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Puppet State
A state under the effective control of another state. Technically independent and in charge of its own affairs, but in reality if it tries anything without the say-so of the government of the nation in charge of it its liable to end up occupied again. An old term for this is Satrapies. Calling something a vassal state, client state or satellite state is another.

The nation trying to break away and regain true independence may be a plot point. Normally part of The Empire (especially if it's a Hegemonic Empire), or The Federation. The Kingdom is usually a stand-alone thing.

This isn't always entirely one-sided; one reason for a state becoming a puppet state may have been in exchange for the larger state watching its back in case of war. Whether or not the puppet (or the empire) is happy with this state of affairs is another matter.

If the state is nominally democratic or republican and holds elections, and those are controlled by the parent state, see Corrupt Politician.

Examples

Anime and Manga

  • Most countries in One Piece are part of a global alliance known as the World Government. There are very harsh penalties for a country's refusal to join, and the ones that do are subject to rules that give the officials almost totally free reign to do as they please.
    • Because there are so many countries so spread out, the World Government and the Marines can't possibly watch every single place at every moment, so it's not unheard of for a country to just do things covertly or secretly own contraband.
  • The Zeon home colonies at Legrange Point 2 become one after the original Mobile Suit Gundam, necessitating The Remnant move to the Asteroid Belt (and, if you take some of the dodgier F91 spinoffs as canon, Mars).

Literature

  • In Tribesmen of Gor most of the desert tribes are vassals of either the Aretai or Kavar tribe. So when outsiders stir up trouble between those two tribes the entire desert is preparing for war with each other.
  • In Flora Segunda, the main characters' country, Califa, is a vassal state of the Huitzil empire, because it was pretty much that or be conquered entirely. Many people are still less than happy about it, though.
  • In A Dark Winter by Dave Luckett, the protagonist's homeland has become a puppet state of The Empire. A significant plot point concerns the revelation of how far another character is prepared to go secure its independence.
  • The Ministry of Magic in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, kind of. The person holding the strings is Lord Voldemort rather than a foreign power, but it follows the other aspects of this trope. As Lupin explains, Voldemort installed a puppet Minister, rather than declaring himself Minister, in order to avoid an outright rebellion.
  • Komarr in Vorkosigan Saga is a Zig Zag. It is a conquered planet but municipal government is under Komarran jurisdiction so long as it doesn't interfere with Barrayaran interests. However the rule at the top was until recently Barrayaran. However more and more Komarran administrators are taking charge again, and of late even the head of ImpSec Komarr is a Komarran.
  • In the Honor Harrington books, there are quite a few nominally independent star nations in two broad regions of space known as the Shell and the Verge, lying on the edge of the Solarian League and just beyond it, respectively. Quite a few of these nations are in fact under the thumb of the Solarian Office of Frontier Security or various Solarian Transtellar corporations. A similar arrangement was in effect in various weaker star nations near the expanding Peoples' Republic of Haven before Haven and Manticore went to war.

Tabletop Games

  • In Traveller basically any multi-system polity must be a collection of Puppet State s even though sometimes the central government is created by the substates rather then the reverse. The Third Imperium for instance does little more than patrol trade routes and prevent vassal planets from fighting one another (planetary wars are allowed so long as nukes aren't used).

Video Games

  • The Last Remnant has this in Athlum, which is a vassal territory of Celapaleis.
  • Both Unification Wars and Galactic Conquest (sci-fi strategy games in which action points are a regularly renewable resource) feature Vassals, though in reality the "Lord" empire does not exert control over these vassals but instead receives tribute and can send/receive military aid in case of invasion (which is pretty darn frequent).
  • Crimea was suzerain to Begnion in Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn.
  • In one of the Expansion Packs for Civilization IV, any sufficiently powerful civ can make any sufficiently weak civ into their vassal state. If the vassal grows powerful enough (there are exact numbers), it can regain independence.
    • On the subject of Civ 5, you can't make an entire civ into one, but when you conquer an enemy city you have the option between annexing it (which simply makes it on of your civ's cities, but generates a lot of unhappiness) or making it a puppet (which gives all the science, culture, and gold it generates to your civ, but you cannot control its production, for either buildings or units).
  • A major part of most Paradox games like Europa Universalis and Hearts of Iron.
    • Crusader Kings probably has the strongest version; the player is able to create vassals by giving the aristocrats in his court titles. Assuming relations are good enough he can force these vassals to raise troops for him and even force to them to surrender their title and land (though this is very likely to result in rebellion instead.)
  • Can also be established in the Total War series; in earlier games such as Rome, these had to be established through diplomatic negotiations, and this would only rarely work due to the horrific diplomacy system. In more recent games (namely Napoleon and Shogun 2), the game gives the player an option of whether to formally incorporate a conquered nation into its empire or establish a client state.

Real Life

  • A hegemony is when a nation has dominating influence over the foreign and military policy of other countries within its region.
  • After the Spanish-American war, newly-independent Cuba became a Puppet State when the United States passed the Platt Amendment which gave Congress the ability to override any Cuban foreign policy decision.
  • Most of the Central American Banana Republics were made that way by the machinations of the United States at the behest of the Mega Corp. United Fruit Company.
  • The satellite states of the Soviet Union. The most frequently cited are those in the Warsaw Pact (Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria), though most of them at various points in the Cold War tried to exercise their own policies away from the Soviet model - sometimes they got clobbered with tanks for it (Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968) and sometimes they got away with it (Romania under Nicolae Ceaușescu developed comparitively close ties with the West and even defied the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles, Hungary's "Goulash Communism" after the '56 crushing that implemented some elements of free-market economics and comparatively better human rights).
    • The view that any and every socialist-leaning group and state in the world was a Soviet puppet colored mainstream American political leadership for much of the Cold War (especially in the early days), regardless of how accurate that description was in reality. When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, the general belief in the US was that Kim Il-Sung was acting on Stalin's orders - not until long after the war did it come to light that it was Kim Il-Sung who proposed to Stalin of the idea and had asked him for support. Along similar lines, in 1951 Dean Rusk (later to become Secretary of State under John F. Kennedy) called the People's Republic of China "a Slavic Manchukuo" to draw comparisons to the Imperial Japan-controlled puppet state (part of the reason the US did not switch official diplomatic recognition from Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalist government on Taiwan until 1979). This being international diplomacy, suffice to say that reality was far more complicated than such broad generalizations would imply.
  • Some of the nations conquered by the Nazis during World War II, such as Vichy France and Norway under the Quisling regime.
  • Scotland technically ended up briefly being a vassal state of England when John Baliol was persuaded to swear fealty to Edward I. John Baliol quickly reneged on this however, and Edward squandered any moral claim he might have had in the situation with a show of stunning brutality during his march north, nearly destroying Berwick upon Tweed, once considered a second Alexandria and reduced by 8,000 people after Edward was through with it to the status of a minor sea-port. Although his hold on southern and midland Scotland lasted up until his death despite a considerable struggle with William Wallace, the sheer hatred of the English stirred up in Scotland went a long way towards being the reason Edwards heirs ultimately lost the country. Ironically, the Scots, after a long period of their noble houses anglicising, were drifting towards the English in terms of culture naturally. Edward Is clumsy attempt to unite the two kingdoms ironically drove the cultures apart and cut an everlasting wedge between the countries that, even with unification, has lasted to this day and could still see the two nations part ways once more. In some ways, the devolved governments of the UK could be seen as this, though it is generally agreed that a referendum would see them a fully independent state, be it Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.
  • The client states of the Roman Republic and later Empire.
  • The Indian princely states of British India.
  • The Philippine Islands were a fairly successful example of this despite the brutal Pacification Campaigns. This seems to have been because of a string of highly successful proconsuls (including General MacArthur who to some degree went native). The locals fought very bravely on the US side during World War II because they believed-in this case correctly-the promise of future independence.
    • For that matter, the wartime Second Republic was an even better example, with Jose Laurel being President, but in reality the government was controlled by the Japanese military.
      • Not quite the traditional example of a puppet state. President Laurel was in many ways independent of the Japanese, having refused Japanese "counsellors" (i.e., what effectively made the state a puppet). Also, he was ordered to remain back in Manila and cooperate with the Japanese by the exiled President Quezon, making him something of a puppet for two enemy sides. He also protected members of the resistence in the Presidential Palace, refused (unsuccessfully) to declare war on the Allies and refused (successfully) to form a pro-Japanese Filipino Army. These are some of the reasons why the Second Republic is just one out of five republics and the word President, when used with the name Laurel, does not carry quotation marks (he's considered a legitimate President since the 1960s).
  • For that matter, every US State is theoretically this. At some times in history it has been feared that the Federal government would reduce them to provinces, and at other times, it was feared that the states had unusual powers. On the whole, during isolationist periods in US history the state governments prevailed, and during periods of more active foreign policy the Fed prevailed.
    • This is most blatant in Washington, DC. Congress can and frequently does override the city's locally elected government for its own benefit.
  • Historically the Kingdom of Ryukyu was this to Japan, or more specifically the Satsuma, the most powerful feudal lords of southern Kyushu. Following the Meiji Restoration and the Satsuma Rebellion, it was annexed outright to become the modern day prefecture of Okinawa.
  • Manchukuo under "The Last Emperor" Puyi is the most (in)famous of Japan's puppet states in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
  • The former colonies of The British Empire went through this phase on their way to becoming either the independent Commonwealth Realms or republics. An odd example, since their status was always somewhat vague and it evolved over time. For instance, Canada began in 1867 as four colonies united under a Dominion government. This status effectively gave "responsible government" status to an intermediary between the colonies and London. Over the decades, Canada would take more powers for herself, including the right to raise an increasingly independent army, ending the system of British honours for her citizens (replaced by Canadian equivalents), choosing an actual Canadian as Governor General (alongside Parliament's right to choose the Privy Council, this guaranteed Canadian control over the executive), and the Statute of Westminster gave effective de facto independence in all remaining home and foreign affairs to the Dominions (for the most part, ending this trope regarding these states). After a few decades of haggling (mostly with the provinces/states of their respective governments), the Realms were able to negotiate the passing of laws that severed Britain's last remaining prerogative: London's right to pass laws affecting the constitution of the former colonies. This effectively solidified Queen Lizzie's position as Sovereign over 16 independent countries, instead of the former satellite states they once were.
  • The German Empire tried to set these up throughout Eastern Europe and via its plan for Mitteleuropa. The German plan was to annex Luxembourg, either annex Belgium or turn it into a puppet state, turn the Netherlands into a German member state in all but name, turn France into an economic puppet, and set up puppet states from Finland to the Don Republic and Kuban in an attempt to form a buffer between Russia and Germany, and, eventually, establish the means for Germany to begin Germanization of the Region. And all of this would be held together by Mitteleuropa, a political and economic alliance that would have been Germany's idea for a United Europe, including its war time Allies. Germany's sour attempts to create during World War I obviously went sour.
  • The Irish Free State created by the Anglo-Irish treaty was a British puppet state until 1948, although some nationalists argue it still is to this day.
  • The "Bantustans" in South Africa, ridiculously-shaped and economically unviable territories chiefly existing so that the Apartheid regime could assign a new nationality to the blacks they were trying to disenfranchise. Officially they were governed by blacks but those in charge were paid large amounts of money by the South African government. Four of them (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, and Ciskei) were officially granted independence but no one except South Africa recognized them. With the fall of the apartheid regime they were abolished and said lands were reintergrated back into South Africa.
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