"Poor Mexico! So far from God, so close to the United States..."
— Porfirio Díaz
"Mexico, why do I feel as I do? I simply fell under they spell of you."A North American countrynote and home of Speedy Gonzales, Bumblebee Man, and Guillermo del Toro, Mexico can stir up more emotion in three syllables than can be wrought from a Wangst filled Romantic Plot Tumor. Whether it's love or hate depends entirely on the person.
— "Mexico"song in The Three Caballeros
MediaPersons of interest (fictional and real):
- Miguel Alcubierre — Theoretical physicist. Currently trying to make warp drive a reality.
- Alfonso Cuarón — Film director. Some of his films include Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Y Tu Mamá También and Gravity.
- Cantinflas — A famous comedian known for his unique style of speaking, made several movies in both Mexico and Hollywood.
- Eugenio Derbez — Another famous comedian. Has had various TV shows.
- Francisco Gabilondo Soler "Cri Cri" — Beloved and acclaimed music composer of songs for children.
- Salma Hayek — the apotheosis of Spicy Latina
- Frida Kahlo — Famous surrealist painter, subject of the film Frida.
- Guillermo del Toro — Film director of Hellboy, Pan's Labyrinth and Pacific Rim among others.
- Octavio Paz — Poet and writer, 1990 Literature Nobel Prize winner.
- Diego Luna — Actor, known for his role as Cassian Andor on Rogue One.
- Pancho Villa — Mexican Revolution general.
- Alejandro González Iñárritu — Film director, currently best known for directing The Revenant, the movie that gave Leonardo DiCaprio his first Oscar.
- El Santo — Famous for his pulp Masked Luchador movies. Genre maker.
- Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz — A scholar poet nun born in the XVII century, considered also as an early advocate of women's rights.
- Sara Ramirez — Broadway and television actress best known as the Lady of the Lake or Callie Torres.
- Amores Perros
- Amar Te Duele
- The Devil's Backbone (co-production with Spain)
- El Crimen del Padre Amaro
- The Exterminating Angel
- La Habitacion Azul
- Like Water for Chocolate
- Pan's Labyrinth
- Por la libre
- Salvando Al Soldado Perez
- Y Tu Mamá También
- Mexico 2000
- The Eyes Of My Princess
- Like Water for Chocolate
- Pedro Páramo
- Popol Vuh
- Youth in Sexual Ecstasy
- El Zarco The Blue Eyed Bandit
Films about Mexico and Mexicans:
- The Book of Life
- A Day Without a Mexican
- A Fistful of Dollars
- A Fistful of Dynamite
- El Mariachi
- The Mask of Zorro
- The Mexican
- ¡Three Amigos!
- Once Upon a Time in Mexico
- The Three Caballeros
- The Wild Bunch
Commonly associated tropes:
- Banana Republic
- Gratuitous Spanish
- The Illegal
- Latin Land
- Magnificent Moustaches of Mexico
- Masked Luchador
- Mexican Standoff
- Mexicans Love Speedy Gonzales
- Mexico Called; They Want Texas Back
- Run for the Border
- Soap Opera
- South of the Border
- Spaghetti Western
- Mexican Food
- Mexican Media
- Mexican Politics
- The Mexican Revolution
- Mexican-American War
- Mexicans with Machine Guns
- Mexico City
On MexicansMexico's almost as racially diverse as Brazil. Mexicans tend to range all over on the political spectrum, but seem to favor a strong government to take care of social policies. Due to the Philippines having been technically under New Spain, Mexicans also tend to have fairly close cultural ties with Filipinos. As per Hispanic custom, Mexicans have two family names: the first is the paternal one, and the second is the mother's. Because children only get the first family name of either parent only the father's name is passed on through successive generations. Also you can have more than one given name (think middle initial)... sometimes even three. And sometimes you even get single family names made of multiple family names. Example: former president Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León. Women don't lose their maiden name when marrying, but traditionally added the husband's family name to their own, this has no legal value however. Mexican humor is largely formulaic and simplistic. For example shows and stand-up comedians mostly resort to tried and true jokes Older Than Radio. Comedy may rely on pure slapstick ("El Chavo"). Humor featuring social/political commentary is largely limited to printed media and the internet (Television rarely touches this stuff). The most characteristic type of humor is the "albur" (pronounced "al-BOOR") which consists in heavily sexual wordplay and double entendre, basically it's Getting Crap Past the Radar taken Up to Eleven since many people in the country already have the double entendres memorized, especially censors. Since it's practically the only aspect of national humor with any hint of subtleness, the albur serves as the foremost justification that Mexicans have in believing themselves the most ingenious and good natured nation ever. If they make fun of others, rest assured they have developed a level of self deprecating humor Woody Allen would admire (before knocking himself for it). Since making fun of people based on their race, their gender, or their handicaps isn't considered as politically incorrect as it is in the US or the UK it may seem that Mexican comedy can be crass. But it's precisely because of their greater disregard towards political correctness that limits in Hollywood's depiction of Mexicans are rather set by Chicanos than by actual Mexicans. Another phenomenon is Malinchismo: a very old and widespread tendency to show any unjustified preference, however slight, for foreign over national stuff. And then there's the odd element of Mexican culture based around "macho". This is a hard-to-define term, but call it Testosterone Poisoning on a national scale. Your average Mexican man would rather get his ass kicked than be considered feminine in any way, shape, or form. This is why there are so many films about castration, ranging from serious films to wacky comedies (the latter including the anti-classic La Garanon, "The Stud").
In The MediaGenerally there are only a few stock Mexicans:
- The hopeful illegal immigrant looking for the American dream,
- The greasy illegal immigrant looking to lower property values
- The downtrodden villager who can't defend himself,
- The Spicy Latina with a whole lotta attitude and a big butt
- The tattooed drug dealer, the logical progression of the desperado,
- And the gang banger/kidnapper.
On The MediaDue to the relative backwardness of Mexico, broadcast commercial television is still the dominant medium in the country. There are two major broadcast networks: Televisa and Azteca, both private and suspect of being colluded in a duopoly cartel that decides what is or isn't shown on open air TV in the country, which would also explain why so many politicians bow to these companies' whims. Leaving this aside, there are also a few public cultural channels like Once TV and Canal 22, providing documentaries and cultural programming for those who do not have cable tv (and the latter channel earning several international accolades). Most of you should know the cheesy "Telenovelas", Lucha Libre and masked luchadores like El Santo or Blue Demon, and perhaps even El Chavo del ocho and that creepy Santa Claus movie MST3K riffed once. But there has been more stuff that, due to Creator Provincialism , might never see the light of day outside from Mexico, like lots and lots of old movies and sketch series made between the 40's and 70's. Like the rest of the world, cable and some commercial broadcast programming material consists heavily of imported American TV and films. Some films and TV series, however, have been very popular in other countries, most notably, El Chavo del Ocho and El Chapulín Colorado. Most newspapers in Mexico have been unprofitable for decades even before the internet, but survive thanks to bribes that local city or state governments or the drug cartels pay to keep them quiet on certain inconvenient issues and/or put a positive spin on those issues. Only a handful of papers (mostly those who enjoy national distribution or have a very large market) survive on their own. Mexico used to have a considerable comic book industry un The '40s and Fifties but due to prolonged decay comics nowadays are almost an underground movement. Even the most successful are often unable to reach a true national distribution, be it on magazines or newspapers. There are, however, a few comics that in spite of being very old still keep their fandoms, old and new, and some have become embedded in the national culture, like Kalimán, La Familia Burrón and Memin Pinguin (the latter being responsible for a minor diplomatic incident due to African-American groups viewing it as racist, see above for Mexican attitudes towards political correctness). Traditional and cellular telephone services are quite inefficient and charge some of the highest service rates in the world. This in part due to the fact that most traditional phone land lines are serviced by a company called Telmex, property of Carlos Slim, the richest man on the planet, whose company enjoys a monopoly grant from the government. This has been changing as cable companies are entering the traditional phone services at a lower rate than Telmex, and recent laws allow people to switch companies without having to change phone numbers. In 2015, Iusacell and Nextel decided to mere together to create AT&T Mexico, which will be a competitor to other cellular phone companies like Telcel and Movistar. On the flip side, however, Mexican ISPs are pretty much net-neutral and don't really care much about how you use your internet connection; you can torrent freely without getting a warning, they won't inject advertisements into your everyday browsing, you always get the same performance regardless of whether you're doing media streaming, large downloads or online gaming, and the only ISP that meters your bandwidth is Izzi and it's only one out of many different ISPs such as Telmex, Cablevisión, Axtel, Totalplay or Megacable. The pop music industry is quite influential in the Spanish speaking world but it's very hampered because Mexico is a haven of copyright piracy. Local music that plays harder than 2 in the Mohs Scale of Rock and Metal Hardness was actively ostracized by mainstream media for decades, specially after the fiasco caused by the "Rock y Ruedas sobre Avándaro", in which the government had to step in due to a sudden Moral Panic. Another factor that stifled the genre preferences was Siempre en Domingo, a musical variety show displayed on Sundays, which, with a few exceptions, it was more a showcase of the presenter's favourite artists rather than a real musical variety show. The breaking point of rock music in Mexico was the NAFTA in 1994, which brought a massive, sudden influx of foreign music into Mexico that actually caused moral panic during the 90s as millions of distraught parents found their sons listening to hard rock, metal and other kinds of music that were well around level 9 in the aforementioned music hardness scale. Then the internet brought all the music in MP3 format the early P2P networks had to offer, and by 2005 rock music was already widely accepted in Mexico. As of 2016, some radio stations have begun occasionally playing hard rock, nobody will bat an eye if they see your phone full of heavy-ish metal, many top name bands like Iron Maiden have begun to routinely perform in Mexico, and the popularity, convenience and low cost of media streaming has led many people to forego piracy (both online and physical) and turn over to legal services like Spotify or iTunes. The film industry used to be the sixth in the country in terms of exports and it's also victim of the widespread piracy in Mexico. Mexican film making reached its Golden Age roughly from 1935 until 1960. In the 70's however the government introduced its own brand of Executive Meddling via financiation schemes that ended up virtually ruining local film making for more than 11 years. In spite of this, a few good films were made during this period, but they only got very limited commercial release. An alleged renaissance has been improving the quality, encouraging the rise of new talent like screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga, cinematographer Emanuel Lubezki, directors Guillermo del Toro, Alfonso Cuarón and Alejandro González Iñárritu and actors such as Guillermo Luna, Demian Bichir and Gael Garcia. Despite all this recovery, the film industry still depends heavily on government subsidies and only releases between 50 and 100 films a year. Videogames had it better to some degree than other forms of media in Mexico, thanks in large part to the NAFTA's enaction in 1994 taking place when the game industry was still not quite as mature as today. Like rock music, their arrival caused widespread moral panic as many parents saw their children ripping the spinal cord from their opponents in Mortal Kombat and happily causing massive chaos in the early Grand Theft Auto releases; obviously, because there is No Such Thing as Bad Publicity, this moral panic just ended up backfiring and making videogames even more popular. As the generation that got to play the first videogames aged and started having children of their own, videogames started gaining increasingly more acceptance in the country, and nowadays they're no longer "those weird games today's kids play" anymore but instead just another form of entertainment. Piracy played a very big role in the popularity of videogames by making bootlegged consoles readily available, especially with the first PlayStation, whose games didn't lose much build quality by account of being easily reproducible CDs that, unlike Nintendo's game cartridges, didn't require any assembly — you just needed a modded console to unlock a whole new world of games that could cost as low as $30 pesos per disc (about 2.50 US dollars). On top of that, arcade machines got quite popular in the country, with one of the most famous games being The King of Fighters — the archetypal kid who snuck away from school or spent the tortillas' change on his local SNK arcade was actually one of the main reasons why this saga became so popular in Mexico, enough to motivate SNK to create an entire Mexican fighter team. Sega, however, never sold any of their consoles in Mexico; as such, don't expect a Mexican to understand references to Sonic the Hedgehog or any other videogame series from Sega. Like music, videogame piracy has dropped noticeably since 2010 thanks to Gabe Newell's incredible bargains on PC games and the relative ease of acquiring cheap computer parts thanks to the NAFTA as well. Cable access and satellite TV in Mexico, like rock music and videogames, basically took off after 1994 thanks to the NAFTA, which allowed private TV operators to import foreign TV programming. Prior to that it was still technically possible to watch foreign TV, but for that you required a huge satellite dish, some very expensive decoding equipment, and on top of that you had to learn at least English in order to understand untranslated, uncaptioned foreign programs. Satellite TV later came around 1997-1998, when DirecTV started operations in Mexico, later followed by Televisa's own service SKY. While its impact on Mexican culture was initially limited since few people were initially capable of affording it, cable and satellite TV eventually managed to create some cultural impact in part by showing off how Mexican broadcasting media content regulations did not apply to paid TV and capitalizing on the moral panic caused by the new foreign shows that suddenly arrived in the country. Paid TV is how Mexico got to know and love shows like South Park, Pimp My Ride, Beakman's World (which aired initially on Warner Channel and later on Once TV while Bill Nye the Science Guy was never even aired), Jackass, Digimon Adventure, Malcolm in the Middle, the old Discovery Kids that was initially more focused on 9-12 year olds instead of toddlers, and the fondly remembered TV channel Locomotion / Animax which, despite being unpopular, never failed to surprise its viewers with its assortment that covered everything from South Park to Serial Experiments Lain.
Mexican Food, certainly not Tex-MexThe cuisine is world-renowned for being colorful, intense, spicy, greasy, and fiery hot (on par with Korean or Thai food). Mexicans absolutely love chili peppers: you can find at least 10 varieties at any supermarket, it's present in pretty much every single dish, you can even buy candy made with dried chili, and any Mexican who can't stand them is automatically called a pansy. Most of the traditional dishes are a mix of traditional prehispanic and medieval Spanish food; the pozole, for example, is often made with Mexican corn grains, beans, tomatoes and chili peppers; and Spanish radish, lettuce / cabbage, and beef / pork. Other traditional foods are enchiladas, sincronizadas, chilaquiles, chiles rellenos, tamales, and other foods that are local and to each state of the country. There are some exceptions, though: if you roll around the streets, chances are you'll find some stalls in the sidewalks selling tacos al pastor, which can be best described as "Mexican doner kebab" but frequently made of spiced pork, brought by a wave of Lebanese immigrants. And of course, there's the fair share of weirdo dishes, such as huitlacoche (fungus that grows on corn), chapulines (fried grasshoppers) and escamoles (fried ant larvae). Note that most average Mexicans will also squeam at these. And for the record: Taco Bell is not a Mexican company, though the recent opening of a few nearby has caused us great amusement. Their food is certainly absolutely not Mexican. And the taco bell Chihuahua? It was considered a culinary delicacy by the Aztecs. In general, Tex-Mex food is a blasphemous rip-off of Mexican food and is shunned by every respectable Mexican. note Useful Tip: Do NOT tell a Mexican guest that you are taking him to a "Mexican Restaurant" unless you are 100% sure it is not actually Tex Mex. Take him anywhere else: Thai, Korean, even American Food (yes, there is such a thing... vaguely) is better on the off chance that the Mexican restaurant is actually Tex Mex. (Then again, globalization probably means it's going to be staffed by Chinese cooks anyway). If you do, the consequences will be dire... amused Take Thats, noting how the food is slightly (or hugely) off. Or feigned indignation, that is if any is registered. Honestly, take out a Mexican to dinner and you likely won't get any complaints: Free Food!
On ChicanosIn case you can't tell, there also is a bit of an ongoing sore spot with the "Mexican-ness" of Mexican immigrants to the United States. While they're cut from the same cloth and are, in theory, "on the same side", Mexicans tend to dislike Latinos for being "traitors" who: left their country (even if forced by necessity), are forsaking their heritage to become like the ever loathed "gringo" (just like Mexicans in Mexico), and in general "aren't mexican" (see Tex Mex food). To be fair, polls usually show a lot of Mexicans willing to leave their country if they had the chance (in fact, Mexico has the highest emigration rate of any country in the world). Chicanos for their part, (particularly those born in the States) tend to view Mexicans as snobby, stuck up, and generally all too proud with very little to be proud of (in other words, elves). Generally, considering that most Mexicans place a high importance on personal relationships in general, this is ignored in families and constitutes one of the reasons why remesas (money orders) are sent by immigrants to families back home and ties are maintained despite the distance — to the point that entire towns live exclusively off money sent from abroad, and money orders are Mexico's second largest income after oil imports. Chicanos or "Pochos" in all honesty deserve their own Useful Notes page, but for now their search for an "identity" that doesn't compromise heritage and nationality is an ongoing issue for them as with other immigrant groups.
An (not so) abridged history:Before it was colonized, it was home of and originator to some of the Precursors for the Olmec, Mayan, and Aztec civilizations. Expect them all to be lumped together when the Adventurer Archaeologist investigates ruins in search of treasure. But Mexicans don't care about those silly brown people. Well, not unless they're hot and/or there's a curse involved. It was colonized by Spain, those people in the funny metal Conquistador hats who looked for cities of gold (or means to get gold, they weren't picky), they were initially mistaken for Gods (Quetzalcoatl, mainly) and struck alliances with several of the native nations. It's harsh to judge the natives who allied with Cortés. They had lived under iron fist of the Mexica, who frequently forced to pay tributes to them.. in the form of men, women and children, who would most of the time be used as human sacrifice, but who also had the option of being eaten ritualistically. Moctezuma, the Emperor of the Mexica/Aztecs, tried to regale Quetzalcoatl/Cortés with Gold, so he would leave, but only instigated greed. Eventually the spaniards and their indigenous allies came to blows with the Aztecs, having numerical advantage (thanks to the natives), better technology, horses, and most importantly, plages. (The plagues were actually unintentional but handy at first, inconvenient after victory). Hernán Cortés and his men were able to win against the Aztec empire by manipulating the Aztec's unwilling subjects into an alliance. Fun and profit were had by all. And by all, we mean Cortés, his soldiers, and many of his native allies. Everyone else was either forcibly converted (although considering the documented human sacrifice and cannibalism, convertion probably wasn't a bad thing, for everyone involved) and enslaved in the Hacienda system (think Plantation) or killed. Even his native allies got sort of shafted, also being forcibly converted and becoming second class citizens below spaniards. Many things happened in the Colonial period, but for some reason the next 300 years are mostly ignored until "La Independencia!" Lots of shooting and fighting, wherein the royalists eventually gained the upper hand. Agustín de Iturbide, formerly a royalist, came up with a plan, independent from both insurgents and royalists, and successfully rallied all opposing parties behind him. It was during this time that Iturbide designed the first Mexican flag, which evolved and was later ratified by him into the basis of the flag we know today. After 11 years of bloody war, he, in 7 months, achieved Independence, in a practically bloodless campaign. Mexico was founded as an Empire, following the tradition of the Natives and the Colony. Spain was offered the chance to name Mexico's ruler, but declined. Iturbide was elected Emperor, but clashed with the Congress, who believed it had full sovereignty of the nation. Iturbide chose to abdicate after seeing another war was brewing. After, he exiled himself, but was executed when he decided to return after discovering a plan by several catholic nations to rein Mexico back into Spanish power. Then Guadalupe Victoria became the first presidente. His Meaningful Name and very Gender-Blender Name is not an accident, as he picked it himself. Vicente Guerrero, former hero of Independence, followed... by rebelling after losing the election and forcibly being sworn in as President. This was mostly the doing of the York Freemasonry, of which he was leader. This act would be the first, but definitely not the last, in México's long, long tradition of presidents coming into power by way of force and bloodshed. At some moment in 1838, France invades Mexico as payback because a baker's shop was destroyed in the fighting... among another things. Want to know the name of the war? "The Pastry War". After this, comes the Texan conflict at which point Mexicans become Red Shirts to attack The Alamo. By the way, don't bring this up in the company of polite Mexicans unless you want to hear an earful about how the US supported Texas' independence only to annex it and use it as a casus belli once Mexico attacked. Bring it up in the company of impolite Mexicans and, well... let's just say they can hold a grudge for centuries (just ask Spain). Worth noting is how Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (try to say that without stopping to breath), mostly known as Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna or just Santa Anna, went from Independence hero to eleven times president/dictator to national traitor, first class, due to the loss of the war and secession of almost half of their land to the victorious United States. It's because of his merry-go-round presidencies that Mexicans, to this day, distrust re-election on principle note . Funnily enough, though Mexican's distrust their government as a rule, they always believe the history that said government wrote for them, and thus, hate Santa Anna with a passion, even though he is in fact not responsible, either for the loss of Texas or for the loss of half of México's territory (which came 10 years later, so don't mix the two conflicts, please). Santa Anna got cocky in Texas and was surprise as his 700-man force was resting. Decimated, Santa Anna was soon captured, and forced to sign a document wherein he ordered Mexican forces to withdraw. See, Santa Anna had split his army in 3, and the other two groups combined were over 2000 strong, better trained, equipped and much more than a match for Houston's forces. General Urrea, third in command (who became second in command after Santa Anna's capture) wanted to attack the Texans, but Vicente Filisola, promoted to first in command, failed to use his advantage and eventually chose to obey Santa Anna even if he, as a captured man, no longer had any political power. In fact, though Mexico withdrew, the opinion in México for the next 10 years was that Texas was still its territory, and that eventually they'll send forces to bring it back in... it didn't quite happened like that. Santa Anna went on to tour the U.S, meet the president, and surprisingly, being hailed as a hero by minorities such as blacks because of México's novel approach to slavery, namely, abolishing it. Oh, and he also was partly responsible for the creation of chewing gum. Then came the Mexican-American war, which, in México, is characterized as an unjust conflict of a more powerful nation bullying a far weaker and less established one. Following a shady event at the border, and the U.S annexation of Texas (which México still regarded as its territory), war was declared. The problem, however, was that Mexico was politically fractured. On one side were the Conservadores, who believed that México's culture laid with its Hispanic roots (like its language, religion, some customs) and that many mechanisms that worked well in Colonial Mexico should be maintained. Some wanted a return to monarchy, since a frankly still largely uneducated nation like México couldn't really trust its population to elect the most convenient ruler. They also were a bit justified in thinking that a republic led to instability every election, civil war and bloodshed (because up to that point, and still in the near future, it had, and it would.) On the other side were the Liberales, mostly freemasons, who disliked the Catholic Church, and believed México should eschew its hispanic roots and try to emulate its northern neighbor to a t in everything it could. What is important is recognizing that, although the faulty education system didn't educate us with this belief, there usually never are good guys vs bad guys situations, and neither of these groups could fit squarely into either category. There were also moderated liberals, who advocated a more reserved lberal agenda, recognizing how ingrained catholicism and hispanic culture was in México. In the midst of this, Santa Anna, who was exiled, came in touch with the U.S invaders. He promised them that, if they let him through their blockade, he would use his fame and reputation to make México give up without a fight, and resign half of his territory over to the U.S. Santa Anna went back on his word, and, upon reaching the capital, quickly became president again, organized the Mexican forces and rose armies to defend. However, the inner political turmoil, and conservatives vs liberals openly fighting as the war was waging on, made the situation unsustainable. The brave mexican defenders were not getting any resources and rapidly began fighting an uphill, doomed battle. One famed regiment of american forces, made up of 200 irishmen and other assorted nationalities, defected the U.S and fought for México, as "El Batallón de San Patricio". They are remembered as heroes even today in México. Despite the brave efforts of its inhabitants, México lost. Santa Anna escaped south, planning on continuing resisting, but was intercepted by the U.S and exiled. It was an interim president, José Manuel de la Peña y Peña, that signed the infamous Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which saw the U.S annexing over half of the Mexican territory. Santa Anna is thus, though an unashamed egomaniacal, innocent of this loss of territory, not that most modern Mexicans know that. For them, him being unable to win the war is enough to condemn the man. The waters did not calm down after that. Liberals won, politically. Their reform laws saw the church and the military losing their privilege (this, however, conveniently did not applied to the political class). Many church-owned and operated establishments, such as schools and orphanages were extricated from them. The church losing its political power was a worldwide trend, however, in México, it was wildly antidemocratic, as most of the population was, and still is, feverishly catholic. Then president Ignacio Comonfort was not as comfortable as his name suggests. He got a mixed cabinet of both liberals and conservatives and then self-coup d' état'ed. As it turns out, both groups engaged in mature and constructive debate for the betterment of the country via nasty war. This was called the Reform War. Benito Juárez gained the presidency after Comonfort was forced to step down (he wasn't elected, but he became acting president in such a crisis, as President of the Supreme Justice Court). He then fled the capital, declaring he had Emergency Powers and that the government would be wherever he was. In the capital though, two other presidents arose. The interim president and the newly-elected Conservador president, Miguel Miramón. Miramón fought as a child during the defense of the Chapultepec Castle in the Mexican-American war, and was truly a military ace. Under his command, los conservadores started gaining the upper hand, until Juárez was forced to fortify his position in Veracruz. Meanwhile, the U.S government couldn't decide on whose presidency it would recognize. It dictated terms, wherein México would give the U.S perpetual rights to use the narrower part of México as a canal for commerce (what would end up happening with the Canal of Panamá). The conservadores couldn't compromise, but Juárez and the liberals did. After Juárez' representatives signed the Mc Lane-Ocampo treaty, which is fairly unknown but constitutes a violation by the president of national sovereignty, the U.S agreed to back Juárez's government, and it essentially won the war for the liberals. This, in turn, convinced the defeated conservadores to fight fire with fire. If the liberals had U.S backing, then they would secure European support for their side. Because of the already mentioned conflict the Mexican economy was in the red, so the Juarist government decided to suspend the foreign debt. This wasn't of the liking of Spain (to whom Mexico owed the most), the British Empire (to whom Mexico owed a little less), and France (to whom Mexico owed the least), so they decided to send ships and soldiers to demand their money. When they arrived in the port of Veracruz, President Benito Juárez arranged a treaty promising that payment would be made... but not at the moment. Britain and Spain decided it was okay after having their ambassadors taken to a particularly underdeveloped area and realizing that they were shitting them not with "no freakin' dinero" and retired, but France moved inside the country as they planned to invade anyway... again. Napoleon the Third decided that it needed a French protectorate to stop the growth of influence of the United States, and believed that Mexico was the perfect place for his plans. He also spoke of preserving the latin race, which the french considered themselves as, in face of the anglo-saxons. Many of the Conservadores actually went to France to arrange this, as previously stated. The crown was offered to Maximilian, younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria note which made him brother in law of famous Sissy. One memorable event in between is when the Ragtag Bunch of Misfits, led by Ignacio Zaragoza, beat their awesome croissants in "El Cinco de Mayo", and now Mexico got another holiday out of it (they kind of kicked their tacos around for a few years after that, but shh). This holiday is notable for being probably the sole honest-to-God pride of your country events in the whole history of Mexico, losing the war or not it was simply unbelievable for the French or the mexicans themselves that this paradise of coups d'etat defeated motherfucking France in a serious battle, sort of that short nerd in your classroom beating to a pulp the tall jock with all the chicks... only to have the whole football team handing his ass later, yeah, but still; "The weapons of Mexico have been covered in glory" indeed. The second Mexican empire lasted 3 years. Really, it was because the U.S was too busy with its Civil War. Once that whole nasty business was settled (more or less), the U.S resumed their backing of the liberals and Juárez, whilst the French, facing the impending doom of the Franco-Prussian war, withdrew their support of Maximilian in turn, who decided to remain and fight, until he was defeated, summarily executed along with Miguel Miramón and General Mejía, and Conservadores everywhere shot. The Liberales may have won the Civil War, but many political fights happened inside the victorious party as everybody wanted to be president. President Juárez, still clinging to his Emergency powers went for reelection, again. Causing war hero Porfirio Díaz to rebel... and fail at it. Better luck next time! But, as good national heroes always do, Juárez died just in time (in 1872, merely one year after his reelection) to avoid going the way of Santa Ana into Infamy. In fact, Juárez won only his last election (during which he was president with emergency powers) and for 15 years, that is, until his death, he never let go of the presidency (but good luck trying to bust the myth on Juárez). Mexican "heroes" tend to end that way. (Harvey Dent was right about that). He was succeeded by the next in line for the job, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (Sebastián, not Miguel, as both brothers were very important in the Liberal party), then after his time was up he also tried to postulate himself for reelection. Porfirio Díaz rebelled again... and won, won so hard that he got to rule Mexico for the next 30 years. He first ruled for 4 years or so, then put his compadre (godsib) Manuel González on the presidency, but his presidency sucked ass and Díaz decided to reelect himself (after all, where did it say people could get reelected in different president terms?). The hypocrisy of rebelling against a president for trying to rewrite the constitution to get reelected, then doing so for thirty years himself, was probably not lost on him, as he actually exalted the character and justified the actions of Juárez, to justify his own by proxy. Depending who you ask things were "relatively" dull under Porfirio Díaz's mostly enlightened "Presidency" until 1910 and "La Revolución!" (For some reason, Americans really dig this part of the Mexican history. As a Mexican school kid, all this troper can say is any civil war with more than three factions is a headache to keep track of (not complaining about the holiday, though). This is where you'll see "Bandidos" and outlaws, charismatic rebels like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata leading the peasants against the centre, small Mexican towns in need of rescue by Mighty Whitey, and quite a few westerns... (southerns?) La Revolución as a whole, though, is largely misunderstood. Yes, it was sparked by overall good guy Francisco I. Madero's political ideals (and his wanting to be president, too) contrasting with the Porfirian regimen. But Díaz resigned and vacated office mere months after the revolution started. The Real conflict came around when Madero, now president, was betrayed by a very obvious traitor called Victoriano Huerta, who was, in fact, aided by the U.S ambassador in México. Madero was killed, and became a martyr behind which Villa and Carranza rallied. They defeated Huerta, and all the heroes of the revolution immediately started establishing a peaceful and benevolent.. wait, they actually killed each other, until only Alvaro Obregón remained. Once La Revolución ends, Mexico had some nice, long 70 years of
A bit of history. The red, white and green were the colors of Agustín de Iturbide's Ejército Trigarante (Army of the Three Guarantees), called thus because it guaranteed three things: Independence (from Spain), Religion (Catholic) and Union (All Caste systems were abolished, and all people living in México, whether indigenous, black, criollos, mestizos, or spanish-born were now considered to be equal). The flag was designed by Iturbide himself, it featured the three colors in a diagonal pattern and a golden 8-pointed star on each color. When the Independence was won, Iturbide and his government took the colors of the Trigarante flag, and added a coat of arms based on an old Aztec legend, wherein the gods sent them a vision: they would have to settle on whichever place they found a Golden (we call it Royal) Eagle, devouring a snake, sitting atop a nopal (is that Metal or what?). That place is today's México City. To distinguish the flag from that of Italy, this flag uses a shorter height than the Italian flag, has distinctively darker colors, and adds the coat-of-arms.