to calls for armed revolt, led by Andres Bonifacio and the "Katipunan". Bonifacio's position would be challenged by the Cavite-based Magdalo faction, led by landlord Emilio Aguinaldo, who later took over in 1897.
During this time the Spanish-American War broke out, and the Philippines became one such theater, during which time Aguinaldo exploited the Spanish preoccupation with the United States to severely weaken their grip, and then declared independence on June 12, 1898. When it became clear the two sides signed a treaty without the Filipinos' contributions, and that the Americans refused to acknowledge Aguinaldo's republic, however, another war broke out between Filipinos and Americans, which the latter won in 1902 after Aguinaldo was captured in the Cagayan valley, though a few pockets of resistance continued to flare up throughout the forty years of American occupation. By the 1910s, the situation calmed down relatively, with some nationalists within the national legislature submitting proposals for Washington to lay down a groundwork for future independence and the islands experiencing a cultural renaissance, culminating in the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935 with senator Manuel L. Quezon at the presidential seat, which aims to prepare the Philippines for self-rule in 1945.
...Then Pearl Harbor happened. Ten hours after the attacks, the Japanese turned to the Philippines. Manila was declared an "open city" to prevent destruction, but American and Filipino forces staggered on until they were finally overwhelmed at Corregidor island and Bataan peninsula, while Douglas MacArthur, leader of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), was forced to escape to Australia on orders from President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but not before making a promise to return. In the meantime Japan set up a puppet government under Jose Laurel, to which most Filipinos, appalled by the abuses of the Japanese forces, responded with guerrilla resistance that effectively controlled 60% of the islands, stalling assimilation into the Japanese Empire long enough to make MacArthur's return relatively easier — but not that much, as Japan used the islands as their final line of defense to Japan, leading to the largest naval battle in the world over Leyte Gulf, which saw a decisive American victory, culminating in brutal urban warfare in Manila which saw hundreds of thousands of deaths. After war's end, the United States finally fulfilled its promise on July 4, 1946 (a year late to the original plan).
The Philippines in modern times is predominantly Roman Catholic. Filipino Catholics historically have had a love-hate relationship with the Church — while in the 19th century many were dissatisfied with religious orders who also served in government, and some were into outright anticlerical, today the Church holds a powerful influence, so don't expect Western-style liberalism to take hold rapidly: both divorce among non-Muslims and abortion is taboo. They also have a mix of conservative and liberal views, especially with regards to their openness and tolerance to homosexuality (which were found to predate Spanish rule). More recently with the Reproductive Health law, the love-hate dynamic has once again resurfaced.
About 5% of the population is Muslim, mostly concentrated in Mindanao. Many of their leaders are involved in an on-and-off insurgency against the government, where today's insurgents may be tomorrow's government officials, and rebellion is alternately secular nationalist or Islamist. More recently however, said insurgency seems to be dying down as the proposal for an autonomous "Bangsamoro" region move closer to reality. Before the coming of the Spanish, Islam was the main religion in the country.
Another minority are the various Protestant groups. Some, like the Aglipayans, are homegrown denominations in the vein of the Anglican movement. Aside from these, especially in the provinces are the Rizalistas (people who venerate Jose Rizal as a prophet) and the myriad of hybrid Animist-Catholic practices often known as Folk Catholicism.
There are also non-Protestant Christian organizations in the country, like the Iglesia ni Kristo, who are known for their large size, "neo-gothic" architecture, and habit of bloc-voting.
The Filipinos are a nation divided along regional lines of the Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Bicolanos, Cebuanos and many others, as well as hundreds of indigenous peoples. There are thousands of Chinese Filipinos and Eurasiansdue to their colonial past. As a result of being at the crossroads of globalization for centuries up to the present, the Philippines has a considerable number of mestizos as well.
Being one of the largest Anglophone Asian countries, Koreans and mainland Chinese often go to the Philippines to learn English. Factors for this is that compared to learning English elsewhere, it's cheaper and there is less racism to be faced. It is worth mentioning that Henry Sy and Lucio Tan, two of most successful business tycoons of the Philippines, are of Chinese heritage.
Most Catholic Filipinos have Spanish surnames. Often this goes with Spanish first names as well, and during Spanish rule, Catholic baptism made this mandatory. Chinese Filipinos have surnames of Chinese origin (i.e. "Cojuangco", the surname of the current President's mother). American rule introduced English names. Of course, names with indigenous roots still exist. Today, Filipino names are often composed of a personal name, the mother's maiden surname (usually becoming the middle initial, notably averted by the current President who uses S. after Benigno Simeon) and the father's surname; people may have two or even more personal names so this all makes for Overly Long Names.
A large number of Filipinos work and settle abroad. Owing to lack of job opportunities, underpayment, or both, the Filipino diaspora is to be found wherever money is to be made, encompassing every profession: attorneys, teachers, doctors, nurses, domestic servants, you name it. Most overseas Filipinos go to either North America (particularly the West Coast), where on average they make even more than other groups of Americans do, or the Middle East, where many take menial labor that pays more than a professional career back home.
Whether as immigrants or as seasonal workers, much of the diaspora's money goes back home — balikbayan ("returning home") boxes filled with goods from overseas are common and even among many first-generation immigrants, there is often a desire to retire in the Old Country after the kids have "left the nest".
Domestically, the country is also home to large and prominent Chinese communities, with many (legally or otherwise) coming from Fujian, China. The oldest of these are Binondo and Tondo in Manila.note In fact, Binondo is considered the oldest established Chinatown in the world, first set up in 1594. There are also smaller communities of Indians, Japanese and Koreans in major cities, the latter having grown in recent years. Western expatriates meanwhile tend to gravitate towards Manila.
Perhaps one of the most well-known genres of Philippine media are noontime variety shows, a little similar to other Asian variety shows, and Soap Operas, similar to telenovelas. In the early 2000s, fantasy-themed television shows were on a upsurge, though their popularity faltered as the decade went on. Recently there has been a rise in popularity of Taiwanese and Korean dramas (dubbed in Filipino).
Over the years, the Philippines's most popular genres in cinema have been romance, action, comedy, and horror. Icons of the screen include Fernando Poe Jr., dubbed "Da King" of Philippine movies (in the spirit of John "The Duke" Wayne) and star of many action films, famed for his gunplay, sideburns and rapid-fire punches, and Dolphy (Rodolfo Quizon), dubbed the "Comedy King", who adroitly mixed Sad Clowning and Slapstick, his movies (and TV shows) developing a tendency for Dramedy.
During the peak of the Philippine film industry during The Sixties to The Eighties, the country mass-produced English-language B-movie films primarily for export, led by those of international film legends Eddie Romero and Bobby Suarez, and these have a classic cult following in various countries such as the USA, Finland, Germany and Japan. Films with a more serious tone and socially relevant subjects used to be created by directors like Lino Brocka and Ishmael Bernal. Currently, the local film industry is in a slump regarding its overall quality, but independent films are gaining more and more notice, especially among the youth.
The Philippines' comic book scene, largely influenced by American comic books, is one of the oldest book industries in Southeast Asia. It got its start with comics appearing in magazines, which were later compiled and expanded into their own comic books. An early success was Kenkoy created by Tony Velasquez in 1929, a Slice of Life series about man-about-town Francisco "Kenkoy" Harabas. To this day, kenkoy means something like "dork" in Filipino parlance. During The Seventies, the local comic book industry was one of the best-organized comic book industries in the world. During that time, both Marvel Comics and DC Comics started importing Filipino artists, one of the first was Tony deZuniga, co-creator of Jonah Hex. However, by 1985, about a third of upcoming artists were working for Marvel and DC, which naturally weakened the local comic book industry to near-irrelevancy in the 1990s. Despite this, Filipino talent continued to influence comics in the 1990s and beyond. Whilce Portacio was one of a group of Marvel artists who started Image Comics. More recent examples include Leinil Francis Yu who drew Superman: Birthright, and Francis Manapul who drew The Flash. In recent decades, independent comics have risen in prominence, like the supernatural horror-based Trese by Budjette Tan.
Meanwhile, newspaper comics or comics appearing in magazines never suffered a financial decline like local comic books, over the years these have included Pugad Baboy (Nest of Pigs) by Pol Medina Jr. and Beerkada by Lyndon Gregorio. In the past, two comics creators in these formats were declared National Artists: the extremely prolific Larry Alcala, who created Slice Of Life, Kalabog en Bosyo, and many other titles over many decades, and Nonoy Marcelo, known for Ikabod, a satirical strip with a cast of mice.
One of the most well-known Filipino comics (or komiks) characters is the superheroine Darna created in 1950 by Mars Ravelo and Nestor Redondo, the latter of whom later drew for Marvel and DC. A cross between Wonder Woman and Captain Marvel, she has inspired many movies and television series. In recent years, she received an Affectionate Parody in the indie comic Ang Kagila-gilalas na Pakikipagsapalaran ni Zsazsa Zaturnnah (The Amazing Adventures of Zsazsa Zaturnnah) by Carlo Vergara, about a Camp Gay man who turns into a woman, replete with social cmmentary. Another famous character based on comics is the Panday (Blacksmith) created by Carlo Caparas in 1980. The Panday, real name Flavio, fights evil with a magic sword. Like Darna, the Panday has appeared in several films and TV shows, but unlike Darna he is overwhelmingly associated with one actor - Fernando Poe Jr.
The Philippines is also known for being "an entire nation of Otaku" due to the pervasive infiltration of Anime into its culture, to the point that the anime Voltes V was adopted as a national symbol due to how the Marcos regime tried to ban them thus provoking anger amongst the Filipino population. Despite how the Filipinos acknowledged the war crimes did by Imperial Japan upon them, they recognized that the Japanese have irreversibly changed and repented, and to this day the Philippines remained as one of their most ardent allies and consumers of Japanese culture, and a part of why the Filipinos are heavily racist towards the People's Republic of China (not Hong Kong or Taiwan) was because of the Chinese censorship against Japanese culture. In the early 2000's, the Japanese Manga style became popular in the Philippines as expected since anime was already popular, but this too gradually waned. In the mid-2000's, both Japanese manga and old-school US comics-influenced comic books gained popularity anew, the latter was thanks to local television adaptations. While more recently, homegrown Japanese-style light novels have also become popular, many of which were originally posted on the Internet with some even adapted for TV.
Since The Sixties and The Seventies, anime has grown in popularity across the country. Despite the unpleasantries, Filipinos have always been fond of both the traditional and pop culture of Japan. After Martial Law, anime had a regular schedule in local TV channels. The 2000s saw the appearance of two main anime stations: local Hero TV (which tends to use Filipino dubs) and Animax Southeast Asia (which use either English-dubbed or subtitled works).
Among the dominant media companies in the country are ABS-CBN and GMA, both of which control most of local TV and radio stations, as well as publications and overseas outlets. The rivalry between the two goes back from their humble beginnings, though with the recent entry of TV5 as a major competitor, the situation has slightly changed.
Animation Studios in the Philippines:
Filipino cuisine is a mix of indigenous and Spanish, Chinese, and Indian cuisine.
For Westerners, it is also home to some of the most unsettling delicacies, such as balut, which is aborted duck egg, and in some regions, dog meat. This reputation is something the Philippines shares with other Asian countries, since "exotic" dishes are often subjective. In fact, younger generations of Filipinos are just as "disgusted" by such foods as foreigners. Of course, not all Filipino dishes are unpalatable to Western tastes: adobo, sinigang, lumpia, and many more are distinctive but still easily enjoyed by the uninitiated. Anthony Bourdain himself says that lechon (Filipino-style roasted piglet) is the best pork dish he's ever had.
The Philippines is also perhaps the only country where McDonald's is not the top fastfood franchise — the title goes to Jollibee, a local fastfood chain in the vein of McDonald's with a strong marketing scheme aimed at children. Another well known company is San Miguel Brewery, Inc. It's one of Southeast Asia's most well known beer brands.
The Philippines is a very tropical country; expect to be exposed to temperatures constantly above 20°C and up to 32°C, and humidity levels above 60%, making for a particularly sticky experience. The only major place where you can expect temperatures to drop to single-digit Celsius is the mountainous Baguio City; other than that, wearing anything heavier than a shirt for casual wear is not recommended. Because of the generally-hot climate, many buildings in the Philippines are constantly air-conditioned, sometimes to the point of being too cold for comfort; it's not uncommon to walk into a restaurant and see a tall AC unit keeping customers (and staff) from melting.
The traditional concept of seasons does not exist; there is a "wet season" from June through November where it rains down hard, and a dry, relatively rain-less season for the rest of the year. It does get cooler during the early parts of the dry season, but not by much. During the rainy season, children can be seen stepping out and using the rain to take a shower.
The Philippines is also under the typhoon belt and is the most exposed country to experience tropical cyclones (typhoons or bagyo in Tagalog) every year. Usually, 19 tropical cyclones or storms enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) in a typical year and of these usually 6 to 9 make landfall. It is also common during rainy season that there would be landslides and flash floods.
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) are in charge of giving local names (initially, they're given female names ending in "ng" though that changed in 2000, where they're also given male names and the "ng" part is removed) to the typhoons that entered the PAR and giving out public storm signal warnings. When typhoon has caused at least 1 billion pesos in damage and/or have caused at least 300 deaths within the Philippines, its name is retired from the typhoon list and another name would be used in the next cycle. As of 2014, Typhoon Haiyan (local name: Yolanda) is considered the deadliest typhoon to make landfall, resulting in 35.5 billion pesos of damages and 6,241 lives lost.
A running joke is that Filipinos prefer sports starting with the letter B: Boxing, Bowling, Billiards, and of course, Basketball. A well known Asian sport is cockfighting.
Basketball is a legacy of the Americans. Almost every city, town and village has a basketball court (or at least a makeshift half-court where there's available space), complete with annual tournaments. The Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) is the most prestigious league, with a season split into three "conferences" (not the North American sense of geographic groupings of teams, but instead separate tournaments that all involve the same teams) and with teams named after corporate sponsors. College basketball is overseen by amateur sports leagues, most prominent of which are the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA), the oldest in the Philippines (not related to the American NCAA), and the University Athletics Association of the Philippines (UAAP), which hosts college basketball's longest-running rivalry — that between the Blue Eagles of Ateneo de Manila University and the Green Archers of De La Salle University, hailing from their NCAA days.
The Philippines used to be one of the powerhouse teams in Asian basketball, but has suffered a decline by the 1970's and eventually haven't qualified for the world championships or the Olympics since 1985. But after 28 long years, Gilas Pilipinas men's basketball team finally defeated their arch-rivals fromSouth Koreadespite losing their naturalized center to qualify for the 2014 FIBA World Cup of Basketball in Spain.
Those into boxing may remember the 1975 contest between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier in the "Thrilla in Manila". Nowadays Philippine sports news buzz with the name of Manny "Pacman" Pacquiao, the first boxer to hold eight belts at once, as well as Nonito Donaire, a rising bantamweight star.
Since 2010, football experienced a sudden surge in popularity after the national team, dubbed the "Azkals" ("Street Dogs"), scored unprecedented victories, including champion team Vietnam. They had a respectable finish at the Suzuki Cup, losing to Indonesia at the semifinals. Owing to this surge of interest, the Philippine Football League (PFL) was organized, where prospective players for the Azkals are tested.
One of the two official languages is Filipino, a derivative of Tagalog, the lingua franca of Manila and its surrounding provinces. A Filipino could be bilingual, with English being the second language, or trilingual, knowing Filipino, English, and his/her native langauge. For instance, someone from Manila will generally speak both Filipino and English, while a person from Baguio may be trilingual, speaking English, Filipino, and Ilokano. It is not uncommon for a Filipino to be fluent in two or more languages.
It is also common for Filipinos to switch between languages and dialects in colloquial conversation, sometimes in the same sentence. Philippine English, meanwhile, is sprinkled with borrowings from Spanish (eg. Doctora for female doctors), Filipino Verbal Tics (it's not that uncommon to add "po" out of respect) and repurposed terms (eg. "traffic" being synonymous with "gridlock" or "armalite" for assault rifles). But while not everyone can speak English on the other hand (the language historically being more associated with the upper classes), most nonetheless can understand it.
That said, if you're Filipino yourself, it's (obviously) preferred to speak some form of Filipino around other Filipinos while in the country rather than English, even in public when you're not speaking with your family. While those of Western background are naturally not expected to know Filipino and can get by on English easily, Filipinos who can't speak their own native tongue will stick out very quickly. This can cause problems for Filipinos who grew up in a foreign English-speaking country (often due to being the children of Filipinos who work overseas) and therefore may have lost Filipino fluency or never even learned to speak it due to English being a higher-priority language.
Despite the influence of Spanish on both Philippine English and native tongues, the country is unique among most of Spain's former colonies in that the language itself has largely fallen out of use. This is in a sense a far cry from the late 19th-early 20th Centuries (and even under American rule for a time), when Spanish was considered an official language; even as late as The Fifties and The Sixties, there were still publications and contracts printed in Spanish. On the other hand, it continues to be spoken through a creole language called Chavacano, which is spoken in and around the Zamboanga Peninsula in Mindanao. That said, interest in Spanish has seen a resurgence, in part due to a global demand for the language as well as continuing ties to both Spain and Latin America.
An additional bit of trivia is that a number of modern and colloquial Filipino terms are of relatively recent vintage, dating back to the American periodnote That said, many of these terms were derived from classical Tagalog rather than made entirely out of thin air., although many of the Spanish words they were meant to replace remain as frequently used. Examples include pangulo for presidente, pamahalaan for govierno/gobiyerno and silid for cuarto/kwarto.
The English word "boondock" (as in The Boondock Saints) is derived from the Tagalog word for mountain, bundok.
While based on modified variants of the American system, the state of education in the country varies considerably, ranging from fairly up-to-date academies to more prevalent shoddily maintained and funded public schools, especially in the less developed parts of the cities, and in rural areas, where school funds are most dire.
Four of the Philippines' most prestigious universities are all located in metropolitan Manila: secular, state-funded University of the Philippines, which has gained a reputation for harboring activists of all stripes; Dominican-run University of Santo Tomas (the oldest running university in Asia, dating back about 400 years), Jesuit-run Ateneo de Manila University, founded in 1859 and alma mater of Jose Rizal; and Lasallian-run De La Salle University, the oldest American-era Catholic college in the country.
Famous Filipinos [citizen of the Philippines or otherwise]:
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José Rizal, the official national hero and all-around polymath and reformist during the twilight years of the Spanish Empire. His scathing indictments of corruption within church and state, expressed through his satirical novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo (now mandatory secondary-school literature), led to his execution at age 35.
Andrés Bonifacio, founder and leader of the Katipunan, the largest La Résistance movement during the Philippine Revolution. Several Filipino historians continuously debate with each other about considering him the true first president.
Emilio Aguinaldo, the official first president of the Philippines and a powerful landlord in his native Cavite province (where some of his descendants hold some local power to this day).
Apolinario Mabini, President Aguinaldo's polio-ridden political philosopher and advisor.
Manuel Quezon, first president of the Philippine Commonwealth, under whose administration the Philippines would have been granted independence were it not for World War II.
Jose Laurel, president of the Japanese puppet state during World War II.
Manuel Roxas, first president of the fully-independent Republic after America legally granted the nation independence on 4 July 1946. Independence was supposed to be granted in 1945 were it not for World War II and the Japanese invasion of 1942-1945.
Ferdinand Marcos, World War II veteran and later President, notorious for his authoritarian regime and imposing martial law during The Seventies, ostensibly as a solution to the persistent communist insurgency. Boasted a stash of war medals, most fake. Had a audio-only sex tape recorded by a mistress without his knowledge, later played on university radio. Booted out of office after twenty years through the nonviolent "People Power Revolution" of 1986.
Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., former provincial governor, senator, and Marcos's Arch-Enemy during the martial law period, whose assassination at Manila International Airport (which now bears his name) on August 21, 1983 uncorked public resentment towards Marcos, leading to the "People Power Revolution".
Jaime Cardinal Sin, 30th Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila famous for rallying anti-Marcos forces through a church-owned radio station and leading the "People Power Revolution", as well as a man with a curious sense of humor regarding the unfortunate combination of his surname and title.
Corazon "Cory" Aquino, scion of a family of landlords, Benigno Jr.'s widow and later the first female President, having been swept into power after the "People Power Revolution" which sparked a host of other "color" revolutions across the world throughout the next decade.
Lapu-Lapu, datu of Mactan Island in modern-day Cebu province, who led to allegedly the first documented Philippine La Résistance that defeated (and killed) Ferdinand Magellan, delaying Spanish expeditions to the islands for the next 40 years.
Diego Silang, leader of an anti-Spanish rebellion in the Ilocos area in the 1760s, who once collaborated with the British during their brief invasion of the Philippines. After his assassination by a close friend, his widow Gabriela continued the desperate struggle until she too was captured and executed (and in her honor, a Filipino feminist organization is named after her).
Gregorio del Pilar, one of Aguinaldo's generals, fought the Americans and died at his Last Stand at Tirad Pass.
Mariano Gómez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (GomBurZa), three Filipino priests whose execution on 17 February 1872 due to false charges of instigating a failed mutiny in Fort San Felipe (modern-day Cavite City, Cavite) 28 days earlier slowly uncorked resentment against Spanish authorities. While they had nothing to do with the mutiny, friars infuriated by their advocacy of liberal reforms benefiting native priests and their criticism of corruption within the Church jumped on the chance to get rid of them.
Isabelo de los Reyes, politician and founder of the Philippine Independent Church ("Aglipayans"), the Philippine counterpart to the Church of England.
Gregorio Aglipay, Isabelo's associate, dissident Roman Catholic priest and the first bishop of the Philippine Independent Church, after whom the church was given its nickname.
Pedro Calungsod, catechist from Cebu and member of a Spanish mission to Guam, where he was killed at the tender age of 17 alongside his companions after getting fatally involved in the power struggles of the local tribes. Canonized as the Philippines' second saint by Pope Benedict XVI in October 2012.
Carlos Rómulo, diplomat, co-founder of the Boy Scouts of the Philippines, and the President of the Fourth Session of United Nations General Assembly in 1949. Cast the tie-breaking vote that led to the creation of modern Israel. Also remembered by Filipinos as both a fervent patriot and citizen of the world.
Leonardo "Nardong Putik" Manecio, gangster from Cavite province famed in folktales for his ability to elude authorities and fellow hoodlumns alike with a charm. He met his end at a Mexican Standoff with provincial cops led by Epimaco Velasco, who would later become governor of said province.
Nicasio "Asiong" Salonga, sanitation inspector by day, mob boss by night, and the face of the Gangsterland reputation of his native Tondo suburb in Manila during The Fifties. Decades after his death in a gang-related violence at the young age of 27, his life has since been romanticized in several movies as a Well-Intentioned Extremist who works Just Like Robin Hood.
Lino Brocka, openly Straight Gay activist and film director of over forty films, some of which would garner local and international recognition and awards.
Jesse Robredo, long-serving mayor of Naga City in the Bicol region, whose decades of humility and transparent governance, culminating in becoming Internal and Local Government secretary, was tragically cut short by a plane crash on August 18, 2012.
Francis Magalona, award-winning rapper and artist famous for his songs tackling social issues and patriotism.
Gabriel "Flash" Elorde, boxing Super Featherweight champion during The Sixties.
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Aquino III's predecessor (and currently a congresswoman representing her native Pampanga province) who endured a tumultuous nine-year presidency ever since taking over from Joseph Estrada after a nonviolent revolution in 2001. She, like her successor, is a former presidential daughter, this time of Diosdado Macapagal.
Joseph Ejercito "Erap" Estrada, former film actor, Poe Jr.'s best friend, Macapagal-Arroyo's predecessor as president and current mayor of his native Manila. While popular amongst the lower classes, revelations of his gambling habits booted him out of office in 2001, but has since recovered his popularity. Two of his sons also hold political power — Jose "Jinggoy" as a senator, and Joseph Victor "JV" as congressman for their native (and their father's adopted hometown) San Juan City suburb of Manila.
Fidel Valdez Ramos, former general, Corazon Aquino's chief-of-staff, her elected successor, and the first Protestant president of the predominantly Catholic nation.
Jejomar Binay, current Vice-President, famous for his decades of serving his native Makati City suburb in Metro Manila as mayor and developing it into the national economic center. His family has since made a name for themselves within the city, with his son Jejomar Erwin as mayor and daughter Mar-Len Abigail as congresswoman. Another daughter of his, Nancy, is currently a senator.
Mar Roxas, grandson of President Roxas, The Lancer of President Aquino, and current Interior and Local Government secretary.
Edward Hagedorn, former logger turned environmentalist and long-serving mayor of Puerto Princesa City, capital of the island-province of Palawan, under whose tenure the city turned from a rural backwater to a booming tourist destination.
Juan Ponce Enrile, current Senate President and a long-running octogenarian politician. Once part of Marcos' inner circle, he became one of the principal figures behind the EDSA Revolution, alongside Aquino and Ramos.
Renato Corona, Chief Justice from 2010-2012, infamous for being the first head magistrate to be impeached by a congressional court for charges of betrayal of public trust and understatement of financial liabilities. That he was a last-minute appointee by Arroyo weeks before she had to step down didn't help his image before Aquino and the public.
Eddie Garcia, Poe Jr.'s friend and fellow action star and a versatile actor who can play protagonist or antagonist roles, but is well known either way as a Large HamDeadpan Snarker extraordinaire.
Senator Vicente "Tito" Sotto III, his younger brother Marvic "Vic" Sotto, and their friend José María "Joey" de Leon, hosts of Eat Bulaga!, the Philippines' longest-running noontime variety show (lasting over 30 years).
Arnel Pineda, singer-songwriter and current vocalist of American rock band Journey, discovered by Neal Schon in a series of YouTube videos.
Aristotle Pollisco, better known by his stage name "Gloc-9", award-winning rapper and touted by Francis M as his successor, best known for songs tackling social issues, such as poverty, social justice and rights of homosexuals.
Beethoven del Valle Bunagan, better known by his stage name "Michael V.", singer, TV/film actor, comedian, and the closest thing the Philippines has to "Weird Al" Yankovic, famous for being a Man of a Thousand Faces.
Metallica lead guitarist Kirk Hammett's mother, Teofila Oyao, is Filipina.
AKB48 graduate Sayaka Akimoto lives with her Visayan mother and grandmother (at times featured on her show with great hilarity as they keep calling her "Inday" in the background), and recently visited their hometown of Cebu.
Brillante Mendoza, a Filipino independent film director known for garnering critical acclaim internationally and winning international film festival awards (such as the Cannes Film Festival) due to his semi-Oscar Bait movies note which is an odd case that, as of 2014, his movies were not chosen as official Philippine entries to be submitted for the Best Foreign-Language Film shortlist nomination in the Oscars.
Michelle Malkin, American conservative political commentator, is the Philadelphia-born, New Jersey-raised daughter of Filipino Immigrants.note Malkin is her married name, by the way.
Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle, 32nd and current Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila, and by default the most powerful clergyman in the Philippines.
Oscar Cruz, Archbishop Emeritus (retired clergyman) of Lingayen-Dagupan and an outspoken sociopolitical analyst.
Eduardo Manalo, third leader of Iglesia ni Cristo, after his father Eranio and grandfather Felix.
Mariano "Mike" Velarde, leader of El Shaddai, a Roman Catholic charismatic fellowship.
Eliseo "Eli" Soriano, founder and leader of the Members of the Church of God International, an independent Christian sect famous for his live sermons on the TV show Ang Dating Daan ("The Ancient Ways").
Henry Sy, Self-Made Man, immigrant from Fujian, richest man in the Philippines, and founder of SM Investments Corporation, a Mega Corp. covering banks (such as Banco de Oro, the nation's largest banking institution), real estate and the SM Malls chain, which were his original investment.
Lucio Tan, another immigrant from Fujian, second-richest man in the Philippines, and CEO of LT Group, which includes Philippine Airlines, the nation's largest (and flagship) airliner.
John Gokongwei, yet another Fujian immigrant, third-richest man in the Philippines, and CEO of JG Summit Holdings, which includes Cebu Pacific, the Philippies' second-largest airliner, and Robinsons Malls chain, the closest competition to Sy's SM Malls.
Fernando Zobel de Ayala, scion of a German-Spanish clan and current CEO of Ayala Land, another Mega Corp. covering real estate, Bank of the Philippine Islands (the oldest in the nation at over 160 years) and the high-end Ayala Malls chain.
Manuel V. Pangilinan, chairman of the Philippine Long Distance Company (PLDT), the nation's largest telecommunications provider and owner of several other companies, making him perhaps the richest non-Chinese-blooded Filipino.
George Ty, Filipino-Chinese tycoon and founder of Metrobank, the Philippines' second-largest banking institution.
Cesar Purisima, president of Land Bank of the Philippines, the largest state-owned bank catering to agricultural workers, and current Finance secretary.
Andrew Tan, another Fujian immigrant and current leader of Alliance Global Group Inc. (AGI), which includes the Megaworld real estate company, Emperador Distillers, maker of one of the world's best-known brandies, and Golden Arches, a franchise owner of McDonalds in the Philippines.
Eduardo "Danding" Cojuangco, Jr., a maternal second-degree uncle of President Aquino III and chairman of San Miguel Corporation, Southeast Asia's largest food, beverage and packing company.
Tony Tan Caktiong, President and CEO of Jollibee, the Philippines' largest fastfood chain.
James and Phil Younghusband, Filipino-British (Filipino through maternal lineage) footballers, literal Bash Brothers, former reserves for Chelsea FC of the English Premier League, and currently the face of the national football team.
Neil Etheridge, half-British (Filipino by his mother) goalkeeper for the Premier League's Fulham FC and the "Azkals".
Robert Jaworski, one of the Philippines' most famous basketball players during The Nineties.
Efren "Bata" Reyes, Jr., billiards champion known for his toothy smile.
Rafael "Paeng" Nepomuceno, six-time World Bowling Champion honored by the government as the "Athlete of the 20th Century".
Brandon "The Truth" Vera, Filipino-American MMA fighter at the UFC.
Mark "The Filipino Wrecking Machine" Munoz, another Filipino-American MMA fighter at the UFC.
Erik Spoelstra, Filipino-American (through his mother) coach of the LeBron James-era Miami Heat, who led it to back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013, becoming the first half-Asian coach in any of the four major American sports leagues (as well as the first to win an NBA title).
Jordan Clarkson, the 46th pick in the 2014 NBA Draft and rookie player of the Los Angeles Lakers, has a Filipina mother.
Some characters in fiction employ Filipino Martial Arts as a dominant fighting style, notably various versions of Robin and/or Nightwing from Batman, and The Lieutenant from The Legendof Korra.
In Gundam Wing, Quatre's mercenary group is called The Maganac Corps, which is based on "kamag-anak". The nearest direct translation would be "relative", in terms of the idea of a large family or clan. Hence, the Maganac Corps is probably composed of pilots who are all related to each other by blood or marriage, a cross between Badass Family and Badass Army.
The Philippines is a part of the Chinese Federation in Code Geass.
Chapter 15 of the manga, Code Geass: Renya of the Dark, features Renya and his group, arriving at the Philippines and meeting two Filipino rebels, Esteban and Karim. Also, similar to the country's actual history, the Philippines is under the control of Nova Hispania.
Malcolm Gedoh and Eleki Battery from Hajime No Ippo are the Philippines Featherweight National Champion and Junior Lightweight Champion respectively. Miyata's rival, the former OPBF Interim Featherweight Champion Randy Boy Junior and his father, Randy Boy Senior, are also from the Philippines.
The anime version of Blade has the Philippines as a backdrop in two episodes and featured the local versions of vampires from Filipino folklore.
Emiya Kiritsugu's early childhood started in the Alimango Island, which is located in Negros Occidental, where he made friends with a Filipino girl named Shirley, who is also his father's assistant. Unfortunately, Shirley turned into a Dead Apostle and the rest of the villagers became Ghouls, no thanks to Kiritsugu's father's experiment. Then, the Church Executors and Mages from the Mages Association arrived to wipe out any trace of the outbreak. This is also where Kiritsugu's Start of Darkness began when he killed his father.
The Philippines-based beer brand San Miguel Pale Pilsen appears in the first Ghost in the Shell movie.
In the manga, Bloody Monday, Hide, one of Fujimaru's friends, has stepmother and stepbrother who are both Filipino. And the stepbrother calls him, "Kuya". But it turns out that the stepmother and her brother are members of a terrorist cult who are responsible for the Bloody Monday incident. Oh, and stepmother presumably kills Hide's dad.
In the 2013 film 009 Re:Cyborg, the target of the undetected nuclear missiles that would have ended humanity was the Philippine Islands, for whatever reason. 003 zooms in on Western Visayas at first, then over to Luzon and the NCR in particular. Luckily they manage to detonate the missiles in orbit (thanks guys!) and save the day.
Darna, probably the most famous superhero from local comics or komiks. Has appeared in many movies and TV series.
Sentry visited the Philippines during Marvel's Dark Reign to save people when Mt. Pinatubo (which caused the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century) became active again.
Filipino-American artist Whilce Portacio intended X-Men character Bishop to be Filipino, but the higher ups decided that his lineage be of Aboriginal-Australian origin.
And when Whilce got to do his own book, Wetworks, he took the opportunity to put in a number of Filipino shout-outs, like at least one character exclaiming "Susmaryosep!" (a Filipino shortening of the classic Western exclamation "Jesus Mary Joseph") and having Filipina celebrity Regine Velasquez portrayed as a reporter. The Vampire Nation is said to be inspired by the Philippine mythological creature, the aswang.
Leinel Francis Yu has also taken some opportunities to put in some Filipino shoutouts, like in his work with writer Mark Waid, Superman: Birthright, where the popular Philipine fast-food chain Chowking can be seen on one scene and where Superman mentions the Filipinos as one of his inspirations for his costume.
And speaking of Mark Waid, at one or two points in his career he had a curious frequency of Filipino shoutouts, like the ones in Superman: Birthright. In his The Flash story The Return of Barry Allen Linda was wearing a World War II jacket with a Philippine flag on it, and another popular Philippine fastfood chain, Jollibee, could be seen in one panel. And in Kingdom Come, at the part where Superman starts to bring the whole United Nations building down on the people inside it, one of his would-be victims seems to be Filipino; spelling and grammar issues aside, he calls Superman a "sira (broken) ulo (head)," a Filipino term for crazy, who is about to kill (papatayin).
In the Twilight graphic novel, Bella does a web search on vampires; one of the search results is for "danag", a vampire from Filipino folklore.
The graphic novel Skyworld makes considerable use of Filipino mythology in its plot, detailing the (brutal) results of The Masquerade breaking down in the Philippines.
Pugad Baboy is a local comic strip that's gained popularity in the country since the late 1980s.
They Call Her Cleopatra Wong much of the movie takes place in Manila and was in fact directed by a legendary Filipino English-language b-movie director. The movie and it's director, international film legend Bobby Suarez, are said to be have been a major influences/inspirations on Quentin Tarantino (specifically his own Kill Bill was inspired by Cleopatra Wong).
A Filipino chef is seen cursing at Mason as he is escaping the hotel in The Rock.
In Problem Child 3, Big Ben can be seen trying to call a Filipina girl long distance.
In The Hunt for Eagle One where it was set in Mindanao, a group of US Marines are sent to rescue captured a US Marine and a Filipino Captain while stopping a group of Al-Qaeda-backed local rebels from launching biological weapons.
The magical box from the 2003 live-action film version of "The Cat in the Hat" (with Mike Myers) has a label which clearly states that it was "Made in the Philippines".
There have been three movies about the life of Lorenzo Ruiz. The first one ((Rorentsu o Ruisu no shōgai) was made in Japan, the place where he died.
Similarly, there have been movies and plays about Pedro Calungsod. There were even dolls based on him!
In Pacific Rim, Manila was the second place to be attacked by the Kaiju, Hundun, a year after K-Day. Though it's unknown how Hundun got killed (probably due to the use of nuclear weapons), its excrement contaminated the city and its remains were used and analyzed by Newton Geiszler.
Side materials◊ revealed that another Kaiju named "MN-19" attacked Manila again five years later. But this time, it was defeated by the Horizon Brave, Gipsy Danger and Striker Eureka. Three years later, another Kaiju named "Taurax" attacked the northern part of Mindanao but got defeated by the Striker Eureka.
The 2014 Godzilla reboot opens in the Philippines in 1999, with scientists finding the remains of kaiju.
Dan Inosanto plays a Filipino Eskrima master named Pasqual in Bruce Lee's Game of Death
Fierce People features at least 10 minutes of an "Iskanani" shaman speaking Tagalog.
On The Job: A 2013 Filipino crime thriller film starring Joel Torre, Piolo Pascual, Gerald Anderson and Joey Marquez.
In Mitch Albom's "The Five People You Meet In Heaven", one scene in Eddie's past takes place in the Philippines. The little girl that died in the fire when Eddie and his team burned down the village went on to become his fifth and final person.
Alex Garland's "The Tesseract" is set in the Philippines.
The hero of the novel Starship Troopers is Filipino (Juan "Johnnie" Rico), but he gets a Race Lift in adaptations (where he's just Johnny Rico). Starships named after Presidents Aguinaldo and Magsaysay are also mentioned.
Ilustrado is a novel set in a fictional version of the Philippines.
In Paolo Coelho's "Eleven Minutes" (Onze Minutos) the protagonist, Maria, meets a Filipina named Nyah, who teaches her the tricks of Maria's new-found trade. Specifically this: Nyah, a veteran prostitute, teaches neophyte Maria that faking an orgasm is the best way to ensure loyalty from Maria's clients.
Dale Brown's "Sky Masters" is set in the Philippines where the Chinese are planning to invade the country, and the Americans have to stop them by limited means to avoid all out war. It should be noted the Dale's portrayal of the Philippine government and that of the Chinese are quite inaccurate.
The second to the last episode of Season 4 of Burn Notice had a plot to blame killings on a Filipino separatist group. Michael Weston objects to building a bomb from the separatist group's plans, since he did not speak Tagalog.
The two-part season-ender of Season 3 of NCIS featured a Filipino Islamic terrorist and suicide bomber.
In the NCIS: Los Angeles episode "LD50", the NCIS LA unit under G. Callen arrest an Abu Sayyaf terrorist who entered America under a fake name. During the interrogation, NCIS psychologist Nate Getz questioned the alleged terrorist with his participation in SupperFerry 14 bombing attack.
One episode of Without a Trace features a Filipino nanny who went missing along with the child whom she's taking care of.
Survivor held their seasons in the country for the four straight (25-28) time starting with Survivor: Philippines. The funny thing is, the Filipinos themselves have made a licensed version of Survivor (four times, the last two being a Celebrity Edition) before with that name.
The TV miniseries, Human Trafficking, has Manila as its setting where a 12-year-old American tourist was abducted in the streets. However, the place is actually Bangkok and with a dose of California Doubling (e.g.: Philippine flags draped around the water boats and background characters wearing Salakot, the traditional hat with the pointed end on the top). Of course, this is one of the big inaccuracies the TV miniseries has ever had despite its realistic take on the subject matter.
Combat Hospital has Dr. Simon Hill treating a half-Afghan, half-Filipino patient who was injured in a bombing at a wedding. When Simon learned about the patient's nationality, he starts speaking to him in Tagalog, which sounds, to the Filipino viewers, either gibberish or some undiscovered native dialect. Even the patient doesn't understand what he's saying.
Lost Girl, which has featured a large variety of mythological creatures across various cultures, has featured the aswang (as Fae that prey mainly on diseased corpses) and the tikbalang (described as a forest creature that would lead travelers astray).
"Grimm", has Portland City cop Drew Wu, a Chinese-Filipino migrant to the U.S., ( who serves as the series' regular Deadpan Snarker and Butt Monkey ) temporarily Go Mad from the Revelation of The Masquerade (in an episode featuring the Tiktik variant of the Filipino mythological monster Aswang). He later decides it was All Just a Dream ( in a symbolic version of Killed to Uphold the Masquerade, his friends Nick and Hank deliberately lie to him that You Imagined It ) in order to return to normal and get himself finally discharged from voluntary confinement at a mental asylum. However, the third season's cliffhanger finale brutally forces him to realize it was Real After All when accidentally discovers Truble's notebook at Nick's house during an investigation.
Enya's song, Orinoco Flow mentions Cebu in one line.
Britney Spears would sneak away to this country, taking pictures of her rear, and other pieces of her.
The Philippines is a setting in Front Mission 3. Many characters from this series include a La Resistance leader whose name is a Shout-Out to former President Joseph Estrada, and Pham Luis, a Rich Bitch mecha pilot who is clearly an Asuka Langley Soryu Expy.
José Rizal is an unlockable character (with a rocket launcher) in the first Medal of Honor.
The second mission of Medal of Honor: Rising Sun is set in Calumpit, Bulacan.
The Philippines is a setting in Medal Of Honor Warfighter, where the narrator who happens to be a part of the Abu Sayyaf Group speaks Tausug, the language of the province of Sulu in the Southern Philippines.
A trailer for Halo 3, as well as the novel Halo:Landfall point to a Filipino colony on Mars called Katagalugan, with settlements like "New Manila" and "New Legaspi."
And Dead or Alive's canon foreigner from Halo, Nicole-458, was allegedly a Filipina, because she was born at New Legaspi and likes the Filipino dessert called Halo-Halo, according to canon.
The Covenant name of the Grunts is Unggoy which in Tagalog literally means monkey.
The PS1 game Nuclear Strike has a bonus mission set in the Philippines.
In Daiteikoku, the Philippines is obviously a territory under Republic of Gamerica, named as Manila 2000. There is also one admiral whose name is Lala Manie, who left to defend the territory after the same man left with the same words.
Sampaguita, the 3rd game of the Yarudora series, has the Phillipines as a crucial theme. A good number of characters of this game are Filipinos, including the main heroine, Maria Santos; part of the storyline, both in flashbacks and in the present, takes place in the Philippines; and the game's title itself is the name of the national flower of the Philippines, though it is given the meaning of "a promise of eternal love between two people", in order to become the symbol of Maria and the Main Protagonist's love.
If you choose to have your main base located in Asia in XCOM: Enemy Unknown, the icon for the base itself is located in Northern Luzon, seemingly in Baguio. Despite this, Filipino soldiers are not available for recruitment in-game.
The backstory of Hatoful Boyfriend has the Philippines as the country where newly uplifted birds first declared independence. One of the major characters in the game is a Luzon Bleeding-Heart, a dove native to the country and repeatedly referred to as Filipino. He has a human-style portrait which doesn't really look that different from those of his Japanese or French-Japanese classmates.
In Broken Sword: The Shadow of the Templars, Nico mentions that there was a Filipina au pair who witnessed the murder of her Italian employer. Also, one of George's items is said to be made in Manila.
Tekken Tag Tournament 2 features a stage that takes place in the Philippines. In real life, Filipinos are known for their love of the series, being a commonly played game in both arcades and consoles.
The Philippines is one of the countries seen to be part of the Greater Korean Republic in Homefront. It is unknown if the country joined willingly or was intimidated to joining the union.
Banzai Girl is set in the Philippines, and Jinky faces monsters in Philippine folklore.
Stand-up comedian Rex Navarrete, a Filipino-American, always makes references to Filipino culture. His most famous skit is arguably Maritess vs. TheSuper Friends, which explores the perspective of a Filipina house servant in the minding and tending of superheroes.
The Filipino flag
The upper blue stripe symbolizes peace and justice, while the lower red stripe represents patriotism and sacrifice. At the hoist side is the white equilateral triangle of fraternity; near its vertices are three yellow stars, which stand for Luzon, the Visayas islands and Mindanao, surrounding the sun of freedom, whose eight rays honor the first eight provinces to take up arms against Spain during the Philippine Revolution — Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac. The flag is also unique in that it can be turned into a war ensign by simply reversing the flag, such that the red stripe flies above the blue one.